Records 1 - 20 / 489
Plant community flood resilience in intensively managed grasslands and the role of the plant economic spectrum
Oram, Natalie J. ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Bodelier, Paul L.E. ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Abalos, Diego - \ 2020
Journal of Applied Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0021-8901
extreme weather event - flooding - grassland - plant community - plant traits - recovery - resistance - resource economic spectrum
The increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as floods, requires management strategies that promote resilience of grassland productivity. Mixtures of plant species may better resist and recover from flooding than monocultures, as they could combine species with stress-coping and resource acquisition traits. This has not yet been tested in intensively managed grasslands despite its relevance for enhancing agroecosystem resilience. Using intact soil cores from an 18-month-old field experiment, we tested how 11 plant communities (Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perenne, Poa trivialis and Trifolium repens in monoculture, two- and four-species mixtures) resist and recover from repeated flooding in a 4-month greenhouse experiment. We found that plant community composition, not whether the community was a mixture or monoculture, influenced the community's resistance to flooding, although most communities were able to resist and recover from both floods. The plant community's position on the leaf economic spectrum in flooded conditions was related to its resistance to and recovery from flooding. Resistance to and recovery from a severe flood were related to flood-induced intraspecific trait variation, causing a shift in the community's position on the leaf resource economic spectrum. In flooded conditions, resource-conservative communities (characterized by low specific leaf area, low leaf nitrogen content and high leaf dry matter content) better resisted and recovered from flooding. The community's position on the root resource economic spectrum was less connected to the community's resistance and recovery. Synthesis and applications. Our study shows that in flooded conditions, resource-conservative plant communities are more resilient to flooding than resource-acquisitive communities in an intensively managed grassland. This suggests that plant community position on the leaf economic spectrum, as well as species’ flood-induced intraspecific variation, should be considered when designing grasslands to withstand increasing flood frequency and severity.
Measurement of Dynamical Resilience Indicators Improves the Prediction of Recovery Following Hospitalization in Older Adults
Gijzel, Sanne M.W. ; Rector, Jerrald ; Meulen, Fokke B. van; Loeff, Rolinka Schim van der; Leemput, Ingrid A. van de; Scheffer, Marten ; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M. ; Melis, René J.F. - \ 2020
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 21 (2020)4. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 525 - 530.e4.
Adaptive capacity - personalized medicine - resistance - time series analysis - wearable sensor
Objectives: Acute illnesses and subsequent hospital admissions present large health stressors to older adults, after which their recovery is variable. The concept of physical resilience offers opportunities to develop dynamical tools to predict an individual's recovery potential. This study aimed to investigate if dynamical resilience indicators based on repeated physical and mental measurements in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients have added value over single baseline measurements in predicting favorable recovery. Design: Intensive longitudinal study. Setting and Participants: 121 patients (aged 84.3 ± 6.2 years, 60% female) admitted to the geriatric ward for acute illness. Measurements: In addition to preadmission characteristics (frailty, multimorbidity), in-hospital heart rate and physical activity were continuously monitored with a wearable sensor. Momentary well-being (life satisfaction, anxiety, discomfort) was measured by experience sampling 4 times per day. The added value of dynamical indicators of resilience was investigated for predicting recovery at hospital discharge and 3 months later. Results: 31% of participants satisfied the criteria of good recovery at hospital discharge and 50% after 3 months. A combination of a frailty index, multimorbidity, Clinical Frailty Scale, and or gait speed predicted good recovery reasonably well on the short term [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.79], but only moderately after 3 months (AUC = 0.70). On addition of dynamical resilience indicators, the AUC for predicting good 3-month recovery increased to 0.79 (P = .03). Variability in life satisfaction and anxiety during the hospital stay were independent predictors of good 3-month recovery [odds ratio (OR) = 0.24, P = .01, and OR = 0.54, P = .04, respectively]. Conclusions and Implications: These results highlight that measurements capturing the dynamic functioning of multiple physiological systems have added value in assessing physical resilience in clinical practice, especially those monitoring mental responses. Improved monitoring and prediction of physical resilience could help target intensive treatment options and subsequent geriatric rehabilitation to patients who will most likely benefit from them.
The incursions of extractivism : moving from dispersed places to global capitalism
Ye, Jingzhong ; Ploeg, Jan Douwe van der; Schneider, Sergio ; Shanin, Teodor - \ 2020
The Journal of Peasant Studies 47 (2020)1. - ISSN 0306-6150 - p. 155 - 183.
BRICS - Extractivism - production and reproduction - resistance
The commonplace notion of extractivism relates to the production of value through physically extractive processes (mining, oil extraction, certain kinds of agriculture, etc.) where value generation is necessarily temporary and generally followed by barrenness and an inability to sustainably reproduce livelihoods in the affected habitat. In this article we aim to rethink extractivism in more general, politico-economic terms, i.e. as a particular way of structuring the processes of production and reproduction. This allows us to ask if extractivism is limited to the sectors mentioned above or a pattern that could, actually or potentially, emerge in other sectors of the economy. This paper also aims to contribute to the debate on the rise, and current problems, of emerging economies and how they relate to global capitalism. It develops the hypothesis that at least some of the BRICS countries have operated as laboratories in which extractivism has been developed into a wider politico-economic system that is now also being applied outside the BRICS countries.
Ty-1, a universal resistance gene against geminiviruses that is compromised by co-replication of a betasatellite
Voorburg, Corien M. ; Yan, Zhe ; Bergua-Vidal, Maria ; Wolters, Anne Marie A. ; Bai, Yuling ; Kormelink, Richard - \ 2020
Molecular Plant Pathology 21 (2020)2. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 160 - 172.
beet curly top virus - betasatellite - geminivirus - resistance - RNA interference - tomato yellow leaf curl virus - Ty-1
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus, causes large yield losses and breeding for resistance is an effective way to combat this viral disease. The resistance gene Ty-1 codes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and has recently been shown to enhance transcriptional gene silencing of TYLCV. Whereas Ty-1 was earlier shown to also confer resistance to a bipartite begomovirus, here it is shown that Ty-1 is probably generic to all geminiviruses. A tomato Ty-1 introgression line, but also stable transformants of susceptible tomato cv. Moneymaker and Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) expressing the Ty-1 gene, exhibited resistance to begomoviruses as well as to the distinct, leafhopper-transmitted beet curly top virus, a curtovirus. Stable Ty-1 transformants of N. benthamiana and tomato showed fewer symptoms and reduced viral titres on infection compared to wild-type plants. TYLCV infections in wild-type N. benthamiana plants in the additional presence of a betasatellite led to increased symptom severity and a consistent, slightly lowered virus titre relative to the high averaged levels seen in the absence of the betasatellite. On the contrary, in Ty-1 transformed N. benthamiana viral titres increased in the presence of the betasatellite. The same was observed when these Ty-1-encoding plants were challenged with TYLCV and a potato virus X construct expressing the RNA interference suppressor protein βC1 encoded by the betasatellite. The resistance spectrum of Ty-1 and the durability of the resistance are discussed in light of antiviral RNA interference and viral counter defence strategies.
Globalizing Extraction and Indigenous Rights in the Russian Arctic: The Enduring Role of the State in Natural Resource Governance
Tulaeva, Svetlana ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Henry, L.A. ; Horowitz, L. - \ 2019
Resources 8 (2019)4. - ISSN 2079-9276 - 20 p.
benefit sharing - oil and gas - resources - governance - Russia - resistance - governance generating networks - paternalism - partnership - corporate social responsibility
The governance of extractive industries has become increasingly globalized. International conventions and multi-stakeholder institutions set out rules and standards on a range of issues, such as environmental protection, human rights, and Indigenous rights. Companies’ compliance with these global rules may minimize risks for investors and shareholders, while offering people at sites
of extraction more leverage. Although the Russian state retains a significant stake in the oil and gas industries, Russian oil and gas companies have globalized as well, receiving foreign investment, participating in global supply chains, and signing on to global agreements. We investigate how this global engagement has affected Nenets Indigenous communities in Yamal, an oil- and gas-rich
region in the Russian Arctic, by analyzing Indigenous protests and benefit-sharing arrangements. Contrary to expectations, we find that Nenets Indigenous communities have not been empowered by international governance measures, and also struggle to use domestic laws to resolve problems. In Russia, the state continues to play a significant role in determining outcomes for Indigenous
communities, in part by working with Indigenous associations that are state allies. We conclude that governance generating networks in the region are under-developed.
Resilience in Clinical Care: Getting a Grip on the Recovery Potential of Older Adults
Gijzel, Sanne M.W. ; Whitson, Heather E. ; Leemput, Ingrid A. van de; Scheffer, Marten ; Asselt, Dieneke van; Rector, Jerrald L. ; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M. ; Melis, René J.F. - \ 2019
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 67 (2019)12. - ISSN 0002-8614 - p. 2650 - 2657.
adaptive capacity - complex dynamical system - personalized medicine - resistance - time series analysis
Background: Geriatricians are often confronted with unexpected health outcomes in older adults with complex multimorbidity. Aging researchers have recently called for a focus on physical resilience as a new approach to explaining such outcomes. Physical resilience, defined as the ability to resist functional decline or recover health following a stressor, is an emerging construct. Methods: Based on an outline of the state-of-the-art in research on the measurement of physical resilience, this article describes what tests to predict resilience can already be used in clinical practice and which innovations are to be expected soon. Results: An older adult's recovery potential is currently predicted by static tests of physiological reserves. Although geriatric medicine typically adopts a multidisciplinary view of the patient and implicitly performs resilience management to a certain extent, clinical management of older adults can benefit from explicitly applying the dynamical concept of resilience. Two crucial leads for advancing our capacity to measure and manage the resilience of individual patients are advocated: first, performing multiple repeated measurements around a stressor can provide insight about the patient's dynamic responses to stressors; and, second, linking psychological and physiological subsystems, as proposed by network studies on resilience, can provide insight into dynamic interactions involved in a resilient response. Conclusion: A big challenge still lies ahead in translating the dynamical concept of resilience into clinical tools and guidelines. As a first step in bridging this gap, this article outlines what opportunities clinicians and researchers can already exploit to improve prediction, understanding, and management of resilience of older adults.
Increased virulence of Globodera pallida during repeated rearing on different resistant potato cultivars explained by a simple model
Beniers, J.E. ; Nöllen, Y. ; Eck, H.J. van; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2019
Plant Pathology 68 (2019)3. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 445 - 453.
Globodera pallida - model - potato cyst nematodes - resistance - selection - virulence
Selection for virulence of Globodera pallida on potato cultivars was studied for four generations under controlled conditions. The reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of a mixed Pa2/3 population increased by a factor of 61 during rearing on the partially resistant potato cv. Darwina compared to rearing on the susceptible cv. Irene. This was a result of selection for virulence on cv. Darwina, and achieving the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium on cv. Irene. Increased virulence also significantly raised the reproduction rate on several other Solanum genotypes. These changes could be explained reasonably well by the monogenic inheritance of a virulence factor breaking the Grp1 locus. The virulence changes were probably mainly evoked by this gene only, inherited from S. vernei 1-3 or S. vernei 24/20. The Grp1 locus has probably provided the differential S. vernei hybrid (VTn)2 62-33-3 with its resistance to the Pa2 group and not to the Pa3 group. Alternation of cultivars did not halt selection if the cultivars highly differentiated between the Pa2 and Pa3 populations. Only when alternation was with cultivars that harboured a different resistance gene against Pa3 was selection for virulence delayed. Differences in virulence levels (i.e. reproduction rates) within the nematode population determined the rate of selection, not the resistance level itself. Selection of a Pa3 population for three generations on cv. Karakter not only increased the reproduction rate on cv. Karakter itself by a factor 4.2, but also raised the reproduction on other potato genotypes. A simple monogenic model could explain these changes in virulence.
‘When breaking you make your soul dance’ Utopian aspirations and subjective transformation in breakdance
Bode Bakker, Maritza ; Nuijten, Monique - \ 2018
Identities 25 (2018)2. - ISSN 1070-289X - p. 210 - 227.
body - Breakdance - culture - resistance - utopia - youth
This article is based on a study of the Naturalz crew, a ‘breaking’ or breakdancing group in Quito, Ecuador. Breaking is commonly analysed as a subculture of resistance. We analyse two–often neglected–dimensions of this resistance: the significance of utopian aspirations and the role of the body in subjective transformation. We argue that participants enact utopian values in breaking, for instance by affirming the value of street life and people from the streets. Furthermore, we see that breaking leads to subjective transformation among its young practitioners and that the body plays a central role in this change of subject position. It is interesting that girls use breaking to rebel against dominant images of ideal womanhood, resulting in changes in gendered subjectivity. Hence, from disempowered, marginalised young people, breakers turn into determined agents with physical strength and emotional resilience.
Varroa Sensitive Hygiene contributes to naturally selected varroa resistance in honey bees
Panziera, Delphine ; Langevelde, Frank van; Blacquière, Tjeerd - \ 2017
Journal of Apicultural Research 56 (2017)5. - ISSN 0021-8839 - p. 635 - 642.
mites - resistance - selection - varroosis - VSH
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a serious threat for western honey bee colonies and beekeepers are compelled to control it to keep their colonies healthy. Yet, by controlling varroa no resistance to the parasite can evolve. As a trial, honey bee colonies have been left untreated in isolated locations to allow development of resistance or tolerance to the mite. These colonies developed an ability to live without control measures against varroa, although the traits responsible for this resistance or tolerance are still unclear. Two of these resistant populations have been studied to test the involvement of specific varroa mite targeted hygienic behaviour varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in the acquired resistance. Individual mites were manually introduced into just capped brood cells, after which the brood combs were placed in colonies of the two resistant populations and in control colonies in which varroa had always been controlled. We followed the development of the mites, including possible removals. We found that VSH had increased strongly in one of the selections, up to 40% of the infested cells with mites and pupae were removed, but it had decreased in the other selection, compared to the control colonies. Further we could not conclude from our data that VSH only or preferentially targets reproducing mites, leaving non-reproducing mites undisturbed. The different VSH responses between the two selected resistant honey bee populations lead to conclude that more than one mechanism of resistance may evolve in response to the selection pressure by varroa mites.
Exploring the resistance against root parasitic plants in Arabidopsis and tomato
Cheng, Xi - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.J. Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): C.P. Ruyter-Spira. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437004 - 305
plants - parasitic plants - arabidopsis thaliana - solanum lycopersicum - host parasite relationships - plant growth regulators - resistance - planten - parasitaire planten - arabidopsis thaliana - solanum lycopersicum - gastheer parasiet relaties - plantengroeiregulatoren - weerstand
Root parasitic plant species such as broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) and witchweeds (Striga spp.) are notorious agricultural weeds. They cause damage to crops by depriving them of water, nutrients and assimilates via a vascular connection. The difficulty in controlling root parasitic weeds is largely due to their intricate lifecycle and partially underground lifestyle. Their life cycle includes processes such as germination of the seed, the formation of the vascular connection with the host, the growth and development of the parasite after attachment and the emergence of shoots and flowers aboveground. The germination of many parasitic plants is induced by strigolactones that were recently shown to also be signalling compounds that stimulate mycorrhizal symbiosis. In addition, in the past few years, their role in plant development and plant defense has been established revealing them as a new class of plant hormones that exert their function likely in interaction with other hormones.
'Alerte plant kan een aanval van schimmels weerstaan' : onderzoek naar invloed rood licht op weerbaarheid
Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke - \ 2016
fungi - fungus control - resistance - red light - agricultural research - greenhouse horticulture - plant pests - plants - immune system
RNA ‘Information Warfare’ in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions
Chaloner, Thomas ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Grant-Downton, Robert T. - \ 2016
Trends in Plant Science 21 (2016)9. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 738 - 748.
fungus - infection - non-coding RNA - pathogen - resistance
Regulatory non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in host–pathogen interactions. Small RNAs such as microRNAs are implicated in regulating plant transcripts involved in immunity and defence. Surprisingly, RNAs with silencing properties can be translocated from plant hosts to various invading pathogens and pests. Small RNAs are now confirmed virulence factors, with the first report of fungal RNAs that travel to host cells and hijack post-transcriptional regulatory machinery to suppress host defence. Here, we argue that trans-organism movement of RNAs represents a common mechanism of control in diverse interactions between plants and other eukaryotes. We suggest that extracellular vesicles are the key to such RNA movement events. Plant pathosystems serve as excellent experimental models to dissect RNA ‘information warfare’ and other RNA-mediated interactions.
On the evolution of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus
Zhang, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Zwaan; P.E. Verweij, co-promotor(en): Fons Debets; Sijmen Schoustra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578555 - 183
aspergillus fumigatus - azoles - triazoles - aspergillosis - resistance - life cycle - asexual reproduction - sexual reproduction - experimental evolution - evolutionary genetics - agriculture - composting - medicine - aspergillus fumigatus - azolen - triazolen - aspergillose - weerstand - levenscyclus - ongeslachtelijke voortplanting - geslachtelijke voortplanting - experimentele evolutie - evolutionaire genetica - landbouw - compostering - geneeskunde
During the last decade azole resistance has increasingly been reported in Aspergillus fumigatus, which is a fungal pathogen involved in the vast majority of invasive aspergillosis infections in humans, and is now a global public health concern. Antifungal azoles, especially triazoles, are the drugs of choice for medical treatment. However, this treatment is hampered by the emergence of multi-azole resistant A. fumigatus isolates, especially the highly resistant variants TR34/L98H and TR46 /Y121F/T289A. Therefore, to control this disease, it is essential to elucidate by what mechanisms resistance emerges, how resistance spreads and how resistant genotypes persist in environments without azoles. The presented thesis shows the relevance of the life cycle of A. fumigatus to the development of azole resistance and possible evolutionary routes that lead to it. The work highlights the importance of fungal biology and evolution towards understanding the development of azole resistance in fungi. We conclude that azole resistance in A. fumigatus is a consequence of selection pressure by azole in the environment on the genetic variation generated via various aspects in the A. fumigatus life cycle. This thesis also introduces an experimental evolution approach to study the dynamics and mechanisms of the evolution of azole resistance. In addition, we investigate what condition can lead an environment to be a possible hotspot for the development of resistance. Finally, we link this to the potential conditions under which resistance can emerge and spread in the lungs of humans and how this depends on the specific azole used.
Quantitative and ecological aspects of Listeria monocytogenes population heterogeneity
Metselaar, K.I. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; Tjakko Abee, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577664 - 173
listeria - listeria monocytogenes - stress - stress tolerance - ribosomes - proteins - lactobacillus plantarum - behaviour - ecological assessment - genome analysis - dna sequencing - resistance - heterogeneity - listeria - listeria monocytogenes - stress - stresstolerantie - ribosomen - eiwitten - lactobacillus plantarum - gedrag - ecologische beoordeling - genoomanalyse - dna-sequencing - weerstand - heterogeniteit
Bacterial stress response and heterogeneity therein is one of the biggest challenges posed by minimal processing. Heterogeneity and resulting tailing representing a more resistant fraction of the population, can have several causes and can be transient or stably in nature. Stable increased stress resistance is caused by alterations in the genome and therefore inheritable and is referred to as stable stress resistant variants. Also L. monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress resistant variants. Adverse environments were shown to select for stable stress resistant variants. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to evaluate if L. monocytogenes population diversity and the presence of stable resistant variants is a general phenomenon that is observed upon different types of stress exposure, to get more insight in the mechanisms leading to increased resistance and to evaluate the ecological behaviour and potential impact on food safety of these stable resistant variants. Acid stress was chosen as it is an important hurdle both in food preservation, as well as in stomach survival.
First, the non-linear inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes upon acid exposure were quantitatively described. A commonly used biphasic inactivation model was reparameterized, which improved the statistical performance of the model and resulted in more accurate estimation of the resistant fraction within L. monocytogenes WT populations. The observed tailing suggested that stable stress resistant variants might also be found upon acid exposure. Indeed, 23 stable acid resistant variants of L. monocytogenes LO28 were isolated from the tail after exposure of late-exponential phase cells to pH 3.5 for 90 min, with different degrees of acid resistance amongst them. Increased acid resistance showed to be significantly correlated to reduced growth rate. Studying the growth boundaries of the WT and a representative set of variants indicated that the increased resistance of the variants was only related to survival of severe pH stress but did not allow for better growth or survival at mild pH stress.
Next, the performance in mixed species biofilms with Lactobacillus plantarum was evaluated, as well as their benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance in these biofilms. It was hypothesized that the acid resistant variants might also show better survival in biofilms with L. plantarum, which provide an acidic environment by lactose fermentation with pH values below the growth boundary of L. monocytogenes when biofilms mature. L. monocytogenes LO28 WT and eight acid resistant variants were capable of forming mixed biofilms with L. plantarum at 20°C and 30°C in BHI supplemented with manganese and glucose. Some of the variants were able to withstand the low pH in the mixed biofilms for a longer time than the WT and there were clear differences in survival between the variants which could not be correlated to (lactic) acid resistance alone. Adaptation to mild pH of liquid cultures during growth to stationary phase increased the acid resistance of some variants to a greater extent than of others, which could be correlated to increased survival in the mixed biofilms. There were no clear differences in BAC resistance between the wild type and variants in mixed biofilms.
Lastly, a set of robustness and fitness parameters of WT and variants was obtained and used to model their growth behaviour under combined mild stress conditions and to model their performance in a simulated food chain. This gave more insight in the trade-off between increased stress resistance and growth capacity. Predictions of performance were validated in single and mixed cultures by plate counts and by qPCR in which WT and an rpsU deletion variant were distinguished by specific primers. Growth predictions for WT and rpsU deletion variant were matching the experimental data generally well. Globally, the variants are more robust than the WT but the WT grows faster than most variants. Validation of performance in a simulated food chain consisting of subsequent growth and inactivation steps, confirmed the trend of higher growth fitness and lower stress robustness for the WT compared to the rpsU variant. This quantitative data set provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress resistant variants in industrial settings and their potential persistence in food processing environments.
In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis highlights the population diversity of L. monocytogenes and the impact of environmental conditions on the population composition, which is of great importance for minimal processing. The work of this thesis resulted in more insight in the mechanisms underlying increased resistance of stress resistant variants and quantitative data on the behaviour of stress resistant variants which can be implemented in predictive microbiology and quantitative risk assessments aiming at finding the balance between food safety and food quality.
Territorial pluralism: water users’ multi-scalar struggles against state ordering in Ecuador’s highlands
Hoogesteger, Jaime ; Boelens, Rutgerd ; Baud, Michiel - \ 2016
Water International 41 (2016)1. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 91 - 106.
Ecuador - irrigation - resistance - scale - territorial pluralism - water reforms - water user organization
Resistentieveredeling - Verdedigingsmechanisme : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning
Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2016
resistance breeding - susceptibility - resistance - tolerance - host pathogen interactions - plant protection - teaching materials - disease resistance - resistentieveredeling - vatbaarheid - weerstand - tolerantie - gastheer-pathogeen interacties - gewasbescherming - lesmaterialen - ziekteresistentie
Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Resistentie Veredeling van het CIV T&U.
Micropolitics in Resistance: The Micropolitics of Large-Scale Natural Resource Extraction in South East Asia
Rasch, E.D. ; Kohne, F.M. - \ 2016
Society & Natural Resources 29 (2016)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 479 - 492.
Micropolitics - resistance - natural resources - extraction - south east asia - society
This article analyzes Southeast Asian local communities’ resistance against the globalizing large-scale exploitation of natural resources using a micropolitical ecology approach. It focuses on how communities struggle for livelihoods, both resisting and appropriating globalized practices and narratives. Our ethnographic material encompasses natural resource conflicts in two communities: one on Sumatra (Indonesia) and one on Palawan (the Philippines). In both communities foreign and national companies have laid claims on community lands, transforming local power relations and wealth distribution as well as the relations of the communities vis-à-vis globalized production and the state. Communities often split over such transformations; some members negotiate a share in the globalized markets, while others organize resistance against these developments. The article argues that the specifics of this resistance against globalization can only be explained by taking into account the “micropolitics” within which they are produced, which calls for an ethnographic research approach to globalization.
Emergent strategies for detection and control of biofilms in food processing environments
Besten, H.M.W. den; Ding, Y. ; Abee, T. ; Liang, Yang - \ 2016
In: Advances in Food Biotechnology / Rai V, Ravishankar, Chichester, UK : John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9781118864555
biofilm - resistance - detection - control - dispersal
Biofilms are dense surface-attached microbial communities consisting of bacterial colonies embedded in their self-generated matrix materials. Different bacteria species that exist within a biofilm are positioned within many different microenvironments defined by nutrient availability, pH and oxygen levels. To adapt to these myriad niches, bacteria therefore show numerous phenotypes and enormous metabolic and replicative heterogeneity. This heterogeneity provides the biofilm community with great capacity to withstand challenges. Biofilms formed in the food-processing environments cause recalcitrant contaminations and food spoilage, which pose a huge threat to public health. The distinct physiology and slow growth rate of biofilm cells hinder the detection of biofilms hidden in the food-processing environments. Conventional cleaning and disinfecting strategies could be ineffective to eradicate biofilms. The present chapter will focus on describing the latest strategies for detection and control of biofilms in food-processing environments.
Resistance identification and rational process design in Capacitive Deionization
Dykstra, Jouke ; Zhao, R. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2016
Water Research 88 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 358 - 370.
ionentransport - weerstand - waterzuivering - ontzilting - elektrodes - ionenuitwisseling - specifieke ionenelektrodes - ion transport - resistance - water treatment - desalination - electrodes - ion exchange - specific ion electrodes
Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination employing porous carbon electrodes. To enhance the performance of CDI, identification of electronic and ionic resistances in the CDI cell is important. In this work, we outline a method to identify these resistances. We illustrate our method by calculating the resistances in a CDI cell with membranes (MCDI) and by using this knowledge to improve the cell design. To identify the resistances, we derive a full-scale MCDI model. This model is validated against experimental data and used to calculate the ionic resistances across the MCDI cell. We present a novel way to measure the electronic resistances in a CDI cell, as well as the spacer channel thickness and porosity after assembly of the MCDI cell. We identify that for inflow salt concentrations of 20 mM the resistance is mainly located in the spacer channel and the external electrical circuit, not in the electrodes. Based on these findings, we show that the carbon electrode thickness can be increased without significantly increasing the energy consumption per mol salt removed, which has the advantage that the desalination time can be lengthened significantly.
Invasieve soorten Waddenzee: : Ecosysteem resistentie en de Filipijnse tapijtschelp
Sneekes, A.C. ; Mendez Merino, Natalia ; Weide, B.E. van der; Glorius, S.T. ; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C175/15) - 67
invasieve soorten - schaaldieren - veevervoer - weerstand - aquatische ecosystemen - milieueffect - waddenzee - nederland - invasive species - shellfish - transport of animals - resistance - aquatic ecosystems - environmental impact - wadden sea - netherlands