Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Diet quality and colorectal tumor risk in persons with Lynch syndrome
    Eijkelboom, Anouk H. ; Brouwer, Jesca G.M. ; Vasen, Hans F.A. ; Bisseling, Tanya M. ; Koornstra, Jan J. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van - \ 2020
    Cancer Epidemiology 69 (2020). - ISSN 1877-7821
    colorectal cancer - colorectal tumors - diet - healthy diet - hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer - Lynch syndrome - risk factors

    Background: Persons with Lynch syndrome (LS) have an increased risk of developing colorectal tumors (CRTs). Adherence to diet quality indices associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the general population has not been studied before in LS. Methods: Dietary habits of 490 participants with LS from a prospective cohort study was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. The Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) were used to score food-based diet quality. Diet quality scores were divided into tertiles where a higher tertile reflects a higher diet quality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between the DHD15-index, DASH score and CRT risk. Results: During a median follow-up time of 53.4 months, 210 participants (42.9%) developed CRTs. The DHD-index and DASH score were not associated with CRT risk; hazard ratios for highest vs. lowest tertile were 1.00 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.67-1.48) and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.74-1.69), respectively. No linear trends across the DHD-index and DASH score tertiles were observed (P-trend = 0.97 and 0.83 respectively). Conclusion: In contrast to observations in the general population, no evidence for an association between the food-based DHD15-index or DASH score and CRT risk was observed in persons with LS. Further studies are needed investigating the association between diet quality and mechanisms leading to the development of LS-associated tumors.

    Seasonal risk of low pathogenic avian influenza virus introductions into free-range layer farms in the Netherlands
    Gonzales, Jose L. ; Pritz-Verschuren, Sylvia ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Wiegel, Jeanine ; Elbers, Armin R.W. ; Beerens, Nancy - \ 2020
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2020). - ISSN 1865-1674
    Avian influenza - risk factors - seasonality - virus introduction

    Poultry can become infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV) via (in) direct contact with infected wild birds. Free-range chicken farms in the Netherlands were shown to have a higher risk for introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus than indoor chicken farms. Therefore, during outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), free-range layers are confined indoors as a risk mitigation measure. In this study, we characterized the seasonal patterns of AIV introductions into free-range layer farms, to determine the high-risk period. Data from the LPAI serological surveillance programme for the period 2013–2016 were used to first estimate the time of virus introduction into affected farms and then assess seasonal patterns in the risk of introduction. Time of introduction was estimated by fitting a mathematical model to seroprevalence data collected longitudinally from infected farms. For the period 2015–2016, longitudinal follow-up included monthly collections of eggs for serological testing from a cohort of 261 farms. Information on the time of introduction was then used to estimate the monthly incidence and seasonality by fitting harmonic and Poisson regression models. A significant yearly seasonal risk of introduction that lasted around 4 months (November to February) was identified with the highest risk observed in January. The risk for introduction of LPAI viruses in this period was on average four times significantly higher than the period of low risk around the summer months. Although the data for HPAI infections were limited in the period 2014–2018, a similar risk period for introduction of HPAI viruses was observed. The results of this study can be used to optimize risk-based surveillance and inform decisions on timing and duration of indoor confinement when HPAI viruses are known to circulate in the wild bird population.

    Attribution of human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to livestock sources and identification of source-specific risk factors, The Netherlands (2010–2014)
    Mughini-Gras, L. ; Pelt, W. van; Voort, M. van der; Heck, M. ; Friesema, I. ; Franz, E. - \ 2018
    Zoonoses and Public Health 65 (2018)1. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. e8 - e22.
    animal reservoirs - E. coli - risk factors - shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli - source attribution - transmission routes

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern whose sources and transmission routes are difficult to trace. Using a combined source attribution and case–control analysis, we determined the relative contributions of four putative livestock sources (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, poultry) to human STEC infections and their associated dietary, animal contact, temporal and socio-econo-demographic risk factors in the Netherlands in 2010/2011–2014. Dutch source data were supplemented with those from other European countries with similar STEC epidemiology. Human STEC infections were attributed to sources using both the modified Dutch model (mDM) and the modified Hald model (mHM) supplied with the same O-serotyping data. Cattle accounted for 48.6% (mDM) and 53.1% (mHM) of the 1,183 human cases attributed, followed by small ruminants (mDM: 23.5%; mHM: 25.4%), pigs (mDM: 12.5%; mHM: 5.7%) and poultry (mDM: 2.7%; mHM: 3.1%), whereas the sources of the remaining 12.8% of cases could not be attributed. Of the top five O-serotypes infecting humans, O157, O26, O91 and O103 were mainly attributed to cattle (61%–75%) and O146 to small ruminants (71%–77%). Significant risk factors for human STEC infection as a whole were the consumption of beef, raw/undercooked meat or cured meat/cold cuts. For cattle-attributed STEC infections, specific risk factors were consuming raw meat spreads and beef. Consuming raw/undercooked or minced meat were risk factors for STEC infections attributed to small ruminants. For STEC infections attributed to pigs, only consuming raw/undercooked meat was significant. Consuming minced meat, raw/undercooked meat or cured meat/cold cuts were associated with poultry-attributed STEC infections. Consuming raw vegetables was protective for all STEC infections. We concluded that domestic ruminants account for approximately three-quarters of reported human STEC infections, whereas pigs and poultry play a minor role and that risk factors for human STEC infection vary according to the attributed source.

    Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors
    Hartman, Yvonne A.W. ; Hopman, Maria T.E. ; Schreuder, Tim H. ; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M. ; Scholten, Ralph R. ; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H. ; Poelkens, Fleur ; Maiorana, Andrew J. ; Naylor, Louise H. ; Willems, Peter H. ; Tack, Cees J. ; Thijssen, Dick H.J. ; Green, Daniel J. - \ 2018
    Physiological Reports 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2051-817X
    Cardiovascular diseases - exercise training - physical fitness - risk factors
    The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of subjects with increased cardiovascular risk (n = 166) who underwent 8–52 weeks endurance training. We determined fitness (i.e., peak oxygen uptake) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), before and after training. We divided subjects into quartiles based on improvement in fitness, and examined whether these groups differed in terms of risk factors. Associations between changes in fitness and in cardiovascular risk factors were further tested using Pearson correlations. Significant heterogeneity was apparent in the improvement of fitness and individual risk factors, with nonresponder rates of 17% for fitness, 44% for body mass index, 33% for mean arterial pressure, 49% for total cholesterol, and 49% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Neither the number, nor the magnitude, of change in cardiovascular risk factors differed significantly between quartiles of fitness change. Changes in fitness were not correlated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that significant heterogeneity exists in changes in peak oxygen uptake after training, while improvement in fitness did not relate to improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In subjects with increased cardiovascular risk, improvements in fitness are not obligatory for training-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors.
    The strength of the multivariable associations of major risk factors predicting coronary heart disease mortality is homogeneous across different areas of the Seven Countries Study during 50-year follow-up
    Menotti, Alessandro ; Puddu, Paolo Emilio ; Adachi, Hisashi ; Kafatos, Anthony ; Tolonen, Hanna ; Kromhout, Daan - \ 2018
    Acta Cardiologica 73 (2018)2. - ISSN 0001-5385 - p. 148 - 154.
    coefficients - Coronary heart disease - hazard ratios - homogeneity - mortality - prediction - risk factors

    Objectives: To compare the magnitude of multivariable coefficients and hazard ratios of four cardiovascular risk factors across five worldwide regions of the Seven Countries Study in predicting 50-year coronary deaths. Material and methods: A total of 13 cohorts of middle-aged men at entry (40–59 years old) were enrolled in the mid-1900s from five relatively homogeneous groups of cohorts (areas): USA, Finland and Zutphen – the Netherlands, Italy and Greece, Serbia, Japan for a total of 10,368 middle-aged men. The major risk factors measured at baseline were age, number of cigarettes smoked, systolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Cox proportional hazards models were solved for 50-year (45 years for Serbia) deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD), and the multivariable coefficients were compared for heterogeneity. Results: The highest levels of risk factors and CHD death rates were found in Finland and Zutphen – the Netherlands and the lowest in Japan. All four risk factors were predictive for long-term CHD mortality in all regions, except serum cholesterol in Japan where the mean levels and CHD events were lowest. Tests of heterogeneity of coefficients for single risk factors in predicting CHD mortality were non-significant across the five areas. The same analyses for the first 25 years of follow-up produced similar findings. Conclusions: The strength of the multivariable associations of four major traditional CHD risk factors with long-term CHD mortality appears to be relatively homogeneous across areas, pending needed further evidence.

    Eco-epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in an African savanna : The conflict between traditional pastoralist adaptations and disease transmission in the modern era
    Dejene, Sintayehu Workeneh - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins, co-promotor(en): W.F. de Boer; I.M.A. Heitkönig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436588 - 119
    cattle diseases - tuberculosis - disease transmission - pastoralism - animal ecology - risk factors - ethiopia - rundveeziekten - tuberculose - ziekteoverdracht - pastoralisme - dierecologie - risicofactoren - ethiopië

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease, and remains a cause of concern for livestock, wildlife and human health, especially in Ethiopia. It is a contagious disease, so close contact between animals or sharing of feed between infected and non-infected animals are major risk factors for transmission. Thus, improving the understanding of the factors that promote contact between hosts (i.e., livestock animals but also wild ruminants) is critical for limiting bTB transmission in pastoral, multi-host communities. I found that the older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition, the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result at the individual animal level. Moreover, at herd level, herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife were identified as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle in Ethiopia. Further to what is already known from the past studies, I found that the probability of contact with wildlife was positively influenced by herd size, through herd movement. As larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased; this also increased the chances for bTB infection. I detected a possible ‘dilution effect’ in bTB, where a higher evenness of mammal species reduced the probability of bTB occurrence. This dilution effect might be caused by encounter reduction. Because the encounter rate is proportional to the distribution of the host species; evenness would then capture the probability of encounter between pathogens and each host species. Thus, species evenness can be an appropriate measure of biodiversity to explain disease risk. I also showed that bTB prevalence was positively associated with the invasion of the plant Prosopis (Prosopis juliflora), maybe due to the loss in host species evenness and the increase in cattle movement as a consequence of the loss of palatable grasses in Prosopis-infested areas. Moreover, social contacts between herd owners are also important, as I found that herds with a greater number of edges in a (social) network had more connections in the livestock transfer network, increasing the probability of becoming infected with bTB. Thus, cultural components like large herd size and social contacts are at odds with the global One Health rationale to reduce bTB.

    Handelingsperspectief voor pluimveehouders in de preventie van laag- en hoogpathogene vogelgriep (AI)
    Bokma, Martien ; Bergevoet, Ron ; Elbers, Armin ; Goot, Jeanet van der; Neijenhuis, Francesca ; Niekerk, Thea van; Leenstra, Ferry - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 998) - 42
    aviaire influenza - hennen - pluimveehouderij - boeren - dierziektepreventie - risicofactoren - avian influenza - hens - poultry farming - farmers - animal disease prevention - risk factors
    Committed by the Dutch poultry sector research is carried out concerning acting perspective for prevention of AI-introduction on poultry farms, based on existing knowledge. The findings are shown in two parts: part I with practical advices for poultry farmers, and part II with its underpinning with a summary of existing knowledge of risk factors, preventive measures, early detection and possibilities for promoting desired (preventive) behaviour.
    Pedestrian Safety and the Built Environment : A Review of the Risk Factors
    Stoker, Philip ; Garfinkel-Castro, Andrea ; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck ; Odero, Wilson ; Mwangi, M.N. ; Peden, Margie ; Ewing, Reid - \ 2015
    Journal of Planning Literature 30 (2015)4. - ISSN 0885-4122 - p. 377 - 392.
    built environment - pedestrian safety - risk factors

    Urban and regional planning has a contribution to make toward improving pedestrian safety, particularly in view of the fact that about 273,000 pedestrians were killed in road traffic crashes in 2010. The road is a built environments that should enhance safety and security for pedestrians, but this ideal is not always the case. This article presents an overview of the evidence on the risks that pedestrians face in the built environment. This article shows that design of the roadway and development of different land uses can either increase or reduce pedestrian road traffic injury. Planners need to design or modify the built environment to minimize risk for pedestrians.

    Of fats and foods
    Kromhout, D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wageningen - ISBN 9789462571983 - 24
    nutrition and health - heart diseases - cardiovascular diseases - fatty acids - cholesterol - disease prevention - food consumption - risk factors - public health - human nutrition research - voeding en gezondheid - hartziekten - hart- en vaatziekten - vetzuren - cholesterol - ziektepreventie - voedselconsumptie - risicofactoren - volksgezondheid - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens
    Farewell address upon retiring as Professor of Public Health Research at Wageningen University on 16 April 2015
    Risicofactoren voor introductie van laag-pathogeen aviare influenza virus op legpluimveebedrijven met vrije uitloop in Nederland
    Goot, J.A. van der; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Fabri, T. ; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, M.C. van; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2015
    Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (CVI rapport / Centraal Veterinair Instituut 15/CVI0078) - 15
    pluimvee - gevalsanalyse - pluimveeziekten - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - uitloop - huisvesting van kippen - aviaire influenzavirussen - eenden - watervogels - risicofactoren - nederland - poultry - case studies - poultry diseases - poultry farming - animal welfare - outdoor run - chicken housing - avian influenza viruses - ducks - waterfowl - risk factors - netherlands
    Door middel van een case-control studie is onderzoek gedaan naar veronderstelde risicofactoren voor introductie van laag-pathogene aviaire influenza (LPAI) virus op pluimveelegbedrijven met vrije uitloop. Onder een LPAI virus werd in dit onderzoek verstaan: een aviair influenza virus van elk subtype (H1 tm H16), met uitzondering van de hoog pathogene aviaire influenza (HPAI) virussen. Veertig bedrijven met een LPAI virus introductie in het verleden (cases) zijn vergeleken met 81 bedrijven waar geen introductie heeft plaats gevonden (controls) om te onderzoeken of potentiële risicofactoren voor een besmetting met een LPAI virus geïdentificeerd kunnen worden. Vragen over aanwezigheid van potentiële risicofactoren zijn door middel van enquêtes voorgelegd aan de pluimveehouders.
    Ziektebeheersing substraatloze teeltsystemen : naar een robuust systeem tegen ziekten en plagen
    Stijger, C.C.M.M. ; Janse, J. ; Vermeulen, T. ; Weel, P.A. van - \ 2014
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1335) - 45
    bladgroenten - slasoorten - teeltsystemen - hydrocultuur - vloeibare kunstmeststoffen - ziektebestrijding - nutrientenbeheer - risicofactoren - monitoring - reductie - plagenbestrijding - leafy vegetables - lettuces - cropping systems - hydroponics - liquid fertilizers - disease control - nutrient management - risk factors - monitoring - reduction - pest control
    De belangrijkste kennislacune rond substraatloze teeltsystemen is het beheersen van de kwaliteit van het voedingswater. Hoge kwaliteit vergt, naast een goede balans van nutriënten, vooral het voorkomen van ziekte- en plaagontwikkeling. Het voorkomen of beheersen van de verspreiding speelt daarbij een grote rol. De bedrijfszekerheid van nieuwe teeltsystemen staat of valt bij de beheersbaarheid van ziekten en plagen. De ziekte- en plaagbeheersing in substraatloze systemen volgen andere principes dan de reguliere (steenwol of grondgebonden) teelt. De gebruikte watervolumes zijn enorm, fysieke barrières ontbreken maar ook een buffer/balans ontbreekt waarmee een direct effect is te benoemen op het risico op ziekte( en plaagverspreiding. De ziekte- en plaagrisico’s bepalen het gebruik van (chemische) gewasbeschermingsmiddelen, spui, maar bovenal het succes van een substraatloze teelt. Het verlagen van het risico op ziekten en plagen en het voorkomen, monitoren en vertragen van een snelle verspreiding daarvan is onderwerp van dit project. Het onderzoek waarin in dit verslag wordt gerapporteerd heeft zich gericht op de kennisvragen rond ziektebeheersing en de ontwikkeling van indicatoren en teeltstrategieën ter voorkoming van ziekten in een robuust substraatloos (water) systeem. Behalve dat een chemische aanpak vanwege het gebruik van grote volumes water in deze nieuwe teeltsystemen vaak geen economisch haalbare oplossing is, is een chemische aanpak voor ziekte- en plaagproblematiek bovendien geen toekomstgerichte oplossing. Daarom heeft het onderzoek zich gericht, naast het voorkomen van aantastingen, vooral op mogelijke natuurlijke en fysische bestrijdingsmaatregelen. In het onderzoek dat heeft gelopen van juni 2013 tot en met mei 2014 zijn in totaal vier achtereenvolgende slateelten uitgevoerd.
    Integrale diergezondheid : beheersing van leverbot
    Neijenhuis, F. ; Verkaik, J.C. ; Verwer, C.M. ; Smolders, E.A.A. ; Wagenaar, J.P. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 807) - 32
    rundveeziekten - fascioliasis - diergezondheid - melkvee - melkveehouderij - herkauwers - risicofactoren - dierziektepreventie - biologische landbouw - ziektebestrijding - risicoanalyse - dierenwelzijn - cattle diseases - fascioliasis - animal health - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ruminants - risk factors - animal disease prevention - organic farming - disease control - risk analysis - animal welfare
    Leverbotinfecties zijn in toenemende mate een knelpunt in de diergezondheid van melkvee en andere herkauwers. Bestrijding en/of behandeling van leverbot kent de volgende beperkingen: de besmettingscyclus is complex, beschikbare geneesmiddelen zijn in Nederland nagenoeg niet inzetbaar bij dieren die melk produceren voor menselijke consumptie en indien inzetbaar bij andere diercategorieën, is er in toenemende mate sprake van resistentie tegen geneesmiddelen. Bovendien neemt de oppervlakte leverbotgevoelig grasland toe. Het gevolg is meer geïnfecteerde dieren die afhankelijk van de mate van besmetting, negatieve effecten ondervinden op hun gezondheid, met mogelijk productiederving als gevolg. Dit rapport beschrijft het project ‘Integrale diergezondheid: beheersing van leverbot’. Dit project heeft een concept instrument ontwikkeld om de leverbotstatus op het bedrijf te beoordelen, de risicofactoren in kaart te brengen en mogelijke preventieve maatregelen aan te geven.
    Phytosterols and blood lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease
    Ras, R.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Marianne Geleijnse; P.L. Zock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571006 - 234
    hart- en vaatziekten - hart- en vaatstoornissen - phytosterolen - sterolen - bloedvetten - risicofactoren - cholesterol - cardiovascular diseases - cardiovascular disorders - phytosterols - sterols - blood lipids - risk factors - cholesterol

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle improvements including dietary changes are important for CVD prevention. This thesis aimed to advance insights in the role of phytosterols, lipid-like compounds present in foods or plant origin, in the management of blood lipid risk factors for CVD. Phytosterols include plant sterols and their saturated form, plant stanols. These compounds resemble cholesterol in both structure and function, but cannot be produced by the human body. The intake of phytosterols occurs through plant-based foods and/or enriched foods like margarine.

    Elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for CVD, especially for coronary heart disease (CHD) resulting from atherosclerosis. We studied the dose-response relationship between dietary phytosterols and blood LDL-C in two meta-analyses (Chapters 2 and 3). A meta-analysis of 81 randomized controlled trials (Chapter 2) demonstrated a non-linear, continuous dose-response relationship for the LDL-C-lowering effect of phytosterols. Based on this dose-response curve, it may be predicted that phytosterols at a dose of 2 g/d lower LDL-C by 0.35 mmol/L or 9%. The dose-response curve reached a plateau at phytosterol doses of ~3 g/d, above which there is limited additional LDL-C-lowering effect. In another meta-analysis of 124 randomized controlled trials (Chapter 3), we showed that plant sterols and plant stanols up to ~3 g/d are equally effective in lowering LDL-C by a maximum of 12%. No conclusions could be drawn for phytosterol doses exceeding 4 g/d because of the limited number of studies.

    Elevated blood triglycerides (TGs) may also be involved in the onset of CVD, although its role is less established than for LDL-C. The effect of plant sterols on blood TG concentrations was assessed in a meta-analysis of individual subject data from 12 randomized controlled trials (Chapter 4). We showed that plant sterols, at a dose of ~2 g/d, modestly reduce TG concentrations by on average 0.12 mmol/L or 6%. The TG-lowering effect of plant sterols was larger in subjects with higher initial TG concentrations. Our double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with 332 subjects (Chapter 5) showed more pronounced TG-lowering effects of 9-16% when plant sterols (2.5 g/d) were combined with low doses of omega-3 fish fatty acids (0.9 to 1.8 g/d).

    Dietary phytosterols are, after initial absorption by intestinal cells, actively excreted back into the intestinal lumen. Nevertheless, small amounts reach the circulation. We assessed the effect of plant sterol intake on blood plant sterol concentrations in a meta-analysis of 41 randomized controlled trials (Chapter 6). The intake of plant sterols, at a dose of ~1.6 g/d, increased blood sitosterol concentrations by on average 2 μmol/L (31%) and campesterol concentrations by 5 μmol/L (37%). At the same time, total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations were reduced by on average 0.36 mmol/L (6%) and 0.33 mmol/L (9%), respectively. After supplemental intake, plant sterol concentrations remained below 1% of total sterols circulating in the blood.

    Whether phytosterols, due to their LDL-C-lowering properties, affect the risk of CVD events is at present unknown. The relation between phytosterol intake from natural sources (e.g. vegetables, cereals, nuts) and CVD risk in the population was examined in a large prospective cohort of 35,597 Dutch men and women with 12 years of follow-up (Chapter 7). The intake of phytosterols from natural sources (~300 mg/d) was not related to risk of CVD (total of 3,047 events) with a relative risk ranging from 0.90 to 0.99 across quintiles of phytosterol intake. Also, no association with incident CHD and myocardial infarction were found. In a cross-sectional analysis using baseline data of this cohort, phytosterol intake was associated with lower blood LDL-C in men (-0.18 mmol/L per 50 mg/d; 95% CI: -0.29; -0.08) but not in women (-0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.08; 0.03).

    Most randomized trials with enriched foods have tested phytosterol doses between 1.5 and 2.4 g/d. In practice, however, users of such foods consume much lower amounts (~1 g/d), which is about 3 times higher than obtained from a regular Western diet. Individuals who consume diets with emphasis on plant-based foods (e.g. vegetarians) may reach phytosterol intakes between 0.5 and 1 g/d. Health authorities recommend various types of diets for CVD prevention, almost all rich in plant-based foods and, consequently, relatively rich in phytosterols.

    In conclusion, a high intake of phytosterols with enriched foods was shown to lower LDL-C in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a high intake of plant sterols with enriched foods modestly lowered TG concentrations and increased plasma plant sterol concentrations. A low intake of naturally occurring phytosterols in the general population did not show a clear association with CVD risk. Based on these findings, the intake of phytosterols may be considered in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Whether a high intake of phytosterols can play a role in CVD prevention in the population at large remains to be established.

    ‘Denk na over een slechtweerscenario’ : Rente en schandalen vormen risico’s
    Sleurink, D. ; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2014
    Boerderij 99 (2014)34. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. R5 - R7.
    melkveehouderij - sojaproducten - risicofactoren - landbouwprijzen - krachtvoeding - agrarische handel - dairy farming - soyabean products - risk factors - agricultural prices - force feeding - agricultural trade
    Bij alle euforie over groei in de melkveehouderij is het belangrijk risicofactoren in de gaten te houden. Deze kunnen melkveehouders plots in zwaar weer brengen.
    Effect of reducing the area under transport ban on transmission risk and piglet surplus during a CSF epidemic in the Netherlands
    Hagenaars, T.H.J. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Bontje, D.M. ; Nodelijk, G. ; Backer, J.A. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Roermund, H.J.W. van - \ 2014
    Lelystad/Wageningen : CVI/LEI (Report number CVI: 14/CVI0076 )
    biggen - varkenspest - veevervoer - ziekteoverdracht - risicofactoren - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - varkenshouderij - veehouderij - piglets - swine fever - transport of animals - disease transmission - risk factors - animal welfare - animal health - pig farming - livestock farming
    In this report, we investigate the expected effects of reducing the area in which live piglet transports are banned on transmission risk and on the piglet surplus (in the area of the transport ban) during a CSF epidemic in the Netherlands.
    Laag pathogene aviaire influenza virus infecties op pluimveebedrijven in Nederland
    Goot, J.A. van der; Verhagen, J. ; Gonzales, J. ; Backer, J.A. ; Bongers, J.H. ; Boender, G.J. ; Fouchier, R.A.M. ; Koch, G. - \ 2013
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 138 (2013)6. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 24 - 29.
    pluimveehouderij - pluimveeziekten - aviaire influenza - hennen - kippen - ziekte-incidentie - huisvesting, dieren - agrarische productiesystemen - uitloop - risicofactoren - poultry farming - poultry diseases - avian influenza - hens - fowls - disease incidence - animal housing - agricultural production systems - outdoor run - risk factors
    Dit artikel is een samenvatting van het rapport "Laag pathogene aviaire influenza virus iInfecties op pluimveebedrijven in Nederland" (CVI 2012). Dit rapport is geschreven naar aanleiding van vragen van het toenmalige Ministerie van Economische zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie. De vragen die werden gesteld zijn: - hebben pluimveebedrijven met vrije uitloop een grotere kans op introductie van LPAI virus infecties?; - is de kans op introductie gerelateerd aan wilde vogels?; - is er een periode in het jaar waarin het risico op infectie groter is? - kunnen er factoren geidentificeerd worden die de kans op introductie verminderen?
    Onderzoek naar details van bodemgebonden verspreiding van TVX bij tulp
    Kock, M.J.D. de; Lemmers, M.E.C. ; Pham, K.T.K. ; Lommen, S.T.E. - \ 2013
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit - 23
    bloembollen - tulpen - aceria tulipae - tulpenvirus x - risicofactoren - ziektedistributie - bodemonderzoek - ornamental bulbs - tulips - aceria tulipae - tulip virus x - risk factors - disease distribution - soil testing
    De afgelopen jaren heeft onderzoek aan Tulpenvirus X (TVX) uitgewezen dat dit virus tijdens de bewaring van tulpenbollen door tulpengalmijt wordt verspreid. Tevens is bekend dat er tijdens het koppen en ontbollen een risico op verspreiding van dit virus is. Daarentegen is het risico op mechanische verspreiding tijdens mechanisch pellen, spoelen en waterbroei gering. Tijdens dit onderzoek zijn diverse aanwijzingen verkregen voor verspreiding van TVX via de grond. Praktijkmaatregelen zijn pas te formuleren wanneer deze verspreidingsroute experimenteel bevestigd is en de bijbehorende vector of verspreidingsroute bekend is. Via diverse onderzoeksstrategieën is onderzocht wat de risico’s op bodemgebonden infectie met TVX bij tulp is. Hierbij is o.a. gebruik gemaakt van grond uit een vollegrondskas waar in 2011 bodemgebonden verspreiding van TVX is waargenomen. Teeltproeven met tulp, maar ook met diverse vanggewassen zijn uitgevoerd en de aanwezigheid van bodemschimmels die als virusvector kunnen optreden is bepaald. In een pottenproef met aanwezigheid van TVX-besmette tulpen vond er bij virusvrije tulp zeer beperkt virusverspreiding via de bodem plaats. Daarentegen vond er in een vergelijkbare pottenproef met TVX-besmette grond bij de vangplant Chenopodium amaranticolor veel efficiënter infectie met TVX vanuit de bodem plaats. Tijdens de teelt in de vollegrondskas met grond met TVX-geschiedenis vond er bij tulp geen virusinfectie vanuit de bodem plaats. Daarentegen werd op deze grond wel infectie bij Chenopodium vangplanten, brandnetel en vogelmuur waargenomen. Er was dus weldegelijk een virusreservoir in de bodem aanwezig. Er is zeer waarschijnlijk geen bodemorganisme betrokken bij infectie met TVX vanuit de bodem. Bij infectie vanuit de bodem is bij Chenopodium en onkruiden TVX het eenvoudigst aan te tonen in een wortelmonster. TVX verspreidt niet snel systemisch door de plant waardoor bladbemonstering ongeschikt is voor het aantonen van recente besmettingen vanuit de grond. Op basis van deze resultaten wordt voor onderzoek naar virusreservoirs bij onkruiden geadviseerd zich met name te concentreren op het ondergrondse deel van de plant. De resultaten beschreven in dit rapport laten zien dat bodemgebonden infectie met TVX complexer is dan vooraf gedacht. Specifieke bodemomstandigheden kunnen een cruciale rol spelen bij het wel of niet optreden van infectie vanuit de bodem bij tulp. Deze bodemomstandigheden zijn bij tulp blijkbaar kritischer dan bij vangplanten. Een lijst met maatregelen is samengesteld waarmee TVX-verspreiding via de bodem ze veel als mogelijk beperkt kan worden.
    Phytophthora-problematiek : inventarisatie van nieuwe Phytophthorasoorten in de teelt van boomkwekerijgewassen, in planten, grond en water
    Kuik, A.J. van - \ 2013
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 37
    boomkwekerijen - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - phytophthora - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - verspreiding - klimaatverandering - risicofactoren - inventarisaties - monitoring - forest nurseries - ornamental woody plants - phytophthora - plant pathogenic fungi - dispersal - climatic change - risk factors - inventories - monitoring
    Wortelrot en stambasisrot zijn een toenemend probleem in diverse teelten. Het inzetten van (dure) gewasbeschermingsmiddelen kan wel uitbreiding van Phytophthora tegengaan, maar kan eenmaal zieke planten niet genezen. Een bijkomend probleem is dat er steeds vaker, tot nu toe, onbekende Phytophthora-soorten worden gevonden. Ook internationaal worden problemen met Phytophthora gemeld. De afgelopen jaren kenmerken de zomers zich door periodes met hevige regenval. Deze omstandigheden zijn zeer gunstig voor uitbreiding van de waterminnende pseudoschimmel Phytophthora. Voorspeld wordt dat in de komende jaren Nederland natter wordt. De voorspellingen wijzen dus uit dat we rekening moeten houden met een groter risico op verspreiding van en problemen met Phytophthora, zowel in de volle grond als in de containerteelt. Het doel van dit project is het inventariseren van welke nieuwe Phytophthora-soorten er voorkomen en een inschatting te maken van de risico’s voor de boomkwekerij.
    Water en teeltsystemen : zorg voor goed water
    Werd, Rik de - \ 2013
    horticulture - cultural methods - water quality - water availability - emission - water treatment - risk factors - irrigation water
    Het wordt stil in de bijenkast : de wetenschap over bijensterfte (interview met A. van 't Hoog, T. Blacquiere, C. van Dooremalen)
    Hoog, A. van 't; Blacquiere, T. ; Dooremalen, C. van; Cornelissen, B. - \ 2013
    WageningenWorld 2013 (2013)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 10 - 15.
    apidae - honingbijen - bombus - bijenziekten - doodsoorzaken - vuilbroed - varroa - nosema - bacterieziekten - drachtplanten - insecticiden - pesticiden - risicofactoren - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - bijensterfte - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - wilde dieren - dierlijke productie - apidae - honey bees - bombus - bee diseases - causes of death - foul brood - varroa - nosema - bacterial diseases - pollen plants - insecticides - pesticides - risk factors - scientific research - bee mortality - animal welfare - animal health - wild animals - animal production
    Er is iets goed mis met de honingbij: ’s winters legt een derde van de volken het loodje. Geleidelijk aan krijgt de wetenschap meer inzicht in mogelijke oorzaken van deze bijensterfte, maar één boosdoener is (nog) niet aan te wijzen.
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