Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Influences that can trigger changes in landscapes | WURcast
    Hennemann, I. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation
    landscape analysis - landscape - climatic change - resource management
    What do you consider to be your landscape? What does it look like? But what was that same landscape like 10 years ago? Learn more about these changing landscapes in this video.
    How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains?
    Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, P.V. ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, J.J. ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1720) - ISBN 9789463431163 - 23
    resources - biobased economy - food chains - food biotechnology - biomass - change - sustainability - value chain analysis - efficiency - use efficiency - food - resource management - integrated systems - hulpbronnen - biobased economy - voedselketens - voedselbiotechnologie - biomassa - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waardeketenanalyse - efficiëntie - gebruiksefficiëntie - voedsel - hulpbronnenbeheer - geïntegreerde systemen
    Een circulair voedselsysteem is méér dan sluiten van kringlopen
    Dagevos, H. - \ 2016
    Voeding blog Wageningen University & Research
    beleid inzake voedsel - economische ontwikkeling - voedselproductie - kringlopen - hulpbronnenbeheer - duurzame ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - food policy - economic development - food production - cycling - resource management - sustainable development - agro-industrial chains
    Een circulaire economie draait, kortweg, om het sluiten van kringlopen, en kent vooral milieutechnologische en logistieke benaderingen als kennispijlers. Maar een circulaire economie heeft evenzeer een sociaaleconomische invulling nodig. Hoe populair het tegenwoordig ook is in de beleids- en onderzoekswereld om voorstander te zijn van de circulaire economie, de vorming ervan vereist een fundamentele omslag. Attentie mag er daarom zijn om de animo waarmee vandaag de dag de noodzaak van een circulair voedselsysteem wordt bepleit te verbinden aan de animo waarmee werk wordt gemaakt van de condities waaronder deze transitie kan gedijen.
    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin
    Kpera, G.N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts, co-promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp; G.A. Mensah; C.R. Tossou. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575059 - 201
    benin - ecosysteemdiensten - waterbeheer - landbouw en milieu - hulpbronnenbeheer - multi-stakeholder processen - benin - ecosystem services - water management - agriculture and environment - resource management - multi-stakeholder processes

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system.

    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    Gnanki Nathalie KPERA

    Agro-pastoral dams (APDs) – water reservoirs constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development – have been constructed all over Benin. These APDs face several conflicts (farmers versus herders, council versus vegetable producers, fishermen versus council, and fishermen and APD users versus crocodiles) rooted in the multi-functionality of APDs and the involvement of diverse stakeholders. Using the integral ecology framework as the conceptual inspiration, the research gained insights on: (i) the complexity of APDs that impedes agreement on common rules for their management, (ii) the way stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, (iii) the health status of the APD ecosystem by using water quality, fish diversity, and fish biomass as indicators, (iv) the constraints that hinder vegetable production around the APDs. The study suggests that an innovation platform should be established in which all the stakeholders can discuss changes, resulting in optimal use of APD ecosystem services and their management.

    Water, Power and Identity. The cultural politics of water in the Andes
    Boelens, R.A. - \ 2015
    New York : Earthscan (Earthscan Studies in Water Resource Management ) - ISBN 9780415719186 - 365
    waterrechten - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - governance - politiek - water - andes - water rights - water policy - water resources - resource management - governance - politics - water - andes
    This book addresses two major issues in natural resource management and political ecology: the complex conflicting relationship between communities managing water on the ground and national/global policy-making institutions and elites; and how grassroots defend against encroachment, question the self-evidence of State-/market-based water governance, and confront coercive and participatory boundary policing ('normal' vs. 'abnormal'). The book examines grassroots building of multi-layered water-rights territories, and State, market and expert networks' vigorous efforts to reshape these water societies in their own image - seizing resources and/or aligning users, identities and rights systems within dominant frameworks. Distributive and cultural politics entwine. It is shown that attempts to modernize and normalize users through universalized water culture, 'rational water use' and de-politicized interventions deepen water security problems rather than alleviating them. However, social struggles negotiate and enforce water rights. User collectives challenge imposed water rights and identities, constructing new ones to strategically acquire water control autonomy and re-moralize their waterscapes. The author shows that battles for material control include the right to culturally define and politically organize water rights and territories.
    The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles
    Leusbrock, I. ; Nanninga, T.A. ; Lieberg, K. ; Agudelo, C. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Zeeman, G. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2015
    Water Science and Technology 72 (2015)6. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 998 - 1006.
    waterbeschikbaarheid - waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - innovaties - urbanisatie - afvalwater - watergebruik - waterzekerheid - hulpbronnenbehoud - waterbescherming - stedelijke gebieden - water availability - water management - resource management - innovations - urbanization - waste water - water use - water security - resource conservation - water conservation - urban areas
    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the Urban Harvest Approach (UHA). The UHA proposes to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and present for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g., nutrients, water-energy-nexus). Key words | Resource cycles, Water management, Water-Energy Nexus, Decision-Support
    Governing sustainable management of resources in the Russian Arctic : informational govenance
    Pristupa, A.O. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Amelung, B. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    hulpbronnenbeheer - economische ontwikkeling - arctische gebieden - barentszzee - noordelijke ijszee - klimaatverandering - politieke processen - mariene ecologie - milieubeheer - resource management - economic development - arctic regions - barents sea - arctic ocean - climatic change - political processes - marine ecology - environmental management
    This research studies state and non-state environmental arrangements in marine resource management, their interrelations and implications for conventional state-driven marine environmental regime.
    Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management
    Wal, M.M. van der; Kraker, J. de; Offermans, A. ; Kroeze, C. ; Kirschner, P. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
    Environmental Policy and Governance 24 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 1 - 15.
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - sociaal leren - participatief management - klimaatverandering - governance - natural resources - resource management - social learning - participative management - climatic change - governance - cultural theory - stakeholder participation - climate-change - sustainability - perspectives - framework - dilemmas
    The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and practical methods to measure it. In this article, we present a simple and flexible method to measure social learning, whether it has occurred and to what extent, among stakeholders in natural resource management. The method yields measurements of social learning that are visual, quantitative and qualitative. First, we elaborate our definition of social learning as a convergence of perspectives and outline how stakeholder perspectives in natural resource management can be described with Cultural Theory. Next, we provide a generic description of the method, followed by two examples illustrating its application to the domains of water and land management. Finally, we discuss relative strengths and weaknesses of the method and how it could be applied to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to social learning.
    Family farmers and biodiesel production: Systems thinking and multi-level decisions in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Florin, M.J. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2013
    Agricultural Systems 121 (2013). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 81 - 95.
    resource management - bayesian networks - policy - sustainability - arrangements - food
    This study focuses on family farmer engagement in the Brazilian national programme for Production and use of Biodiesel (PNPB). The Brazilian government has been promoting the role of family farmers as producers of biomass for biodiesel since 2004; however, fewer than expected family farmers have decided to produce biomass for biodiesel. The North of Minas Gerais is one region where a biodiesel plant has been strategically located to source castor beans grown by family farmers. The target family farm type in this region specializes in beef and/or dairy production with low input pasture (approximately 30 ha per farm), maize intercropped with beans (approximately 1 ha per farm) and sugarcane (approximately 1 ha per farm). We selected this region for a case study to explore management decisions of farmers, industry and policy makers that influence family farmer engagement with biodiesel production through cultivation of castor beans. To evaluate outcomes for family farmers engaging with the PNPB, we focused on how cultivation of castor beans impacts family farmers in terms of income levels, income stability and levels of milk production. We used an application of systems thinking known as Bayesian network modelling (BNM). BNM was chosen for its suitability to integrate different types of knowledge and to include quantitative and qualitative variables. The study was built on a body of scientific literature explaining why family farmers have not been cultivating castor beans for biodiesel production and a body of experiential knowledge of local actors (farmers, extension officers, policy makers, biodiesel manufacturers and researchers in North of Minas Gerais). The complete BNM consisted of a ‘cause and effect’ diagram where the strengths of the causal relationships were quantified with elicited opinions from surveyed local actors. We used the complete BNM to explore scenarios that could improve outcomes for family farmers and consequently increase their level of engagement. For example, we addressed subsidy structures of the PNPB, crop management, farm-level trade-offs and value-chain innovations. We demonstrate that decisions to support family farmer engagement with biodiesel are not singular. Engagement by family farmers requires simultaneously: improvements in technical crop management, reductions in farm-level cash constraints and innovations in the production chain such that engagement of family farmers goes beyond cultivation of one more low-value crop. Finally we discuss some methodological issues from this application of BNM to farming systems research.
    PES, peasants and power in Andean watersheds : power relations and payment for environmental services in Colombia and Ecuador
    Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens; J. Budds. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737861 - 179
    hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beheer van waterbekkens - ecosysteemdiensten - inheemse volkeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - milieubeleid - andes - colombia - ecuador - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - resource management - natural resources - watershed management - ecosystem services - indigenous people - rural communities - environmental policy - andes - colombia - ecuador - peasant farming

    During the last decade, the market environmentalist policy model of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has become a widely promoted and implemented conservation and development tool, around the world as well as in the Andean countries Colombia and Ecuador. For upstream peasant indigenous communities in the Andes, the great expansion of this policy model has meant an increased level of negotiations and interactions with a wide range of downstream water users and conservation agencies. However, there is not a clear understanding of how power dynamics influence the terms of exchange in watershed PES schemes, and the implications that these dynamics have for peasant indigenous control of, and access to, natural resources. The main research question of this thesis is: How do power relations influence the promotion of PES as a policy model and the crafting and operation of PES (-like) projects, and how in turn do these influence natural resource management and control by PES-targeted peasant communities, in the Andean regions of Colombia and Ecuador? The cases included in this thesis show how the impacts of these forms of power influencing PES schemes are variegated, but for the poorest they appear to work toward the deeper entrenching of the status quo, which in most cases implies confirmation and extension of unequal access and rights to natural resources.

    Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam
    Bui, T.Y. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736406 - 102
    landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - beleid - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - erosie - landbouwproductie - vietnam - land use planning - land use - modeling - policy - resource management - natural resources - erosion - agricultural production - vietnam

    The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a high poverty rate and low agricultural production and household income. Livelihood of the households is dependent upon self-sufficient agricultural production, which accounts for nearly 80% of the total production value. Traditional agricultural activities have led to various land degradation problems.

    The main objective of the study is to integrate modeling of (i) erosion assessment, (ii) land use optimization and (iii) land use decision making in order to improve the effectiveness and adoption of recommendations that contribute to the improved livelihood of farmers and sustainable natural resource management. This will be achieved through: (1) increasing understanding of the interactions between agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics at watershed scale; (2) facilitating emergence of a common agreement on ecological sustainability, social equity and economically sound solutions; and (3) stimulating dialogues among various stakeholders to achieve a shared responsibility of the common resources.

    The biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics of the study area were explored through surveys, FAO’s land evaluation, literature review and stakeholder meetings. The Predict and Localize Erosion and Runoff (PLER) model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were used to examine influences of land use on soil erosion at the watershed scale.Although agricultural land in the watershed has several limitations such as steep slopes, low soil fertility, high acidity and serious soil erosion, different soil types and the large variation topography and crop suitability create flexibility in farmers’ land use decisions. The Land Use Planning and Analysis System (LUPAS) was then applied to analyze feasibilities of alternative land use options. Based on land use scenarios, 4 main land use constraints in the regions were analyzed. Results of the analysis were finally discussed with stakeholders though Role Playing Game sections to find feasible land use solution and to develop policy recommendations.

    Results of the study showed that different actors in the watershed have different views on land use targets, objectives, constraints and decisions. The integrated modeling approach used in this study identified that traditional technology level appears to be a largest constraint that significantly holds back agricultural production of the region. Land area, capital and labour are also constraints but they only appear if agricultural technology is improved. Land fragmentation should be considered as an important factor because without any new agricultural technique, crop variety or external capital, land consolidation can significantly improve food production and income.

    Integration of individual tools described in this study represents a participatory approach for land use planning, in which problems in land use are explicitly defined and land use plans are developed and revised by stakeholders under their own social and economic conditions. Imperfections in given land use plans and possible solutions proposed by stakeholders provide policy makers with ideas to improve land use planning and to bridge the gaps between land use objectives of the government and of farmers.

    The integrated modelling approach developed and presented in this thesis can make use of individual research tools for describing agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics and for developing land use policy. It has the potential to serve planners and policy makers to increase the likelihood of developing plans that will effectively increase farmer livelihood and improve resource conservation. This integrated modelling approach can incorporate different aspects of land use into land use planning and test hypotheses regarding the contributions of intended plans to general development targets. Furthermore, it can support bottom-up land use planning as it allows incorporation of different stakeholders in analysing existing problems, proposing solutions and developing land use plans. Therefore, it can increase the likelihood of adoption. This in turn will create the chances for achievement of targets of the government, researchers and farmers through effective implementation of the plans.

    Sustainable land management in dynamic agro-ecosystems: an Integrated, multi-scale socio-ecological analysis in Western Kenya highlands
    Mutoko, M.C. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Lars Hein; C.A. Shisanya. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737854 - 157
    grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaam bodemgebruik - agro-ecosystemen - hulpbronnenbeheer - hooglanden - natuurbeheer - kenya - land management - sustainability - sustainable land use - agroecosystems - resource management - highlands - nature management - kenya

    This study was motivated by the puzzlingly localised implementation of available Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices despite the urgent need to reduce both land degradation and general poverty levels in the western highlands of Kenya. This research aimed to not only unravel reasons for the restricted geographical diffusion of SLM practices but also make concrete contributions to foster the promotion of SLM practices. Four specific research objectives and questions were formulated, and an integrated, multi-scale socio-ecological systems framework designed to address these issues at various levels. At the farming system level, high livelihood diversity was found as households increasingly depend on off-farm income opportunities. Besides, results show low production efficiency (average 40%) across five distinct farm types with important implications on intensification in land use. The off-farm oriented and resource-poor farm types were the least likely to invest in SLM practices on their farms. For the forest ecosystem, the estimated local economic benefits of around US$ 450 ha-1 yr-1 were considerably less than half the forgone returns from agricultural activities if the forest were to be converted. Arguably, continued protection of the Kakamega rainforest is justified because of the unknown value of its rich biodiversity and stored carbon in its system, which does not currently generate local economic benefits. At the landscape level, this study found that Vihiga District has undergone rapid land-use changes in the past 25 years. In particular, there has been a major conversion of forest and bare land to agricultural land use. Results show that productivity of tea and to a lesser extent, vegetables increased but the yields of maize and beans—the most common crops—oscillated around 1 ton ha-1. As a result, per capita food crop production dropped by 28% during the past two decades. Empirical findings demonstrate that high and increasing population pressure on land does not necessarily lead to agricultural intensification. Finally, with stakeholder participation, I evaluate local potentials for initiating collaborative action towards wider promotion of SLM practices in the western highlands of Kenya. A positive correlation (rho = 0.83) was found between stakeholder co-operation and the success level of past SLM projects. Reasonable prospects such as some technology adoption activities and organisation of local actors were established, which are necessary for triggering the transformation process to sustainable state of productivity. Based on synthesis of the key findings presented in this thesis, I conclude that the difficulty of achieving wider geographical diffusion of SLM practices in the study area can be attributed to four main reasons. First, there is a practical challenge to properly target the technologies to the right farming households in order to achieve the greatest impacts. Second, the rampant decrease in productive resources (land, capital and labour) for farm production coupled with low efficiencies in common farm enterprises has created an additional aspect of poverty traps—a ‘maize-centred’ poverty trap—making it difficult for a majority of farmers to invest meaningfully in SLM practices. Third, increasing pressure on land from population growth has failed to stimulate better land management practices and efficient resource use in agriculture possibly because the community attempts to make for the shortfall from off-farm activities or by accessing the almost free forest resources where available in the district. Lastly, the low collaboration level among key stakeholders involved in promotion of various components of SLM practices indicates a thin spread of efforts on the ground and unexpectedly delays an accelerated technological transition process. Therefore, I recommend a paradigm shift to embrace a broader, integrated and multi-stakeholder approach to solving the problem of land degradation in the study area and other similar agro-ecosystems in SSA; an approach that equally promotes improved farm productivity and creates off-farm income opportunities.

    Community Biodiversity Management : Promoting Resilience and the Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources
    Boef, W.S. de; Subedi, A. ; Peroni, N. ; Thijssen, M.H. ; O'Keeffe, E. - \ 2013
    New York : Earthscan (Issues in agricultural biodiversity ) - ISBN 9780415502191 - 418
    biodiversiteit - agrobiodiversiteit - sociale participatie - bewonersparticipatie - duurzame landbouw - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - hulpbronnenbehoud - hulpbronnenbeheer - biodiversity - agro-biodiversity - social participation - community participation - sustainable agriculture - plant genetic resources - resource conservation - resource management
    The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are issues that have been high on the policy agenda since the first Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. As part of efforts to implement in situ conservation, a methodology referred to as community biodiversity management (CBM) has been developed by those engaged in this arena. CBM contributes to the empowerment of farming communities to manage their biological resources and make informed decisions on the conservation and use of agrobiodiversity. This book is the first to set out a clear overview of CBM as a methodology for meeting socio-environmental changes. CBM is shown to be a key strategy that promotes community resilience, and contributes to the conservation of plant genetic resources. The authors present the underlying concepts and theories of CBM as well as its methodology and practices, and introduce case studies primarily from Brazil, Ethiopia, France, India, and Nepal. Contributors include farmers, leaders of farmers’ organizations, professionals from conservation and development organizations, students and scientists.
    Understanding learning in natural resource management : experiences with a contextualised responsive evaluation approach
    Kouévi, T.A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Barbara van Mierlo; S.D. Vodouhê. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735164 - 209
    evaluatie - methodologie - reacties - sociaal onderzoek - leerervaringen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - ontwikkelingseconomie - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - evaluation - methodology - responses - social research - learning experiences - natural resources - resource management - development economics - natural resource economics

    This dissertation may be located in the wide debate on the effectiveness of policy interventions in developing countries, in the field of natural resource management (NRM). It is especially concerned with contributing to the understanding of the limited effectiveness of fishery management interventions in the municipality of Grand-Popo in Benin, where fishing people face fishery resource depletion and livelihood degradation. It looks at this topic from a learning perspective, and explores a way of stimulating learning and effectiveness with an action research approach. Building on Argyris and Schön (1976), the study contributes to discussions on learning in NRM by regarding learning as changes in action theories operationalized as the integration of specific micro-theories or micro-assumptions underlying stakeholders’ actions. Also novel is the experimentation with and evaluation of a responsive evaluation (RE) as an action research approach in the fishery context of Grand-Popo.
    To account for the research process and findings, this dissertation is structured around six chapters. Chapter 1 is the general introduction which discusses the background information justifying the research choices, the research objectives and questions, and the methodology that was used to answer the research questions. It explores possible reasons for the limited effectiveness of interventions in natural resource management (NRM). The conclusion is that NRM interventions are affected negatively by various limitations in the sphere of perspectives and understanding. Limited understandings of NRM complexity, limitations in interactions for exchange among stakeholders, differences in management action theories and practices, multiplicity and lack of coordination of interventions explain among others the ineffectiveness of NRM interventions. Therefore the study proposed to explore whether the limited effectiveness of generations of interventions in Grand-Popo is indeed related to limited learning. As there appeared to be scope to enhance learning, the study continued with the design, experimentation with and evaluation of a RE process.
    To deepen the understanding of the learning related to the problems faced by the fishing people and interventionists in the case study, the process of learning in generations of interventions was investigated and discussed in chapter 2. To redress fishery resources’ depletion and improve the fragile livelihoods of fishing people, successive interventions since the 1950s continued to propose solutions such as income generating activities’ diversification and the establishment of fishing rules. This chapter reveals that fishery interventions were repeatedly ineffective, because of limited learning which was interpreted as repetitive discrepancy between espoused and in-use action theories of the interventionists. Therefore, we suggested to facilitate learning interaction among the stakeholders towards more effectiveness of the fishery management interventions.
    To develop a good action research approach to stimulate learning, in chapter 3, the study was extended to the unfolding of the action theories of the interventions’ beneficiaries, for the sake of comparing them with those of the interventionists. It shows ambiguity in the fishery problems solving action theories of the interventionists and the fishing people; power differences among the stakeholders; and, the absence of learning interactions among the stakeholders. RE was chosen, since this is an evaluation approach that addresses such conditions. However, this approach needed to be adapted to the study context. The main adaptations compared to ‘regular’ RE related to the operationalization of learning in terms of changes in action theories, the investigation of action theories in-use in addition to those espoused, and the inclusion of an analysis of the history and the intervention system to deal with routine and complexity of NRM, and to stimulate high level learning. These adaptations led to what is called the contextualised RE approach in this chapter.
    In order to assess the relevance and performance of the proposed RE approach, we experimented with it in the fishery case study of Grand-Popo. Chapter 4 reports on how and the extent to which it contributed to learning by and among the interventionists and fishing people involved. This chapter reveals the occurrence of single-loop, double-loop, and social learning, but also a remaining gap between changes in espoused theories and theories in use. The single-loop learning concerned changes in action strategies like the extent of the fishing people’s demands, and the intervention resource raising strategy of the interventionists. The double-loop learning addressed the underlying reasons for action such as the redefinition of the roles played in intervention processes. The fishing people redefined their own roles as more active to show concern for solving their problems, to diversify their intervention partners, and to lobby for solutions. The interventionists suggested that they needed to empower the fishing people to lobby with politicians and financial partners in collaboration with interventionists about their problems. The social learning concerned emergent congruence in the action theories of the two stakeholder categories with regard to the need for mutual commitment to the effective solving of the fishery problems. The gaps between espoused and in-use action theories related to the complexity of NRM in this case and survival threats. We concluded that it may be difficult for RE to stimulate learning in NRM and provided some suggestions to improve its use.
    Chapter 5 goes into depth about exploring the reasons for the limitations in the learning notwithstanding the RE process. It discusses which issues were sensitive for the interventionists and the fishing people, and how they presented them in different interaction settings of the adapted RE approach (interviews, meetings). It discusses which discursive strategies the stakeholders employed to put their issues on the agenda in the meetings with the other stakeholder groups. It shows that some sensitive issues that were mentioned during the interviews, were not discussed at all, while others were discussed with indirect discursive strategies. The sensitive issues were: expectations of the fishing people unfulfilled by the interventionists; prevalence of material interests of the interventionists and the fishing people over concerns of effective interventions; compliance of the interventionists with the electoral concerns of politicians; corruption practices of the interventionists; and physical and occult aggressiveness of the fishing people. The discursive strategies used by the interventionists and the fishing people were silence and indirect discursive strategies. This chapter suggests the necessity of paying attention to discursive strategies and sensitive issues that may hinder learning in natural resource management (NRM) facilitation settings.
    Chapter 6 recalls the research questions, summarizes and discusses the major findings, and concludes the dissertation with lessons and implications for policy and practice in NRM and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The reasons for the limitations in learning by the interventionists and the fishing people were explored on the basis of relevant literature. They related to the opportunities to learn offered by the environment, the motivation and the capacity to learn of the interventionists and the fishing people, and to the level of complexity of the NRM context. Based on the analyses of the reasons for the limitations in learning by the interventionists and the fishing people, this chapter suggests a two track approach. The first track relates to working towards a more conducive learning environment, and the second to further improving the design of RE. It suggests to create and institutionalize incentives and mechanisms to train and raise awareness about the importance of, and to support feedback generating, exchanging, capturing and learning by stakeholders. This chapter suggests also to create incentive structure for implementers of policies and projects that rewards effectiveness and sanctions a lack of performance. In the second track, flexible learning strategies are seen to help improving the performance of the design of further RE in NRM context. To these ends, inclusive monitoring and evaluation, audio-visual learning stimulation strategies, action oriented learning strategy, and the training of evaluators on strategies to get sensitive issues on discussion and learning agendas are suggested.
    In all, the thesis demonstrates that limitations in learning are prevalent in Grand-Popo, and likely undermine the effectiveness of (series of) NRM interventions. It makes clear that we should not have naïve expectations about the potential of systematic approaches and methodologies to foster learning, and that creating more conducive conditions for learning should be a first priority.

    Shrimp fisheries and aquaculture : making a living in the coastal frontier of Berau, Indonesia
    Gunawan, B. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): A.S. Sidik. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461732866 - 233
    garnalen - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - aquacultuur - kustgebieden - vissers - middelen van bestaan - plattelandsontwikkeling - visgronden - hulpbronnenbeheer - toezicht - besluitvorming - levensomstandigheden - indonesië - shrimps - shellfish fisheries - shellfish culture - aquaculture - coastal areas - fishermen - livelihoods - rural development - fishing grounds - resource management - surveillance - decision making - living conditions - indonesia
    Barriers and bottlenecks : a case study of the implementation of extension policy for enabling sustainable natural resource management in Queensland, Australia
    Leach, G.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; F. Vanclay. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461732293 - 432
    voorlichting - beleid - invloeden - hulpbronnenbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - queensland - australië - extension - policy - influences - resource management - sustainability - queensland - australia
    Internationally, extension has been a support instrument used by governments and commercial interests for improving agricultural production for hundreds, if not thousands of years. The application of extension theory and practice for natural resource management (NRM) is a more recent undertaking. However, over the last 20+ years, agencies sponsoring extension services appear to have lost confidence in extension’s ability to achieve desired outcomes. In Australia, Greg Leach’s PhD research has sought to understand the barriers and bottlenecks which have prevented the implementation of extension policy by the Queensland State Government. His research enquired into the institutionalisation of extension in Queensland, as well as approaches and mechanisms for negotiating extension policy at the national scale from 2000 to 2010. Learnings from the author’s involvement in operationalising a network of extension leaders from across Australia, underpin broader recommendations on institutionalising extension policy, and advice for extension policy to aid achievement of NRM outcomes.
    Perspectives in hindsight
    Rabbinge, R. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461731654 - 28
    systeemanalyse - hulpbronnenbeheer - voedselzekerheid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - systems analysis - resource management - food security - sustainability - development - agricultural production
    Forest-people interfaces : understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity
    Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867493 - 317
    bossen - bosbouw - agroforestry - sociale bosbouw - bosproducten anders dan hout - bosproducten - mensen - gemeenschapsbosbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - forests - forestry - agroforestry - social forestry - non-wood forest products - forest products - people - community forestry - natural resources - resource management - forest management - forest policy
    This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resource management; biocultural diversity; and forest governance. In so doing, the books offers a comprehensive and current review on social issues related to forests that other, more specialized publications, lack. It is also theory-rich, offering both mainstream and critical perspectives, and presents up-to-date empirical materials. Reviewing these four major research themes, the main conclusion of the book is that naïve optimism associated with forest-people interfaces should be tempered. The chapters show that economic development, political empowerment and environmental aims are not easily integrated. Hence local landscapes and communities are not as 'makeable' as is often assumed. Events that take place on other scales might intervene; local communities might not implement policies locally; and governance practices might empower governments more than communities. This all shows that we should go beyond community-based ideas and ideals, and look at practices on the ground.
    Soupravljanje naravnih virov: vaške skupnosti in sorodne oblike skupne lastnine in skupnega upravljanja
    Rodela, R. - \ 2012
    Wageningen [etc.] : Wageningen University [etc.] - 91
    hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - participatief management - slovenië - resource management - natural resources - rural communities - participative management - slovenia
    Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of biofuel cropping systems
    Vries, S.C. de - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum; Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Gerrie van de Ven. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731173 - 211
    biobrandstoffen - gebruiksefficiëntie - hulpbronnenbeheer - bioethanol - biodiesel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - biofuels - use efficiency - resource management - bioethanol - biodiesel - sustainability - sustainability indicators - fuel crops - biobased economy
    Dit proefschrift heeft tot doel om de productie-ecologische duurzaamheid te analyseren van een aantal productieketens voor biobrandstoffen die zoveel mogelijk de wereldwijde verscheidenheid aan gewassen, biofysische en overige omstandigheden weerspiegelen. Productie-ecologische duurzaamheid maakt deel uit van de milieudimensie van duurzaamheid; voor ons specifieke doel hebben we dit deelgebied gedefinieerd middels een set duurzaamheidsindicatoren die betrekking hebben op de efficiëntie waarmee schaarse grondstoffen gebruikt worden, op bodemkwaliteit, netto energieproductie en broeikasgasemissies. Een tweede doel van dit proefschrift is het formuleren van een algemene methodiek die duurzaamheidsanalyses van productieketens voor biobrandstoffen mogelijk maakt, die helpt bij het ontwikkelen van zulke systemen met een minimum aan landgebruiksverandering en mogelijk een basis zou kunnen vormen voor het certificeren van de duurzaamheid ervan.
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