Do we need to categorize it? Reflections on constituencies and quotas as tools for negotiating difference in the global food sovereignty convergence space
Claeys, Priscilla ; Duncan, Jessica - \ 2019
The Journal of Peasant Studies 46 (2019)7. - ISSN 0306-6150 - p. 1477 - 1498.
Alliance building - constituencies - convergence space - food sovereignty - global governance - quotas - representation
Convergence–as an objective and as a process–designates the coming together of different social actors across strategic, political, ideological, sectoral and geographic divides. In this paper, we analyze the global food sovereignty movement (GFSM) as a convergence space, with a focus on constituencies and quotas as tools to maintain diversity while facilitating convergence. We show how the use of constituencies and quotas has supported two objectives of the GFSM: alliances building and effective direct representation in global policy-making spaces. We conclude by pointing to some convergence challenges the GFSM faces as it expands beyond its agrarian origins.
The Politics of Environmental Knowledge
Turnhout, Esther - \ 2018
Conservation and Society 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 363 - 371.
accountability - biodiversity governance - ecosystem services - neoliberalism - representation - science-policy interface
This essay offers a critical engagement with the ideal of policy relevant environmental knowledge. Using examples in environmental governance and conservation, it argues that by packaging knowledge in terms and categories that are considered politically salient, scientists do not just inform policy-making by providing information about presumed pre-existing objects in nature and environment; rather, science is constitutive of those objects and renders them amenable for policy and governance. These political implications of scientific knowledge imply a need for critical scrutiny of the interests that science serves and fails to serve as well as mechanisms to ensure the accountability of science. This essay is a modified and expanded version of the inaugural lecture with the same title that was delivered on June 2, 2016 at Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
Representation and inclusion in SCAR : Task 1.1 Analysis of the key factors of involvement and representativeness
Boekhorst, Dorri te - \ 2017
H2020 CSA CASA - 61 p.
SCAR - CASA - representation - Inclusion - representativeness - Bioeconomy - Research agenda - European Research Area - Common agricultural
|SCAR Conference 2017: 2017 "Research and innovation policy, state-of-play and the role of SCAR in the European Bioeconomy", 4-5 December 2017, Tallinn
Bunthof, Christine - \ 2017
SCAR - CASA - Bioeconomy - impact - policy - representation - inclusion - inclusiveness - policy development
On 4 and 5 December 2017, the second conference of the Standing Committee for Agricultural Research (SCAR) took place in Tallinn, Estonia, entitled "Research and innovation policy, state-of-play and the role of SCAR in the European Bioeconomy". The conference focused on the work and impact of SCAR on European and national policy development and representation and inclusion challenges for SCAR. It hosted over sixty-five participants from twenty-seven countries and was co-organised by the Estonian presidency of the Council of the European Union and SCAR CASA.
Materializing Thought : The role of visual representations in participatory MFFD processes
Raaphorst, K.M.C. - \ 2017
In: Integral design of multifunctional flood defenses / Kothuis, Baukje, Kok, Matthijs, Delft : Delft University Publishers TU Delft Library - ISBN 9789461868084 - p. 66 - 69.
climate change - representation - semiotics - participatory design - Communication - flood defense
Understanding Land-Atmosphere Interactions across a Range of Spatial and Temporal Scales
Jimenez, P.A. ; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J. ; Navarro, J. ; Gonzalez-Rouco, J.F. - \ 2014
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95 (2014)1. - ISSN 0003-0007 - p. 14 - 17.
representation - impact
Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget
Tuinenburg, O.A. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Stacke, T. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Lucas-Picher, P. - \ 2014
Journal of Hydrometeorology 15 (2014)3. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 1028 - 1050.
soil-moisture - part i - precipitation - climate - monsoon - scheme - models - cycle - parameterization - representation
The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation was represented by adding water to the soil moisture to keep it at 90% of the maximum soil moisture storage capacity, regardless of water availability. For two focus regions, the seasonal cycle of irrigation matched that of the reference dataset, but irrigation application varied between the models by up to 0.8 mm day(-1). Because of the irrigation, evaporation increased in all models, but precipitation decreased because of a strong decrease in atmospheric moisture convergence. A moisture tracking scheme was used to track individual evaporated moisture parcels through the atmosphere to determine where these lead to precipitation. Up to 35% of the evaporation moisture from the Ganges basin is recycling within the river basin. However, because of a decreased moisture convergence into the river basin, the total amount of precipitation in the Ganges basin decreases. Although a significant fraction of the evaporation moisture recycles within the river basin, the changes in large-scale wind patterns due to irrigation shift the precipitation from the eastern parts of India and Nepal to the northern and western parts of India and Pakistan. In these areas where precipitation increases, the relative precipitation increase is larger than the relative decrease in the areas where precipitation decreases. It is concluded 1) that the direct effects of irrigation on precipitation are small and are not uniform across the models; 2) that a fraction of up to 35% of any marginal evaporation increase (for example, due to irrigation) will recycle within the river basin; and 3) that when irrigation is applied on a large scale, the dominant effect will be a change in large-scale atmospheric flow that decreases precipitation in eastern India and increases it in western and northern India.
Oral texture influences the neural processing of ortho- and retronasal odors in humans
Iannilli, E. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Roudnitzky, N. ; Gerber, J. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Hummel, T. - \ 2014
Brain Research 1587 (2014). - ISSN 0006-8993 - p. 77 - 87.
taste interactions - human brain - sensory integration - olfactory function - fat preference - auditory cues - perception - stimulation - representation - responses
Eating implies mutual interactions between different senses. In the present work we aimed at studying relations between food texture and food odor, using both psychophysical and imaging techniques. Eighteen right-handed healthy human subjects participated to both behavioral and fMRI sessions. Fresh, sweetened milk and a more thickened version were delivered orally; in addition, a buttery-cream aroma was presented ortho- or retronasally. Stimuli were applied using a gustometer and or an air-dilution olfactometer, both computer-controlled. In each session subjects rated separately odor-, taste- and thickness intensities of the stimuli. The behavioral data show that odors, presented through either retro- or orthonasal path, induce a significant flavor enhancement with respect to the no-odor condition. Brain functional data indicated a significant enhancement of the activation of olfactory eloquent areas in favor of ortho-nasal odor presentation while activations of mechanosensory areas were favored by the retro-nasal odor route. As effect of oral stimuli we found a significant correlation between the texture intensity rating vs. the BOLD signal in the supplementary motor area, known to drive subconsciously primed movement, putatively associated in this case with the tongue movement required with the handling of the stimulus. Moreover, we found inhibition of the signal in different sensory specific areas as an effect of the mutual interaction between stimulus qualities. In conclusion, ortho- and retronasal odors differentially affect the neural processing of the texture of oral stimuli.
The Global Politics of Water Grabbing
Franco, J. ; Mehta, L. ; Veldwisch, G.J.A. - \ 2013
Third World Quarterly 34 (2013)9. - ISSN 0143-6597 - p. 1651 - 1675.
south-africa - human-rights - land deals - management - representation - mozambique - governance
The contestation and appropriation of water is not new, but it has been highlighted by recent global debates on land grabbing. Water grabbing takes place in a field that is locally and globally plural-legal. Formal law has been fostering both land and water grabs but formal water and land management have been separated from each otheran institutional void that makes encroachment even easier. Ambiguous processes of global water and land governance have increased local-level uncertainties and complexities that powerful players can navigate, making them into mechanisms of exclusion of poor and marginalised people. As in formal land management corporate influence has grown. For less powerful players resolving ambiguities in conflicting regulatory frameworks may require tipping the balance towards the most congenial. Yet, compared with land governance, global water governance is less contested from an equity and water justice perspective, even though land is fixed, while water is fluid and part of the hydrological cycle; therefore water grabbing potentially affects greater numbers of diverse water users. Water grabbing can be a powerful entry point for the contestation needed to build counterweights to the neoliberal, corporate business-led convergence in global resource governance discourses and processes. Elaborating a human right to water in response to water grabbing is urgently needed.
The 3rd DBCLS BioHackathon: improving life science data integration with Semantic Web technologies
Katayama, T. ; Wilkinson, D.W. ; Micklem, G. ; Kawashima, S. ; Yamaguchi, A. ; Nakao, M. ; Yamamoto, T. ; Okamoto, S. ; Oouchida, K. ; Chung, H. ; Aerts, J. ; Afzal, H. ; Antezana, E. ; Arakawa, K. ; Aranda, B. ; Belleau, F. ; Bolleman, J. ; Bonnal, R.J.P. ; Chapman, B. ; Cock, P.J.A. ; Eriksson, T. ; Gordon, P.M.K. ; Goto, N. ; Hayashida, K. ; Horn, H. ; Ishiwata, R. ; Kaminuma, E. ; Kasprzyk, A. ; Kawaji, H. ; Kido, N. ; Kim, Y. ; Kinjo, A.R. ; Konishi, F. ; Kwon, K.H. ; Labarga, A. ; Lamprecht, A. ; Lin, Y. ; Lindenbaum, P. ; McCarthy, L. ; Morita, H. ; Murakami, K. ; Nagao, K. ; Nishida, K. ; Nishimura, K. ; Nishizawa, T. ; Ogishima, S. ; Ono, K. ; Oshita, K. ; Park, K. ; Prins, J.C.P. ; Saito, T. ; Samwald, M. ; Satagopam, V.P. ; Shigemoto, Y. ; Smith, R. ; Splendiani, A. ; Sugawara, H. ; Taylor, J. ; Vos, R.A. ; Withers, D. ; Yamasaki, C. ; Zmasek, C.M. ; Kawamoto, S. ; Okubo, K. ; Asai, K. ; Takagi, T. - \ 2013
Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (2013). - ISSN 2041-1480
protein-interaction database - systems biology - ontology - bioinformatics - tool - representation - services - language - framework - networks
Background: BioHackathon 2010 was the third in a series of meetings hosted by the Database Center for Life Sciences (DBCLS) in Tokyo, Japan. The overall goal of the BioHackathon series is to improve the quality and accessibility of life science research data on the Web by bringing together representatives from public databases, analytical tool providers, and cyber-infrastructure researchers to jointly tackle important challenges in the area of in silico biological research. Results: The theme of BioHackathon 2010 was the 'Semantic Web', and all attendees gathered with the shared goal of producing Semantic Web data from their respective resources, and/or consuming or interacting those data using their tools and interfaces. We discussed on topics including guidelines for designing semantic data and interoperability of resources. We consequently developed tools and clients for analysis and visualization. Conclusion: We provide a meeting report from BioHackathon 2010, in which we describe the discussions, decisions, and breakthroughs made as we moved towards compliance with Semantic Web technologies - from source provider, through middleware, to the end-consumer. source provider, through middleware, to the end-consumer.
Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies
Mathison, C. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Dimri, A.P. ; Moors, E.J. ; Siderius, C. ; Ridley, J. - \ 2013
Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2013)S1. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. S4 - S17.
interannual variability - global precipitation - monsoon - model - heat - representation - uncertainty - irrigation - simulation - prediction
Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra–Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25 km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970–2000) and the 2050s (2040–2070) of between 2 and 4 °C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28 °C and 35 °C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra–Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes.
Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge
Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Pedroli, B. - \ 2011
Landscape Research 36 (2011)3. - ISSN 0142-6397 - p. 321 - 339.
place-identity - regional identity - european landscape - community - sense - representation - attachment - construction - perception - diversity
The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as ‘the perceived uniqueness of a place’ and endeavour to describe the content of this definition more concisely. Within this context the paper introduces the framework of the Landscape Identity Circle for the various dimensions of landscape identity based on two axes: differentiation between spatial as opposed to existential identity, and differentiation between personal and cultural landscape identity. This framework is valuable in positioning research approaches and disciplines addressing landscape identity
Spatial summation in macaque parietal area 7a follows a winner-take-all rule
Oleksiak, A. ; Klink, P.C. ; Postma, A. ; Ham, I.J. van der; Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Wezel, R.J. van - \ 2011
Journal of Neurophysiology 105 (2011)3. - ISSN 0022-3077 - p. 1150 - 1158.
lateral intraparietal area - primary visual-cortex - neuronal responses - complex cells - attentional modulation - selective attention - stimulus - v4 - representation - normalization
While neurons in posterior parietal cortex have been found to signal the presence of a salient stimulus among multiple items in a display, spatial summation within their receptive field in the absence of an attentional bias has never been investigated. This information however, is indispensable when one investigates the mechanisms of spatial attention and competition between multiple visual objects. To examine the spatial summation rule in parietal area 7a neurons, we trained rhesus monkeys to fixate a central cross while two identical stimuli were briefly displayed in a neuron's receptive field. The response to a pair of dots was compared with the responses to the same dots when they were presented individually. The scaling and power parameters of a generalized summation algorithm varied greatly, both across neurons and across combinations of stimulus locations. However, the averaged response of the recorded population of 7a neurons was consistent with a winner-take-all rule for spatial summation. A control experiment where a monkey covertly attended to both stimuli simultaneously suggests that attention introduces additional competition by facilitating the less optimal stimulus. Thus, an averaging stage is introduced between approximately 200 and 300 ms of the response to a pair of stimuli. In short, the summation algorithm over the population of area 7a neurons carries the signature of a winner-take-all operation, with spatial attention possibly influencing the temporal dynamics of stimulus competition, that is the moment that the 'winner' takes 'victory' over the 'loser' stimulus
Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands
Tolk, L.F. ; Peters, W. ; Meesters, A.G.C.A. ; Groenendijk, M. ; Vermeulen, A.T. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Dolman, A.J. - \ 2009
Biogeosciences 6 (2009). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 2265 - 2280.
kooldioxide - vermenging - transport - atmosfeer - meteorologie - nederland - carbon dioxide - mixing - transport - atmosphere - meteorology - netherlands - atmospheric transport models - carbon-dioxide exchange - boundary-layer - mass conservation - system rams - land - forest - soil - representation - variability
We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled exchange of energy, moisture and CO2 showed that the surface fluxes in the domain strongly influenced the atmospheric properties. The majority of the variability in the afternoon CO2 mixing ratio in the middle of the domain was determined by biospheric and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes in the limited area domain (640×640 km). Variation of the surface CO2 fluxes, reflecting the uncertainty of the parameters in the CO2 flux model 5PM, resulted in a range of simulated atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios of on average 11.7 ppm in the well-mixed boundary layer. Additionally, we found that observed surface energy fluxes and observed atmospheric temperature and moisture could not be reconciled with the simulations. Including this as an uncertainty in the simulation of surface energy fluxes changed simulated atmospheric vertical mixing and horizontal advection, leading to differences in simulated CO2 of on average 1.7 ppm. This is an important source of uncertainty and should be accounted for to avoid biased calculations of the CO2 mixing ratio, but it does not overwhelm the signal in the CO2 mixing ratio due to the uncertainty range of the surface CO2 fluxes
Going with the flow: River basins as the natural units for water management?
Warner, J.F. ; Wester, P. ; Bolding, J.A. - \ 2008
Water Policy 10 (2008)S2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 121 - 138.
multi-stakeholder platforms - south-africa - catchment management - participation - politics - representation - challenges - boundaries - zimbabwe - regimes
This article engages with the currently hegemonic status of a triad of water policy prescriptions: multi-stakeholder platforms, integrated water resources management, and river basin management. A more reflective approach that opens up the choices underlying these concepts, and their limits, is needed. The choice to manage water on the basis of river basins is a political choice, and thus river basins are as much political units as they are natural units. The article concludes that the delineation of river basin boundaries, the structuring of stakeholder representation, and the creation of institutional arrangements for river basin management are political processes that revolve around matters of choice, and hence require democratic debate. Keywords: Hegemony; Integrated Water Resources Management; Multi-Stakeholder Platforms; River basin management; Sanctioned discourse; Stakeholders --------------------------------------------------------------------------------