Dealing with uncertainty in collaborative planning: developing adaptive strategies for the IJsselmeer
Zandvoort, Mark ; Brugge, Rutger van der; Vlist, Maarten J. van der; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 62 (2019)2. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 248 - 265.
adaptive planning - collaborative water management - flexibility - responsibility - uncertainty
Adaptive strategies to deal with uncertainty in water management are often collaboratively developed. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of collaboration on handling uncertainty through adaptive planning. In this paper, we study how collaboration has influenced the handling of uncertainty through adaptive planning for water management strategies for the IJsselmeer area in the Netherlands. We show how a fixation on certainty, different perspectives among actors and unclear responsibilities between arenas affect the handling of uncertainty, and found that it is adversely affected by collaboration. The use of adaptive planning challenged current water uses and system functions, creating resistance from actors. We conclude that developing a shared problem perception, creating a common understanding of uncertainties and ensuring a clear demarcation between the water system, its societal functions and water usage, are necessary to make adaptive planning successful in handling uncertainty.
Systeemverantwoordelijkheid in het natuurbeleid : input voor agendavorming van de Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014
Boonstra, F.G. ; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 47) - 35
natuur - natuurbeleid - verantwoordelijkheid - overheid - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - nederland - nature - nature conservation policy - responsibility - public authorities - environmental management - environmental policy - netherlands
The Natinonal Government carries system responsibility for nature. Some ambiguity in the understanding ofthe concept of system responsibility seems to exist, however. The ways in which system responsibility isimplemented vary in practice also. The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment gives expression to itssystem responsibility within spatial planning in a largely facilitating manner, but its role also shows someregulating elements. With regard to water policy there is, on the contrary, a largely regulating interpretationwith some facilitating elements. The Ministry of the Interior has a facilitating role concerning the issue ofdemographic decline. The Ministry of Economic Affairs is still searching for a way to handle its systemresponsibility in nature policy and is showing at the time of this research (beginning 2013) an inclinationtowards a largely facilitating role. The Assessment of the Dutch Human Environment may be helpful with thissearch by clarifying the concept, indicating further options for implementation and making clear what theconsequences will be of the different possible roles.
Conference Report: Monitoring and Evaluation for Responsible Innovation
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Guijt, I. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Brouwers, J.H.A.M. ; Roefs, M.M.I. ; Vugt, S.M. van; Wigboldus, S.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-103) - 39
evaluation - program evaluation - innovations - responsibility - monitoring - conferences - development projects - development programmes - society - developing countries - netherlands - gelderland - evaluatie - programma-evaluatie - innovaties - verantwoordelijkheid - monitoring - conferenties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - samenleving - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland - gelderland
This report presents the key highlights and contributions from the conference ‘Monitoring and Evaluation for Responsible Innovation’ that was held on 19-20 March 2015 in Wageningen, the Netherlands. This conference was part of the International Year of Evaluation, and is the eighth annual ‘M&E on the Cutting Edge’ conference. These events are organised by Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University and Research centre and Learning by Design. The conference focused on how monitoring and evaluation efforts can support the kind of transformative and responsible innovation needed to tackle critical questions for society.
Doe het zelf : burgerinitiatieven in de natuur
Nijland, R. ; Dam, R.I. van - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 28 - 31.
natuurbeheer - burgers - groenbeheer - landschapsbeheer - bewonersparticipatie - samenwerking - verantwoordelijkheid - maatschappelijk draagvlak - governance - nature management - citizens - management of urban green areas - landscape management - community participation - cooperation - responsibility - public support - governance
Samen met Irini Salverda en Roel During schreef Van Dam het boek Burgers en hun Landschap. Dat biedt een overzicht van tien jaar onderzoek naar burgerparticipatie en maatschappelijk initiatief. Wat bezielt deze bevlogen burgers, welke drijfveren hebben ze en welke strategieën hanteren ze om succesvol te zijn. Om vervolgens het proces tussen burgers en overheid soepeler te laten verlopen, biedt Alterra hulp. ‘We hebben een leernetwerk opgezet en organiseren bijeenkomsten om kennis uit te wisselen tussen gemeentes, provincies, ministeries, waterschappen en natuurorganisaties"
Boeren en Buren – een nieuwe ruilverkaveling nodig?
Methorst, Ron - \ 2014
farm management - entrepreneurship - rural urban relations - social consciousness - responsibility - farmers' attitudes
Companies contributing to the greening of consumption: findings from the dairy and appliance industries in Thailand
Thongplew, N. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2014
Journal of Cleaner Production 75 (2014). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 96 - 105.
sustainable consumption - supply chain - responsibility - hybrid - world - foods - asia
Over the last decades, the scope of corporate environmental strategies has shifted from improving internal environmental performance to reducing environmental footprint of the product chain in collaboration with actors in the chain. Consumer-oriented CSR strategies are a vital part of this trend but have received little scholarly attention, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Focusing on Thailand, this article shows how corporate strategies aimed at greening consumption have become visible because of an increase in sustainable products, environmental information flows, and green narratives and images. We investigated two illustrative cases, dairy and appliance industries, and found that their environmental performances in greening consumption diverge. In the dairy industry, green products and environmental product information are mainly found among small producers for niche markets. Larger producers have only recently started adopting consumer-oriented environmental strategies. Appliance companies offer consumers not only green products, but also environmental information, storylines, and images reflecting general sustainability topics and, to a modest extent, consumer eco-lifestyles. We discuss underlying factors and argue that environmental communication strategies directed at consumers have strategic relevance for both industries.
Towards responsible scaling up and out in agricultural development : An exploration of concepts and principles
Wigboldus, S.A. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR; Knowledge, Technology & Innovation Group, Wageningen UR - 77
landbouwontwikkeling - schaalverandering - verantwoordelijkheid - good practices - multi-stakeholder processen - innovaties - agricultural development - scaling - responsibility - good practices - multi-stakeholder processes - innovations
Discussion paper prepared for the CGIAR Research Program on Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics.
Countries’ contributions to climate change: effect of accounting for all greenhouse gases, recent trends, basic needs and technological progress
Elzen, M.J. ; Olivier, J.J. ; Hoehne, N.E. ; Janssens-Maenhout, G. - \ 2013
Climatic Change 121 (2013)1. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 397 - 412.
brazilian proposal - land-use - responsibility - emissions - choices - co2
In the context of recent discussions at the UN climate negotiations we compared several ways of calculating historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assessed the effect of these different approaches on countries’ relative contributions to cumulative global emissions. Elements not covered before are: (i) including recent historical emissions (2000–2010), (ii) discounting historical emissions to account for technological progress; (iii) deducting emissions for ‘basic needs’; (iv) including projected emissions up to 2020, based on countries’ unconditional reduction proposals for 2020. Our analysis shows that countries’ contributions vary significantly based on the choices made in the calculation: e.g. the relative contribution of developed countries as a group can be as high as 80 % when excluding recent emissions, non-CO2 GHGs, and land-use change and forestry CO2; or about 48 % when including all these emissions and discounting historical emissions for technological progress. Excluding non-CO2 GHGs and land-use change and forestry CO2 significantly changes relative historical contributions for many countries, altering countries’ relative contributions by multiplicative factors ranging from 0.15 to 1.5 compared to reference values (i.e. reference contribution calculations cover the period 1850-2010 and all GHG emissions). Excluding 2000–2010 emissions decreases the contributions of most emerging economies (factor of up to 0.8). Discounting historical emissions for technological progress reduces the relative contributions of some developed countries (factor of 0.8) and increases those of some developing countries (factor of 1.2–1.5). Deducting emissions for ‘basic needs’ results in smaller contributions for countries with low per capita emissions (factor of 0.3–0.5). Finally, including projected emissions up to 2020 further increases the relative contributions of emerging economies by a factor of 1.2, or 1.5 when discounting pre-2020 emissions for technological progress.
Dierenwelzijnsbeleid: hoe blijf je bij de tijd?
Hopster, H. - \ 2011
dierenwelzijn - beleid - gemeenten - dierethiek - verantwoordelijkheid - opvoeding - dieren - animal welfare - policy - municipalities - animal ethics - responsibility - child rearing practices - animals
Presentatie gemeentelijk dierenwelzijnsbeleid
Sharing the burden of financing adaptation to climate change
Dellink, R. ; Elzen, M. ; Aiking, H. ; Bergsma, E. ; Berkhout, F. ; Dekker, T. ; Gupta, J. - \ 2009
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 19 (2009)4. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 411 - 421.
brazilian proposal - temperature increase - co2 emissions - responsibility - policy - countries - liability - uncertainties - compensation - targets
Climate change may cause most harm to countries that have historically contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change. This paper identifies consequentialist and non-consequentialist ethical principles to guide a fair international burden-sharing scheme of climate change adaptation costs. We use these ethical principles to derive political principles - historical responsibility and capacity to pay - that can be applied in assigning a share of the financial burden to individual countries. We then propose a hybrid 'common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities' approach as a promising starting point for international negotiations on the design of burden-sharing schemes. A numerical assessment of seven scenarios shows that the countries of Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would bear the bulk of the costs of adaptation, but contributions differ substantially subject to the choice of a capacity to pay indicator. The contributions are less sensitive to choices related to responsibility calculations, apart from those associated with land-use-related emissions. Assuming costs of climate adaptation of USD 100 billion per year, the total financial contribution by the Annex I countries would be in the range of USD 65-70 billion per year. Expressed as a per capita basis, this gives a range of USD 43-82 per capita per year.
Houd oog voor verhaal achter de cijfers
Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)april. - p. 12 - 12.
overheidsbeleid - overheidsbestedingen - besluitvorming - controle - beleidsevaluatie - verantwoordelijkheid - government policy - public expenditure - decision making - control - policy evaluation - responsibility
Controle vraagt om cijfers, maar complexe vraagstukken zijn moeilijk in cijfers te vangen. Het is daarom vooral belangrijk dat we in het vizier houden waar de cijfers over gaan, en durven te leren van fouten, zegt bestuurskundige Katrien Termeer
|Veiligheid beter verankeren in ruimtelijke plannen
Neuvel, J.M.M. ; Schaijk, A. - \ 2009
ROM : maandblad voor ruimtelijke ontwikkeling 27 (2009)4. - ISSN 1571-0122 - p. 32 - 33.
rampen - controle - veiligheid - ruimtelijke ordening - overheidsbeleid - consultancy - maatregelen - risicobeheersing - gebiedsontwikkeling - verantwoordelijkheid - gemeenten - disasters - control - safety - physical planning - government policy - consultancy - measures - risk management - area development - responsibility - municipalities
De ruimtelijke planner kan een forse bijdrage leveren aan het vergroten van de mogelijkheden voor rampenbeheersing en dus aan een duurzame en veilige ruimtelijke inrichting. De regionale brandweer adviseert de ruimtelijke planners hierbij, maar tot op heden werken veiligheidsadviezen van de brandweer slechts marginaal door in bestemmingsplannen, blijkt uit onderzoek van Wageningen Universiteit
Understanding Consumer Rationalities: Consumer Involvement in European Food Safety Governance of Avian Influenza
Krom, M.P.M.M. de - \ 2009
Sociologia Ruralis 49 (2009)1. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 1 - 19.
environmental-policy - responsibility - perspective - consumption - risk
Avian influenza is one more of the recent food scares inciting shifts in European food safety governance, away from a predominantly science-based approach towards one involving scientists, policymakers, actors in the food-supply chain and consumers. While these shifts are increasingly receiving scholarly attention, sociological insight into the involvement of consumers and other actors across the multiple levels of today's food safety governance requires further development. This article aims at contributing to the understanding of consumer perspectives on food safety governance by expounding the results of an explorative research among Dutch consumers, which focused on food risks related to avian influenza. To give ample room for the construction of contextual knowledge, consumers of poultry meat were questioned at various retailers by applying a qualitative interviewing method. From this research, it is concluded that multiple consumer rationalities about food safety governance exist. As a consequence of the existence of these multiple consumer rationalities, a differentiated governance approach to restore or retain consumer confidence in food safety in view of food-related risks is more likely to be pertinent than a 'one-size-fits-all' approach.
Setting standards for CSR : a comparative case study on criteria-formulating organizations
Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Binnekamp, M.H.A. ; Goddijn, S.T. - \ 2007
Journal of Business Research 60 (2007)5. - ISSN 0148-2963 - p. 539 - 548.
corporate social performance - culture - responsibility - commitment - framework - issues
Though criteria-formulating organizations (CFOs) ¿ organizations in which business and community stakeholders cooperate to formulate standards for ethical issues ¿ play an important role in the relationship between firms and society, they receive scant attention from CSR researchers. Adopting an organizational culture perspective, the present study inductively develops a theory on the development of these ethical standards, on the basis of a comparison of four cases. Specifically, the study examines how the norms of stakeholders, rooted in values, lead to standards for market actors and compliance by market actors. These insights may help CFOs to maximize their contribution to society
Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices
Sneijder, P.W.J. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Hedwig te Molder. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044024 - 220
voedingsgewoonten - ethiek - morele waarden - psychologie - consumptiepatronen - internet - communicatie - analyse - sociale interactie - eetstoornissen - moraal - verantwoordelijkheid - identiteit - feeding habits - consumption patterns - appetite disorders - ethics - moral values - psychology - social interaction - internet - communication - analysis - moral - responsibility - identity
This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for identity, a discursive study focuses on identity as a means of achieving particular interactional goals, such as accounting for food choice.In this respect, the DP perspective marks a shift away from current approaches in anthropology, sociology and social psychology, which largely ignore the notion that identities are part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes.The project is spread across three research settings, namely online interaction on veganism, food pleasure and obesity. The main criterion for selecting these cases was their relationship to recent dominant trends in current food choice, namely ethical considerations, hedonism and weight concerns. These 'motives' are also likely resources for identity-related activities.Chapter 2In this chapter we draw on a corpus of online discussions on veganism in order to explore the relationship between food choice, eating practices and identity work. A discursive psychological analysis focuses on action, rhetoric and construction. The analyst studies how speakers react to one other and show interpretations of previous turns. The analyst also considers potential alternative versions of descriptions, in order to demonstrate which version of reality is being undermined or countered. The analysis in this chapter demonstrates that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated - in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, participants protect veganism as an ideology. More generally, it is argued that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation packages rather than cognitive predictors of their behaviour.Chapter 3In this chapter we apply methods developed by conversation analysis and discursive psychology in order to examine how participants manage rules, facts and accountability in a specific ideological area. In particular, we focus on how participants in online discussions on veganism manage the problem posed by alleged health risks such as vitamin deficiency. We show how speakers systematically attribute responsibility for possible deficiencies to individual recipients rather than to veganism.The analysis focuses on a conditional formulation that participants use in response to the recurrent question about supposed health problems in a vegan diet (for example, if you eat a varied diet, there shouldn't be any problems). By using this formulation, participants blur whether they attribute responsibility or predict the absence of health problems. The blurring of logic and morality is used to implicitly ascribe responsibility for potential, assumed shortcomings in the lifestyle (such as calcium deficiency) to the individual. This implicit attribution allows participants to protect veganism as an ideology. Chapter 4Chapter 4 draws on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in everyday interaction. The analysis focuses on how participants work up and establish their identities as 'gourmets'. A dominant tool in performing this identity work is the discursive construction of independent access to knowledge of and experience with food items, in order to compete with or resist the epistemic superiority of a preceding evaluation. Participants formulate their judgments in such a way that they are independent of or even superior to evaluations of the same dish in previous turns. The construction of independent access to and knowledge of culinary items is important in the interactional achievement of an identity as a gourmet who not only likes good food, but who knows what good food is . Contrary to sensory approaches to food choice, this study portrays the enjoyment of food as an achievement that comes into being through interaction. We discuss the wider implications of this study for the relationship between food, identity and taste.Chapter 5Weight management is a problematic activity, involving issues of accountability and control. In this chapter, we focus on how people discursively manage these issues in an online support group. A discursive psychological approach is used to highlight some of the practices employed by participants to handle their dieting failures, like overeating or binging, in terms of blame and accountability. We focus on the way in which participants describe lapses in dieting while at the same time heading off 'mind explanations' such as a lack of control of one's eating practices, which would raise delicate issues regarding the narrator's personal identity. It is shown how participants work up a disinterested account of their lapse by presenting a detailed factual account of what happened and how they feel, while not spelling out what these 'facts' mean. Furthermore, their accounts display the lapse as a one-off incident or choice in an ongoing process. The one-off event itself is scripted up as recognizable and logical in a chain of events, thereby inviting the recipient to dismiss a possible explanation in terms of the speaker's psychological make-up.Rather than treating attribution as a cognitive process, the study shows how attributions can be studied as situated productions that perform identity-implicative work through managing accountability and blame.Chapter 6In chapter 6, we provide an overview of the main observations in this study and formulate recommendations for future research. The study as a whole shows that identity construction is active and ongoing. This thesis has shown how identities were constructed to manage inferential implications of food choice. Such implications, for example 'complicatedness' in the case of veganism, 'abnormality' for obesity and 'subjectivity' for food pleasure, are managed by formulating rhetorical alternatives - ordinariness, normality and objectivity respectively. The relevance of rhetorical alternatives in everyday talk shows that identities are not fixed, but are flexible and negotiable. This implies that groups of consumers cannot be addressed as if they have only one identity, imposed from the outside. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of knowledge claims and accountability in identity work. We also discuss findings relating to the specifics of using online data compared to conversational data. Future research may draw attention to identity construction in face-to-face food conversations and in food interaction in other domains than the three examined in this study.
MVO-prestatiemeting bij agrafood-ondernemingen; Keuzen, alternatieven en consequenties
Pierick, E. ten; Boone, J.A. - \ 2005
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9789052429786 - 150
landbouwindustrie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ondernemerschap - besluitvorming - prestatieniveau - beoordeling - nederland - meting - bedrijven - bedrijfseconomie - verantwoordelijkheid - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - agribusiness - sustainability - entrepreneurship - decision making - performance - assessment - measurement - businesses - netherlands - business management - responsibility - corporate social responsibility
This report looks at various moments at which decisions can be made during the development of a system for the measurement of performance in the field of sustainable entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility. Particular attention is devoted to the decision-making moments during the first two phases of the development process: the definition of the need for information and the design of a draft performance measurement system. The discussion on the different alternatives and the consequences of certain choices is based on (a) a study of the literature focusing on applications, and (b) a reflection on a few empirical studies that have been - or are to be - carried out within LEI.
|Medeverantwoordelijkheid voor natuur
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Lijmbach, S.E.E.M. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Rapport ) - ISBN 9789076998107 - 191
natuurbescherming - gedrag - attitudes - milieubeheer - morele waarden - samenleving - regering - particuliere organisaties - consumenten - beleid - nederland - verantwoordelijkheid - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - behaviour - environmental management - moral values - society - government - private organizations - consumers - policy - netherlands - responsibility - environmental psychology
|Environmental Liability of US farmers for pesticide use, livestock production and genetically modified crops.
Grossman, M.R. ; Centner, T.J. ; Hall, P.K. - \ 2004
Agrarisch recht 64 (2004)5. - ISSN 0167-4242 - p. 275 - 291.
wettelijke aansprakelijkheid - toerekenbaarheid - regelingen - veehouderij - veehouderijbedrijven - akkerbouw - pesticiden - genetische modificatie - boerensector - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - vs - milieuwetgeving - chemische bestrijding - verantwoordelijkheid - legal liability - accountability - regulations - environmental legislation - livestock farming - livestock enterprises - arable farming - chemical control - pesticides - genetic engineering - farm sector - farm management - usa - responsibility
Ingegaan wordt op de milieuwetgeving en -aansprakelijkheid in de V.S. in 'talgemeen, waarna in 't bijzonder wordt ingegaan op de wetgeving vooraansprakelijkheid achtereenvolgens in de dierlijke productie, bij het gebruikvan pesticides en bij toepassing van genetische modificatie
Implementing corporate social responsibility into netchains in a transparent way : opportunities and challenges
Wolfert, J. ; Kramer, K.J. ; Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2003
The Hague : LEI (Exploration paper for KLICT TR171/3) - 19
voedselindustrie - ondernemerschap - bedrijfsvoering - sociaal bewustzijn - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - doorzichtigheid van de markt - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - verantwoordelijkheid - agro-industriële ketens - strategisch management - food industry - entrepreneurship - management - social consciousness - sustainability - market transparency - corporate social responsibility - responsibility - agro-industrial chains - strategic management
Today, liability and responsebility are two important topics in agrifood chains. Liability is mainly connected with food safety. Responsibility concerns how a product is produced, and has an ecological and an ethical dimension: is the product produced in an environmentally and socially sound manner? In contrast to liability, responsibility is not a legal concept but a moral or political one. The main issue in this paper is 'how can corporate social responsibility (CSR) be implemented in integrated netchains in a transparent way?'. The focus is on responsibility, but is closely connected with liability
|Duurzaam consumeren of ecologisch burgerschap?
Spaargaren, G. - \ 2003
In: Burgers en Consumenten: tussen tweedeling en twee-eenheid / Dagevos, H., Sterrenberg, L., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789076998367 - p. 70 - 84.
houding van consumenten - consumentengedrag - verantwoordelijkheid - consumer attitudes - consumer behaviour - responsibility