Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Limited evidence for spatial resource partitioning across temperate grassland biodiversity experiments
Barry, Kathryn E. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Mommer, Liesje ; Bai, Yongfei ; Beierkuhnlein, Carl ; Buchmann, Nina ; Kroon, Hans de; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Guimarães-Steinicke, Claudia ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Isbell, Forest ; Milcu, Alexandru ; Neßhöver, Carsten ; Reich, Peter B. ; Roscher, Christiane ; Sauheitl, Leopold ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Tilman, David ; Felten, Stefanie von; Weigelt, Alexandra - \ 2020
Ecology 101 (2020)1. - ISSN 0012-9658
grassland - niche complementarity - niche partitioning - productivity - resource uptake - resources - standing root biomass

Locally, plant species richness supports many ecosystem functions. Yet, the mechanisms driving these often-positive biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships are not well understood. Spatial resource partitioning across vertical resource gradients is one of the main hypothesized causes for enhanced ecosystem functioning in more biodiverse grasslands. Spatial resource partitioning occurs if species differ in where they acquire resources and can happen both above- and belowground. However, studies investigating spatial resource partitioning in grasslands provide inconsistent evidence. We present the results of a meta-analysis of 21 data sets from experimental species-richness gradients in grasslands. We test the hypothesis that increasing spatial resource partitioning along vertical resource gradients enhances ecosystem functioning in diverse grassland plant communities above- and belowground. To test this hypothesis, we asked three questions. (1) Does species richness enhance biomass production or community resource uptake across sites? (2) Is there evidence of spatial resource partitioning as indicated by resource tracer uptake and biomass allocation above- and belowground? (3) Is evidence of spatial resource partitioning correlated with increased biomass production or community resource uptake? Although plant species richness enhanced community nitrogen and potassium uptake and biomass production above- and belowground, we found that plant communities did not meet our criteria for spatial resource partitioning, though they did invest in significantly more aboveground biomass in higher canopy layers in mixture relative to monoculture. Furthermore, the extent of spatial resource partitioning across studies was not positively correlated with either biomass production or community resource uptake. Our results suggest that spatial resource partitioning across vertical resource gradients alone does not offer a general explanation for enhanced ecosystem functioning in more diverse temperate grasslands.

Globalizing Extraction and Indigenous Rights in the Russian Arctic: The Enduring Role of the State in Natural Resource Governance
Tulaeva, Svetlana ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Henry, L.A. ; Horowitz, L. - \ 2019
Resources 8 (2019)4. - ISSN 2079-9276 - 20 p.
benefit sharing - oil and gas - resources - governance - Russia - resistance - governance generating networks - paternalism - partnership - corporate social responsibility
The governance of extractive industries has become increasingly globalized. International conventions and multi-stakeholder institutions set out rules and standards on a range of issues, such as environmental protection, human rights, and Indigenous rights. Companies’ compliance with these global rules may minimize risks for investors and shareholders, while offering people at sites
of extraction more leverage. Although the Russian state retains a significant stake in the oil and gas industries, Russian oil and gas companies have globalized as well, receiving foreign investment, participating in global supply chains, and signing on to global agreements. We investigate how this global engagement has affected Nenets Indigenous communities in Yamal, an oil- and gas-rich
region in the Russian Arctic, by analyzing Indigenous protests and benefit-sharing arrangements. Contrary to expectations, we find that Nenets Indigenous communities have not been empowered by international governance measures, and also struggle to use domestic laws to resolve problems. In Russia, the state continues to play a significant role in determining outcomes for Indigenous
communities, in part by working with Indigenous associations that are state allies. We conclude that governance generating networks in the region are under-developed.
How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains?
Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, P.V. ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, J.J. ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1720) - ISBN 9789463431163 - 23
resources - biobased economy - food chains - food biotechnology - biomass - change - sustainability - value chain analysis - efficiency - use efficiency - food - resource management - integrated systems - hulpbronnen - biobased economy - voedselketens - voedselbiotechnologie - biomassa - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waardeketenanalyse - efficiëntie - gebruiksefficiëntie - voedsel - hulpbronnenbeheer - geïntegreerde systemen
Landkaart monitoring diervoeders NL
Jong, J. de; Roest, J.G. van der; Meurs, Ilona - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2016.004) - 67
monitoring - diervoedering - hulpbronnen - voederveiligheid - monitoring - animal feeding - resources - feed safety
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een inventarisatie van de monitoring die door de diervoedersector wordt uitgevoerd wat betreft de veiligheid van diervoedergrondstoffen en diervoeders. De inventarisatie betreft de aard en omvang van de monitoring en heeft zich gericht op ongewenste stoffen (Richtlijn 2002/32/EG), GGO’s (Verordening (EG) 1829/2003) en residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen (Verordening (EG) 396/2005). Het onderzoek is afgebakend tot grondstoffen behorend tot de hoofdgroepen maïs en maïsbijproducten, soja en sojabijproducten en oliën en vetten. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in twee fases. In fase 1 zijn interviews uitgevoerd bij de volgende bedrijven en organisaties in de diervoedersector: SecureFeed (tot 2015 TrustFeed), het Comité van Graanhandelaren, MVO en drie importeurs van diervoedergrondstoffen, waarvan één importeur ook crusher is van oliehoudende zaden. Hierbij is ook informatie verzameld over de representativiteit van de bemonstering en over de accreditatie- en validatie-status van het uitgevoerde laboratoriumonderzoek. Vervolgens zijn in fase 2 drie aanbevelingen uit fase 1 uitgewerkt, namelijk (i) terugtracering van een aantal partijen diervoedergrondstoffen om beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de frequentie en de aard van de uitgevoerde analyses in de keten van import of productie tot inmenging in mengvoeders, (ii) nagaan welke analyseresultaten aanwezig zijn in de databank van GMP+ International en of deze data beschikbaar gemaakt kunnen worden voor het doel van dit project en (iii) nagaan of de in België gehanteerde werkwijze waarbij het monitoringsplan van BEMEFA door de FAVV wordt gevalideerd voor de Nederlandse situatie bruikbaar is.
Feed sources for livestock : recycling towards a green planet
Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Paul Bikker; Bastiaan Meerburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578050 - 251
cum laude - livestock - livestock feeding - feeds - resources - food wastes - leftovers - recycling - greenhouse gases - environmental impact - innovations - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - vee - veevoeding - voer - hulpbronnen - voedselafval - etensresten - recycling - broeikasgassen - milieueffect - innovaties - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie

Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as land, water, and fossil energy. The livestock sector, for example, is responsible for about 15% of the global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and uses about 70% of global agricultural land.

Many proposed mitigation strategies to feed the world sustainably, therefore, focus primarily on reducing the environmental impact of the livestock sector, so-called production-side strategies. Other strategies focus on changing consumption patterns by reducing consumption of ASF, or on shifting from ASF with a higher environmental impact (e.g. beef) to ASF with a lower environmental impact (e.g. pork or chicken), so called consumption-side strategies.

Most of the environmental impact of production of ASF is related to production of feed. One production-side strategy to reduce the environmental impact is the use of products that humans cannot or do not want to eat, such as co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal lands for livestock feed (referred to as ‘leftover streams’ in this thesis). This strategy is effective, because feeding leftover streams to livestock transforms an inedible food stream into high-quality food products, such as meat, milk, and eggs.

Two production-side strategies that use leftover streams as livestock feed were explored in this thesis: replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets of growing pigs with either rapeseed meal (RSM) or with waste-fed larvae meal. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing-pig diets was assessed because RSM became increasingly available following an increase in bio-energy production in the EU. In this strategy, therefore, the RSM content in pig diets increased at the expense of SBM. SBM is an ingredient associated with a high environmental impact. It was expected, therefore, that replacing SBM with RSM in pig diets would lead to a decrease in the environmental impact of pork production. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal was assessed because recent developments show the environmental benefits of rearing insects as livestock feed. Insects have a low feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg product) and can be consumed completely, without residual materials, such as bones or feathers. The nutritional value of insects is high, especially as a protein source for livestock. Insect-based feed products, therefore, can replace conventional feed ingredients, such as SBM. Altogether this strategy suggests that waste-fed larvae meal might become an important alternative feed source in the future.

To gain insight into the status quo of the environmental impact of both mitigation strategies, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed insects, we first used the attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) method. Based on the ALCA method, results showed that each mitigation strategy was promising. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing pig diets hardly changed either global warming potential (GWP) or energy use (EU), but decreased land use (LU) up to 16% per kg body weight gain. As expected, feed production had the largest environmental impact, responsible for about 50% of the GWP, 60% of the EU, and 77% of the total LU. Feed production in combination with feed intake, were the most sensitive parameters; a small change in both these two parameters changed the results. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal in growing-pig diets showed that EU hardly changed, but GWP (29%) and LU (54%) decreased per kg body weight gain. Based on ALCA results, each mitigation strategy, therefore, seems to offer potential to reduce the environmental impact of pork production. An ALCA, however, has two disadvantages: it does not account for product-packages and it does not consider feed-food competition.

The first disadvantage of ALCA was that the complexity of dealing with product-packages is not fully considered. ‘Product-package’ refers to a multiple-output situation. During the processing of sugar beet, for example, beet-pulp and molasses are produced in addition to sugar. Sugar, beet-pulp, and molasses together form a ‘package of products’ because they cannot be produced independently from each other. An ALCA does not account for the fact that the production volume of the co-product(s) depends on the demand for the determining product (e.g. sugar), which results in the limited availability of co-products. Increasing the use of co-products in animal feed, consequently, results in reducing use of a co-product in another sector, requiring them to be replaced with a different product. The environmental impact of increasing the use of a co-product or food-waste, therefore, depends on the net environmental impact. The net environmental impact refers to the environmental benefits of using the product in its new application minus the environmental cost of replacing the product in its old application.

A consequential theoretical framework was developed to account for product-packages. The results, based on the consequential framework, contradicted standard ALCA results. The consequential LCA (CLCA) method we used for replacing SBM with RSM showed an increased GWP (up to 15%), EU (up to 12%), and LU (up to 10%) per kg body weight gain. Moreover, this CLCA method showed that replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal increased GWP (60%) and EU (90%), but decreased LU (73%) per kg body weight gain.

Accounting for product-packages increased the net environmental impact of each strategy, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference in results between ALCA and CLCA was especially large in the strategy with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference was caused mainly by the use of food-waste. Food-waste fed to larvae was used initially to produce bio-energy via anaerobic digestion. In CLCA, the environmental impact related to replacing the bio-energy function of food-waste with fossil-energy was included. The net environmental impact became negative, because environmental benefits of replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal were less than environmental costs related to the marginal energy source, i.e. fossil energy, replacing the bio-energy. Results of the indirect environmental impact, however, are situation specific: if the marginal energy source were wind or solar energy, the net environmental impact of using waste-fed larvae meal might be positive. Waste-fed larvae meal, therefore, appears to be an interesting mitigation strategy only when energy from wind and solar energy are used more dominantly than energy from fossil sources.

If results were based solely on ALCA, then these potentially negative impacts would have been overlooked. Consideration of the environmental consequences of product-packaging, therefore, is essential to determine total environmental costs. If policy makers or the feed industry want to assess the net environmental impact of a potential mitigation strategy, then we recommend to perform a CLCA instead of an ALCA. The framework developed in this thesis can be used to perform such an assessment.

The second disadvantage of an LCA was that it does not take into account feed-food competition, e.g. competition for land between humans and animals. Most LCA studies focus on the total amount of land required to produce one kg ASF. LCA studies do not account for competition for land between humans and animals, or so-called feed-food competition. In other words, they do not include, differences in the consumption of human-edible products by various livestock species or differences in the suitability of land used for feed production as land to cultivate food-crops directly. Given the global constraints on land, it is more efficient to grow food directly for human consumption rather than for livestock. To address the contribution of livestock to a future sustainable food supply, a measure for land use efficiency was developed, called the land use ratio (LUR). The LUR accounts for plant productivity, efficiency of converting human-inedible feed into ASF, and suitability of land for crop cultivation. The LUR also has a life-cycle perspective.

Results of the LUR illustrated that dairy cows on sandy soil, laying hens, and pig production systems in the Netherlands have a LUR >1.0. In terms of protein produced per m2, therefore, it is more efficient to use these soils for livestock production to produce crops for direct human consumption than to produce feed for livestock. Only dairy cows on peat soil produce human digestible protein (HDP) more efficiently than crops do, because peat is not suitable for crop production. The LUR allows identification of livestock production systems that are able to produce HDP more efficiently than crops do. Livestock systems with a LUR<1.0, such as dairy on peat, have an important role to play in future sustainable nutrition supply.

Results of the LUR showed that livestock production systems using mainly co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal land, can produce human digestible protein more efficiently than crop production systems do. The availability of those leftover streams, however, is limited and, therefore, the amount of ASF produced based only on leftover streams is also limited. Because LUR is a ratio, LUR results do not give an indication of how much ASF can be produced based on livestock systems that feed mainly on leftover streams.

The third, and last, mitigation strategy, therefore, focused on the amount of ASF that can be consumed by humans, when livestock are fed only on leftover steams, also referred to as “default livestock”. The calculation of the amount of ASF was based on the assumption that a vegan diet was consumed in principle. The resulting co-products and food-waste were fed to pigs and, biomass from grazing land was fed to ruminants. Results showed that in total 21 g animal source protein per person per day could be produced by feeding livestock entirely on leftovers.

Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste made an important contribution to the 21 g of protein that could be produced from default livestock. Considering feed-food crops implies that choices have to be made between different crops, based on their contribution to feed and food production. Oil production from soy cultivation, for example, resulted in the co-product SBM. Results showed that considering feed-food crops can affect the final protein production from pork. The practice of feeding food-waste to livestock is currently prohibited due to problems of food safety but the practice shows potential in extensively reducing the environmental impact of livestock production. Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste are examples of mitigation strategies that currently can be implemented to reduce further the environmental impact of the livestock sector.

On average, it is recommended to consume about 57 g of protein from ASF or plant-origin per person per day. Only ASF from default livestock does not fulfil the current global protein consumption of 32 g per person per day, but about one third of the protein each person needs can be produced without any competition for land between feed and food production. To feed the world more sustainably, by requiring livestock production systems with a LUR <1.0, however, a paradigm shift is needed. Global average consumption of ASF should decrease to about 21 g of protein per person per day. Innovations are needed, moreover, to overcome problems of food safety and technical concerns related to collecting the leftover streams. This applies, in particular to food-waste, which is currently unused in livestock production but which presents a valuable strategy in mitigating environmental impacts caused by livestock production. Livestock systems should change their focus, furthermore, from increasing productivity per animal towards increasing protein production for humans per ha. By using leftover streams optimally, the livestock sector is able to produce a crucial amount of protein, while still avoiding competition for land between feed and food crops. Livestock, therefore, can make an important contribution to the future nutrition supply.

Paniek over Peak Food
Koning, N.B.J. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)2. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
voedselproductie - voedselconsumptie - voedselzekerheid - voedselvoorziening - hulpbronnen - landbouw - agrarische economie - food production - food consumption - food security - food supply - resources - agriculture - agricultural economics
Het kon niet uitblijven. De groei van de voedselproductie stagneert en na Peak Oil dreigt nu Peak Food. Onzin, vindt Niek Koning, die zogenaamde peak is een van de toppen in een langjarige golfbeweging op de landbouwmarkten. Toch zijn er genoeg redenen om je zorgen te maken over de wereldvoedselvoorziening en is het hoog tijd voor een aanpak die verder gaat dan gemakzuchtig marktdenken of biologische alternatiefjes.
Spatial and seasonal diversity of wild food plants in home gardens of Northeast Thailand
Cruz Garcia, G.S. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2015
Economic Botany 69 (2015)2. - ISSN 0013-0001 - p. 99 - 113.
tropical homegardens - west-bengal - system - weeds - biodiversity - management - resources - medicine - vietnam - mexico
Wild food plants (WFPs) are major components of tropical home gardens, constituting an important resource for poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs was analyzed across multi-species spatial configurations occurring within home gardens in a rice farming village in northeast Thailand. Data were collected in 77 sampling sites corresponding to five different home garden spatial configurations, namely fenced plot, fenced plot margin, yard, home garden boundary, and pot. Absolute abundance and frequency of occurrence were quantified per individual WFP species in both dry and rainy seasons, and data on additional uses (besides food) were collected through focus group discussions for each WFP species. A total of 20 species corresponding to 13 botanical families were reported. Results show that species abundance and frequency of occurrence varied seasonally and spatially within home gardens. Diversity, as observed in the analysis of Shannon and Simpson diversity indexes, also differed seasonally and across different spatial configurations. Home gardens showed higher diversity in the dry season because of the presence of human management. Ninety-five percent of the WFP species presented additional uses, with nine different types of uses in total. Finally, as this study demonstrates, the results on both the spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs over different spatial configurations comprise a new perspective in home garden research by providing new understandings about their composition and management.
Energy and nutrient recovery for municipal wastewater treatment: How to design a feasible plant layout?
Khiewwijit, R. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2015
Environmental Modelling & Software 68 (2015). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 156 - 165.
autotrophic nitrogen removal - sensitivity analysis - models - phosphorus - parameters - resources - oxidation - sewage - future - urine
Activated sludge systems are commonly used for robust and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater. However, these systems cannot achieve their maximum potential to recover valuable resources from wastewater. This study demonstrates a procedure to design a feasible novel configuration for maximizing energy and nutrient recovery. A simulation model was developed based on literature data and recent experimental research using steady-state energy and mass balances with conversions. The analysis showed that in the Netherlands, proposed configuration consists of four technologies: bioflocculation, cold partial nitritation/Anammox, P recovery, and anaerobic digestion. Results indicate the possibility to increase net energy yield up to 0.24 kWh/m3 of wastewater, while reducing carbon emissions by 35%. Moreover, sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of wastewater organic matter on energy production and consumption. This study provides a good starting point for the design of promising layouts that will improve sustainability of municipal wastewater management in the future.
A social analysis of contested fishing practices in Lake Victoria
Medard, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; R. Mwaipopo. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462572478 - 278
visserij - gemeenschappen - productiviteit - hulpbronnen - ontwikkeling - sociologie - organisatie - visserijbeheer - ondernemerschap - meren - tanzania - fisheries - communities - productivity - resources - development - sociology - organization - fishery management - entrepreneurship - lakes - tanzania

Thesis abstract

The thesis explored how the global market for Nile Perch fish has reconfigured the social and the natural in dramatic ways. The demand for Nile Perch and Dagaa played, willingly or unwillingly, an important role in converting its products into regionally and globally desired commodity. It has also simultaneously restructured the organisation of fisheries into a complex and aggressively managed sector. In fishing and fish trade, one needs to externalize costs and risks to the lower actors in the production and business hierarchy. From an historical point of view, power has shifted from many points of coordination and decision making into a few hands, those that own fishing camps and export processing factory. Moreover, illegal fishing and trading are continuous and corruption is rife to safe guard individual interest in turn shaping the local practices (governance) of Lake Victoria. Finally the debate about fisheries policies and fisheries regulation in L. Victoria does not address local realities and are largely irrelevant and that the real focus of power and driver of change is the international and regional markets for Nile Perch and Dagaa and global players with a lot of capital.

Composition properties in the river claims problem
Ansink, E.J.H. ; Weikard, H.P. - \ 2015
Social Choice and Welfare 44 (2015)4. - ISSN 0176-1714 - p. 807 - 831.
international water law - climate-change - game-theory - rights - rules - allocation - resources - networks - stability
In a river claims problem, agents are ordered linearly, and they hve both an initial water endowment as well as a claim to the total water resou8rce. We provide characterizations of two solutions to this problem, using Composition properties which have particularly relevant interpretations for the river claims problem. Specifically, these properties relate to situations where river flow is uncertain or highly variable, possibly due to climate change impacts. The only solution that satisfies all says that agents are free to use any water available on their teerritory, without concern for downstream impacts. The other solution that we assess is the "No-harm rule", an extreme interpretation of the "no-harm" principle from international water law, which implies that water is allocated with priority to downstream needs. In addition to characerizing both solutions, we show their relation to priority rules and to sequential sharing rules, and we extend our analysis to general river systems.
Spatio-temporal availability of field crop residues for biofuel production in Northwest and Southwest China
Han, L. ; Wang, X. ; Spiertz, J.H.J. ; Yang, L. ; Zhou, Y. ; Liu, J. ; Xie, G. - \ 2015
Bio Energy Research 8 (2015)1. - ISSN 1939-1234 - p. 402 - 414.
biomass energy-utilization - straw return - soil carbon - bioenergy - nitrogen - resources - provinces - rice
Developing bioenergy from plant feedstocks is considered an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure biofuel supply. This study is an assessment of the availability of field crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in northwest China (NWC) and southwest China (SWC). The amount of field crop residues was calculated by analyzing statistical data on crop acreages and yields at the provincial and county levels in the NWC and SWC regions. Total residue mass varied from 58.1 to 62.0 million tons (Mt) in NWC and from 92.8 to 97.2 Mt in SWC from 2008 to 2010. Field residues accounted for 86 % in NWC and 94 % in SWC of the total residue mass; the process residue mass accounted for 14 and 6 % of the total residue mass in the NWC and SWC, respectively. In the NWC region, wheat, maize, and cotton were the main crops, providing 17.0, 14.0, and 8.1 Mt of the field residue mass, respectively. In the SWCregion, rice, maize, and canola provided 30.6, 15.2, and 9.7 Mt of the total residue mass, respectively. In NWC, maize cob (1.98 Mt) and cotton seed hull (1.93Mt) formed the majority of the process residues. In SWC, rice hull (5.9 Mt), maize cob (3.7 Mt), and sugarcane bagasse (3.2 Mt) were the main contributors. Most crop residues became available from August to September in the NWC region, whereas harvesting was spread over the whole year in the SWC region. Converted to standard coal equivalent (SCE), total residues in the NWC region amounted to 32.6–34.1 Mt SCE, with 30.7 Mt of field residues and 2.7 Mt of process residue mass. In the SWC region, the total residue mass was equivalent to 48.7–50.8 Mt SCE, including 42.5 Mt of field residues and 7.2 Mt of process residues. Total crop residue availability for biofuels amounted to 16.9 and 28.1 Mt of field residues in NWC and SWC, respectively. Considering transport conditions, surplus amounts, residue densities, and harvest timings, Chongqing Municipality and Shaanxi province showed the best conditions for producing biofuel feedstocks.
Multiple benefits and values of trees in urban landscapes in two small towns in northern South Africa
Shackleton, S. ; Chinyimba, A. ; Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Shackleton, C. ; Kaoma, H. - \ 2015
Landscape and Urban Planning 136 (2015). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 76 - 86.
public green space - ecology - inequality - key - opportunities - perceptions - environment - ecosystems - resources - forests
Cities and towns can be conceptualised as complex social-ecological systems or landscapes that are composed of different spatial elements. Trees in urban landscapes provide a variety of tangible and intangible benefits (ecosystem services) that may be valued differently across diverse households and individuals. Here, we consider how the benefits and values of trees to urban residents vary across public and private spaces in three low income neighbourhoods in two medium-sized towns in northern South Africa. We find that the most asset poor residents in informal settlements derive significant benefits from the provisioning services offered by trees in natural green spaces on the ‘urban periphery’; in particular they value supplies of wood for energy, whilst also recognising the importance of regulating services such as shade. Trees in such spaces help these immigrants cope with a lack of infrastructure, services and disposable income after their move to the city. In new, low-cost housing neighbourhoods, the importance of trees in providing shade and shelter in gardens is emphasised due to the hot and dusty nature of these settlements, while residents in older township neighbourhoods make more mention of the aesthetic value of trees in private spaces as well as the fruits they provide. In all neighbourhoods, attitudes towards trees in public spaces were mixed because of their perceived association with crime, although low income households did make extensive use of tree products from natural areas. The relevance of the results for urban planning and greening in low income areas is discussed.
Implications of Climate Change for Rural Tourism in the Nordic Region
Nicholls, S. ; Amelung, B. - \ 2015
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 15 (2015)1-2. - ISSN 1502-2250 - p. 48 - 72.
vulnerability - weather - index - variability - perspective - businesses - resources
In many rural regions, including those of the Nordic region, a former dependence on primary activities such as fishing, forestry, mining and/or agriculture has been superseded in recent decades by increasing involvement in the tourism sector. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential implications of climate change for non-winter rural tourism in the Nordic region. Using the Tourism Climatic Index as an analytical tool, the paper highlights the range of potential conditions for outdoor tourism activity for three future time periods (the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s) under two scenarios of climate change (B1A and A1F). Findings suggest the possibility of substantially longer periods of desirable climatic conditions in future decades, particularly in the southern and eastern portions of the region. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the adaptive capacity of various tourism actors (tourists, providers and government) and in light of the particular vulnerabilities and assets of rural communities. The need for an integrated and multilevel approach that recognises the importance of the efficient coordination and integration of resources, products and services across multiple actor boundaries and levels is stressed.
Learning integrative negotiation to manage complex environmental issues: example of a gaming approach in the peri-urban catchment of São Paulo, Brazil
Ducrot, R. ; Paassen, A. van; Barban, V. ; Daré, W. ; Gramaglia, C. - \ 2015
Regional Environmental Change 15 (2015)1. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 67 - 78.
sustainable management - water management - participation - challenges - resources
Participatory approaches are assumed to have a positive influence on decision-making for natural resource management. However, there are only a few detailed studies that examine their impact on participants. This paper analyses the contribution of a participatory modelling and simulation approach to the development of learning and relational capacity. It analyses two experiments that deal with pollution and sanitation issues in the expanding peri-urban settlements of São Paulo. The impact of the approach was assessed through interviews immediately after the simulation and 8 months later. The assessment identified the existence of social learning and the acquisition of skills related to integrative negotiation of complex environmental issues. Despite substantive and relational/normative learning, the acquisition of knowledge and negotiation skills, and a more integrative perspective, participants were unable to apply their new negotiation skills for a sustainable length of time within the prevalent socio-political and institutional context. A long-term iterative approach, involving relevant stakeholders in the process and process assessments, is needed to establish more conducive institutional structures.
A quantitative assessment of crop residue feedstocks for biofuel in North and Northeast China
Yang, L. ; Wang, X.Y. ; Han, L.P. ; Spiertz, J.H.J. ; Liao, S.H. ; Wei, M.G. ; Xie, G.H. - \ 2015
Global change biology Bioenergy 7 (2015)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 100 - 111.
biomass energy-utilization - bioenergy - resources
Crop residue resources may affect soil quality, global carbon balance, and stability of crop production, but also contribute to future energy security. This study was performed to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation in residue quantities of field crops in five provinces of North China (NC) and three provinces of Northeast China (NEC). The availability of biomass resources was derived from statistical data on crop yields for all crops on the provincial and even county level. We found that cereals – wheat, maize, and rice – were the biggest resource of crop residue feedstock. The ranking of these crops as a source of biomass for bioenergy is determined by the acreage in each region and the crop-specific yield. Annually, the average amount of total residue of 83.0 Mt (Mt = Mega tonnes) in NC (16.9 Million ha) comprised 76.6 Mt field residues and 6.4 Mt process residues on an air-dried basis. The average amount of total biomass residue of 105.7 Mt in NEC (19.8 Million ha) comprised 92.8 Mt field residues and 12.9 Mt process residues. Averaged for 2008, 2009, and 2010, the total standard coal equivalent (SCE) in NC amounted to 46.4 Mt, which comprised 42.4 Mt field residues and of 3.9 Mt process residues. In NEC, the SCE value of 57.0 Mt comprised 49.7 Mt field residues and 7.4 Mt process residues. The temporal availability of field residues was mainly concentrated in the period between July and September, followed by the period between October and December. In the period between July and September, the amount of field residue available amounted to 40.9 and 53.1 Mt in NC and NEC, respectively. An accurate assessment of field residues may guide policy makers and industry to optimize the utilization of the crop residue resource.
Land management implications for ecosystem services in a South African rangeland
Petz, K. ; Glenday, J. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 45 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 692 - 703.
semiarid succulent thicket - eastern cape - biodiversity loss - scale - 21st-century - conservation - metaanalysis - restoration - vegetation - resources
In South Africa, restoration and sustainable management of historically overgrazed and degraded rangelands are promoted to increase biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. This study evaluates different land management scenarios in terms of ecosystem services in a South African rangeland, the Baviaanskloof catchment. As measured data were limited, we used simple models to quantify and map the effect of the different combination of agricultural, nature conservation and restoration practices on multiple ecosystem services. The land management scenarios were evaluated against management targets set for individual ecosystem services. Results highlight how the provision of ecosystem services is related to land management as unmanaged, pristine ecosystems provide a different mix of ecosystem services than ecosystems recently restored or managed as grazing lands. Results also indicate that historically overgrazed lands provide no forage, may retain 40% less sediment and have 38% lower biodiversity, while providing 60% more fuel wood and supplying two and half times more water (i.e. retaining less water), than pristine or restored lands. We conclude that a combination of light grazing, low input agriculture, nature conservation and restoration is the best for the sufficient provision of multiple ecosystem services. Applying such mixed management would improve biodiversity, ecotourism and maintain forage production and regulating services on farmers' land. This management option also fits into and further optimizes local decision-makers' vision regarding the future management of the area. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Climate Change and Forest Communities: Prospects for Building Institutional Adaptive Capacity in the Congo Basin Forests
Brown, H.C.P. ; Smit, B. ; Somorin, O.A. ; Sonwa, D.J. ; Nkem, J.N. - \ 2014
Ambio 43 (2014)6. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 759 - 769.
adaptation - management - resources - cameroon - policy
Tropical forests are vulnerable to climate-change representing a risk for indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. Mechanisms to conserve the forest, such as REDD+, could assist in the mitigation of climate change, reduce vulnerability, and enable people to adapt. Ninety-eight interviews were conducted in three countries containing the Congo Basin forest, Cameroon, CAR, and DRC, to investigate perceptions of decision-makers within, and responses of the institutions of the state, private sector, and civil society to the challenges of climate change. Results indicate that while decision-makers' awareness of climate change is high, direct institutional action is at an early stage. Adaptive capacity is currently low, but it could be enhanced with further development of institutional linkages and increased coordination of multilevel responses across all institutions and with local people. It is important to build networks with forest-dependent stakeholders at the local level, who can contribute knowledge that will build overall institutional adaptive capacity.
Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels
Sikkema, R. ; Faaij, A.P.C. ; Ranta, T. ; Heinimö, J. ; Gerasimov, Y.Y. ; Karjalainen, T. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 71 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 23 - 36.
environmental impacts - wood - bioenergy - resources - fuel - alternatives - procurement - potentials - countries - products
Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB or SBP). The aim of our study is the investigation of the quantitative impacts from IWPB's principles for forest biomass for energy only. We deploy a bottom up method that quantifies the supplies and the costs from log harvest until forest chip delivery at a domestic consumer. We have a reference situation with existing national (forest) legislation and voluntary certification schemes (scenario 1) and a future situation with additional criteria based on the IWPB principles (scenario 2). Two country studies were selected for our (2008) survey: one in Finland with nearly 100% certification and one in Leningrad province with a minor areal share of certification in scenario 1. The sustainable potential of forest resources for energy is about 54 Mm3 (385 PJ) in Finland and about 13.5 Mm3 (95 PJ) in Leningrad in scenario 1 without extra criteria. The potential volumes reduce considerably by maximum 43% respectively 39% after new criteria from the IWPB, like a minimum use of sawlogs, stumps and slash for energy, and by an increased area of protected forests (scenario 2A Maximum extra restrictions). In case sawlogs can be used, but instead ash recycling is applied after a maximum stump and slash recovery (scenario 2B Minimum extra restrictions), the potential supply is less reduced: 5% in Finland and 22% in Leningrad region. The estimated reference costs for forest chips are between €18 and €45 solid m-3 in Finland and between €7 and €33 solid m-3 in the Leningrad region. In scenario 2A, the costs will mainly increase by €7 m-3 for delimbing full trees (Finland), and maximum €0.3 m-3 for suggested improved forest management (Leningrad region). In scenario 2B, when ash recycling is applied, costs increase by about €0.3 to €1.6 m-3, depending on the rate of soil contamination. This is an increase of 2%, on top of the costs in scenario 2A.
Accounting for environmental flow requirements in global water assessments
Pastor, A.V. ; Ludwig, F. ; Biemans, H. ; Hoff, H. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2014
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18 (2014)12. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 5041 - 5059.
fish species richness - climate-change - hydrological model - river ecosystems - vegetation model - biodiversity - management - resources - regimes - basin
As the water requirement for food production and other human needs grows, quantification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) is necessary to assess the amount of water needed to sustain freshwater ecosystems. EFRs are the result of the quantification of water necessary to sustain the riverine ecosystem, which is calculated from the mean of an environmental flow (EF) method. In this study, five EF methods for calculating EFRs were compared with 11 case studies of locally assessed EFRs. We used three existing methods (Smakhtin, Tennant, and Tessmann) and two newly developed methods (the variable monthly flow method (VMF) and the Q90_Q50 method). All methods were compared globally and validated at local scales while mimicking the natural flow regime. The VMF and the Tessmann methods use algorithms to classify the flow regime into high, intermediate, and low-flow months and they take into account intra-annual variability by allocating EFRs with a percentage of mean monthly flow (MMF). The Q90_Q50 method allocates annual flow quantiles (Q90 and Q50) depending on the flow season. The results showed that, on average, 37% of annual discharge was required to sustain environmental flow requirement. More water is needed for environmental flows during low-flow periods (46–71% of average low-flows) compared to high-flow periods (17–45% of average high-flows). Environmental flow requirements estimates from the Tennant, Q90_Q50, and Smakhtin methods were higher than the locally calculated EFRs for river systems with relatively stable flows and were lower than the locally calculated EFRs for rivers with variable flows. The VMF and Tessmann methods showed the highest correlation with the locally calculated EFRs (R2=0.91). The main difference between the Tessmann and VMF methods is that the Tessmann method allocates all water to EFRs in low-flow periods while the VMF method allocates 60% of the flow in low-flow periods. Thus, other water sectors such as irrigation can withdraw up to 40% of the flow during the low-flow season and freshwater ecosystems can still be kept in reasonable ecological condition. The global applicability of the five methods was tested using the global vegetation and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed land (LPJmL) hydrological model. The calculated global annual EFRs for fair ecological conditions represent between 25 and 46% of mean annual flow (MAF). Variable flow regimes, such as the Nile, have lower EFRs (ranging from 12 to 48% of MAF) than stable tropical regimes such as the Amazon (which has EFRs ranging from 30 to 67% of MAF).
Legal pluralism, hydraulic property creation and sustainability: the materialized nature of water rights in user-managed systems
Boelens, R.A. ; Vos, J.M.C. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 11 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 55 - 62.
irrigation systems - collective action - ecuadorian andes - governance - resources - community - valley - basin - peru - resistance
Worldwide, most irrigation systems are managed by farmer collectives, in contexts of legal pluralism. National and supranational legislation and policy-making, however, focus on governance frameworks established by State and market actors. Consequently, development planning often ignores farmers’ rationality regarding sustainable water control. This paper's literature research examines how the notion of ‘hydraulic property creation’ in contexts of legal pluralism may support sustainable, self-governed irrigation systems. User-investment in hydraulic infrastructure generates collective water property relations. This socio-natural foundation of farmer-managed systems embeds (materializes) and entwines collective and individual water rights in hydraulic works, triggering collective action. Being fundamental to sustainable management, even well-intended policies and legislation ignoring this practice-based property notion may jeopardize well-functioning systems
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