Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Exploring climate change impacts and adaptation options for maize production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using different climate change scenarios and crop models
    Kassie, B.T. ; Asseng, S. ; Rotter, R.P. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Ruane, A.C. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2015
    Climatic Change 129 (2015)1-2. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 145 - 158.
    africa - yield - agriculture - risks - opportunities - vulnerability - temperatures - uncertainty - variability - projections
    Exploring adaptation strategies for different climate change scenarios to support agricultural production and food security is a major concern to vulnerable regions, including Ethiopia. This study assesses the potential impacts of climate change on maize yield and explores specific adaptation options under climate change scenarios for the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia by mid-century. Impacts and adaptation options were evaluated using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) in combination with two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and two crop models. Results indicate that maize yield decreases on average by 20 % in 2050s relative to the baseline (1980–2009) due to climate change. A negative impact on yield is very likely, while the extent of impact is more uncertain. The share in uncertainties of impact projections was higher for the three GCMs than it was for the two RCPs and two crop models used in this study. Increasing nitrogen fertilization and use of irrigation were assessed as potentially effective adaptation options, which would offset negative impacts. However, the response of yields to increased fertilizer and irrigation will be less for climate change scenarios than under the baseline. Changes in planting dates also reduced negative impacts, while changing the maturity type of maize cultivars was not effective in most scenarios. The multi-model based analysis allowed estimating climate change impact and adaptation uncertainties, which can provide valuable insights and guidance for adaptation planning.
    Responsible research and innovation in miniature: Information asymmetries hindering a more inclusive 'nanofood' development
    Bakker, E. de; Lauwere, C.C. de; Hoes, A.C. ; Beekman, V. - \ 2014
    Science and Public Policy 41 (2014)3. - ISSN 0302-3427 - p. 294 - 305.
    nanotechnology - risks - power
    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is about an interactive and comprehensive development of new technologies, also addressing social needs and ethical issues. But how do these ambitions of RRI relate to the practice of technological innovations? Nanotechnology is currently a large-scale techno-scientific development that offers many chances and opportunities but also raises concerns. Focusing on the issues of power, information (asymmetries) and responsibility we will describe the Dutch policy, assessments and debates on nanotechnology in general and on nanofood in particular. RRI assumes a willingness of all stakeholders to share or communicate information, but the case of nanofood exemplifies that industry can be reluctant to do this because of the fear that discussions will take a 'wrong direction'. We conclude that information asymmetries can be a principal problem for a more inclusive nanofood development and that policies that wish to strengthen RRI should take this into account.
    Climate policy innovation: the adoption and diffusion of adaptation policies across Europe
    Massey, E. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Huitema, D. ; Jordan, A. - \ 2014
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 29 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 434 - 443.
    barriers - need - government - managers - states - risks
    Climate change adaptation governance is in flux. Adaptation policies are being adopted by governments at a rapid pace, particularly in Europe. In the period 2005–2010, the total number of recorded adaptation policy measures in the EU grew by some 635%. Despite the plethora of work on adaptation governance, few if any empirical studies have been conducted that explore the driving forces behind the rapid adoption and diffusion of adaptation policies. Working within the theoretical framework of national policy innovation (see Jordan and Huitema, in this issue), we draw on a uniquely systematic database of national climate polices to develop a set of hypotheses on the drivers and barriers surrounding the adoption and diffusion of climate change adaptation policies across 29 European countries. Using an internal/external model we postulate that adaptation is largely being driven by internal factors. Additionally, we look to the possible effects of this policy adoption and diffusion to see if adaptation is emerging into a new and distinct policy field. What we find is that indeed it could be in a handful of countries.
    Costs and benefits of adapting spatial planning to climate change: lessons learned from a large-scale urban development project in the Netherlands
    Bruin, K. de; Goosen, H. ; Ierland, E.C. van; Groeneveld, R.A. - \ 2014
    Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1009 - 1020.
    policy - adaptation - economics - uncertainty - options - risks
    Climate change increases the vulnerability of low-lying coastal areas. Careful spatial planning can reduce this vulnerability, provided that decision-makers have insight into the costs and benefits of adaptation options. This paper addresses the question which adaptation options are suitable, from an economic perspective, to adapt spatial planning to climate change at a regional scale. We apply social cost–benefit analysis to assess the net benefits of adaptation options that deal with the impacts of climate change-induced extreme events. From the methods applied and results obtained, we also aim at learning lessons for assessing climate adaptation options. The case study area, the Zuidplaspolder, is a large-scale urban development project in the Netherlands. The costs as well as the primary and secondary benefits of adaptation options relating to spatial planning (e.g. flood-proof housing and adjusted infrastructure) are identified and where possible quantified. Our results show that three adaptation options are not efficient investments, as the investment costs exceed the benefits of avoided damages. When we focus on ‘climate proofing’ the total area of the Zuidplaspolder, when the costs and benefits of all the presented adaptation options are considered together, the total package has a positive net present value. The study shows that it is possible to anticipate climate change impacts and assess the costs and benefits of adjusting spatial planning. We have learned that scenario studies provide a useful tool but that decision-making under climate change uncertainty also requires insight into the probabilities of occurrence of weather extremes in the future.
    Governing China’s food quality through transparency: A review
    Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2014
    Food Control 43 (2014). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 49 - 56.
    environmental governance - information age - safe food - consumers - systems - trust - perceptions - incidents - risks
    In coping with food quality problems, China relies heavily on state institutions, such as laws and regulations, governmental standards and certification, and inspections and enforcement. Recently, transparency (or information disclosure) has been introduced in China’s governance framework to cope with its growing food quality and related sustainability problems. This article investigates to what extent and how China’s transparency institutions and practices regarding food production and products play a role in governing food quality and safety. Four forms of food chain transparency are distinguished and assessed: management transparency, regulatory transparency, consumer transparency and public transparency. It is concluded that in China food chain transparency is still in its infancy with respect to governing domestic food production and product quality and safety, and that only with respect to global (export) food chains transparency and accountability put some pressure on agro-food chain actors to improve their performance with respect to food quality and sustainability. By the same token furthering transparency on food quality is desperately needed as the state’s food management and control system alone proves not capable to provide safe food that is credible and trusted by domestic consumers.
    Use of veterinary medicijnes, feed additives and probiotics in four major internationally traded aquaculture species farmed in Asia
    Rico, A. ; Tran, M. ; Satopornvanit, K. ; Jiang, M. ; Shahabiddin, A.M. ; Henriksson, P.J.G. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2013
    Aquaculture 412-413 (2013). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 231 - 243.
    pangasianodon-hypophthalmus - mangrove areas - human health - residues - vietnam - risks - water
    Antimicrobials, parasiticides, feed additives and probiotics are used in Asian aquaculture to improve the health status of the cultured organisms and to prevent or treat disease outbreaks. Detailed information on the use of such chemicals in Asian aquaculture is limited, but of crucial importance for the evaluation of their potential human health and environmental risks. This study reports the outcomes of a survey on the use of chemical and biological products in 252 grow-out aquaculture farms and 56 farm supply shops in four countries in Asia. The survey was conducted between 2011 and 2012, and included nine aquaculture farm groups: Penaeid shrimp farms in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam; Macrobrachium prawn farms, and farms producing both Penaeid shrimps and Macrobrachium prawns in Bangladesh; tilapia farms in China and Thailand; and Pangasius catfish farms in Vietnam. Results were analysed with regard to the frequencies of use of active ingredients and chemical classes, reported dosages, and calculated applied mass relative to production. A range of farm management and farm characteristics were used as independent variables to explain observed chemical use patterns reported by farmers within each group. Sixty different veterinary medicinal ingredients were recorded (26 antibiotics, 19 disinfectants, and 15 parasiticides). The use of antibiotic treatments was found to be significantly higher in the Vietnamese Pangasius farms. However, total quantities of antibiotics, relative to production, applied by the Pangasius farmers were comparable or even lower than those reported for other animal production commodities. Semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farms in China, Thailand and Vietnam showed a decrease in the use of antibiotic treatments. These farm groups utilised the largest amount of chemicals relative to production, with feed additives and plant extracts, probiotics, and disinfectants, being the most used chemical classes, mainly for disease prevention. The surveyed farmers generally did not exceed recommended dosages of veterinary medicines, and nationally or internationally banned compounds were (with one exception) reported neither by the surveyed farmers, nor by the surveyed chemical sellers. Factors underlying the observed differences in chemical use patterns differed widely amongst farm groups, and geographical location was found to be the only factor influencing chemical ingredient application patterns in the majority of the studied farm groups.
    Factors influencing European consumer uptake of personalised nutrition. Results of a qualitative analysis
    Stewart-Knox, B. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Robinson, J. ; Rankin, A. ; Orr, K. ; Duffy, M. ; Poinhos, R. ; Almeida, M.D.V. de; Macready, A. ; Gallagher, C. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Navas-Carretero, S. ; Riemer, M. ; Traczyk, I. ; Gjelstad, I.M.F. ; Mavrogianni, C. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2013
    Appetite 66 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 67 - 74.
    genetic research - food - attitudes - nutrigenomics - acceptance - risks - perceptions - benefits - hazards - focus
    The aim of this research was to explore consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition and to compare these across three different levels of “medicalization”: lifestyle assessment (no blood sampling); phenotypic assessment (blood sampling); genomic assessment (blood and buccal sampling). The protocol was developed from two pilot focus groups conducted in the UK. Two focus groups (one comprising only “older” individuals between 30 and 60 years old, the other of adults 18–65 yrs of age) were run in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Germany (N = 16). The analysis (guided using grounded theory) suggested that personalised nutrition was perceived in terms of benefit to health and fitness and that convenience was an important driver of uptake. Negative attitudes were associated with internet delivery but not with personalised nutrition per se. Barriers to uptake were linked to broader technological issues associated with data protection, trust in regulator and service providers. Services that required a fee were expected to be of better quality and more secure. An efficacious, transparent and trustworthy regulatory framework for personalised nutrition is required to alleviate consumer concern. In addition, developing trust in service providers is important if such services to be successful
    Integration of research advances in modelling and monitoring in support of WFD river basin management planning in the context of climate change
    Quevauviller, P. ; Barceló, D. ; Beniston, M. ; Djordjevic, S. ; Harding, R.J. ; Iglesias Ludwig, R.A. ; Navarra, A. ; Navarra Ortega, A. ; Mark, O. ; Roson, R. ; Sempere Torres, D. ; Stoffel, M. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Werner, M. - \ 2012
    Science of the Total Environment 440 (2012). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 167 - 177.
    eu policy - water - europe - science - risks - catchments - impacts - africa - areas
    The integration of scientific knowledge about possible climate change impacts on water resources has a direct implication on the way water policies are being implemented and evolving. This is particularly true regarding various technical steps embedded into the EU Water Framework Directive river basin management planning, such as risk characterisation, monitoring, design and implementation of action programmes and evaluation of the “good status” objective achievements (in 2015). The need to incorporate climate change considerations into the implementation of EU water policy is currently discussed with a wide range of experts and stakeholders at EU level. Research trends are also on-going, striving to support policy developments and examining how scientific findings and recommendations could be best taken on board by policy-makers and water managers within the forthcoming years. This paper provides a snapshot of policy discussions about climate change in the context of the WFD river basin management planning and specific advancements of related EU-funded research projects. Perspectives for strengthening links among the scientific and policy-making communities in this area are also highlighted.
    Association of health involvement and attitudes towards eating fish on farmed and wild fish consumption in Belgium, Norway and Spain
    Altintzoglou, T. ; Vanhonacker, F. ; Verbeke, W. ; Luten, J.B. - \ 2011
    Aquaculture International 19 (2011). - ISSN 0967-6120 - p. 475 - 488.
    consumer perception - scientific evidence - european countries - benefits - behavior - seafood - risks - convenience - translation - information
    Consumers in many European countries do not equally meet the recommended daily intake levels for fish consumption. Various factors that can influence fish consumption behaviour have been identified but limited research has been performed on fish consumption behaviour, discriminating between farmed and wild fish. The present survey study confirmed differences in total fish consumption, farmed fish and wild fish consumption behaviour in Belgium, Norway and Spain. Spanish consumers consumed more frequently fish of each category than Norwegian consumers. Belgian consumers reported the lowest consumption frequency of fish. Accordingly, health involvement and attitudes towards fish consumption decreased from Spain over Norway to Belgium, suggesting a positive association of health involvement and attitudes towards fish consumption with total fish consumption. Similar effects were found for farmed and wild fish consumption. In general consumers in all countries were poorly aware of the origin of the fish they consume, despite the mandatory indication of origin on fish labels. Across countries, an increased awareness about fish origin was found with increased fish consumption. The findings of the study indicate that farmed and wild fish consumption should be further stimulated among Belgian, Norwegian and Spanish consumers in association with a healthy and positive meal. Additionally, given the limited awareness of the origin of fish, transparency on the issue of farmed origin will be important in order to anticipate potential adverse communication.
    Community effects of carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments
    Velzeboer, I. ; Kupryianchyk, D. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2011
    Environment International 37 (2011)6. - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 1126 - 1130.
    manufactured nanoparticles - engineered nanoparticles - black carbon - environment - nanomaterials - bioavailability - ecotoxicology - toxicity - behavior - risks
    Aquatic sediments form an important sink for manufactured nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and fullerenes, thus potentially causing adverse effects to the aquatic environment, especially to benthic organisms. To date, most nanoparticle effect studies used single species tests in the laboratory, which lacks ecological realism. Here, we studied the effects of multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) contaminated sediments on benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment was taken from an unpolluted site, cleaned from invertebrates, mixed with increasing levels of MWCNTs (0, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2 g/kg dry weight), transferred to trays and randomly relocated in the original unpolluted site, which now acted as a donor system for recolonization by benthic species. After three months of exposure, the trays were regained, organic (OC) and residual carbon (RC) were measured, and benthic organisms and aquatic macrophytes were identified. ANOVA revealed a significantly higher number of individuals with increasing MWCNT concentrations. The Shannon index showed no significant effect of MWCNT addition on biodiversity. Multivariate statistics applied to the complete macroinvertebrate dataset, did show effects on the community level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences in taxa composition related to MWCNT levels indicating differences in sensitivity of the taxa. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed that MWCNT dose, presence of macrophytes, and spatial distribution explained 38.3% of the total variation in the data set, of which MWCNT dose contributed with 18.9%. Still, the net contribution of MWCNT dose was not statistically significant, indicating that negative community effects are not likely to occur at environmentally relevant future CNT concentrations in aquatic sediments.
    The image of fish from aquaculture among Europeans: impact of exposure to balanced information
    Altintzoglou, T. ; Verbeke, W. ; Vanhonacker, F. ; Luten, J.B. - \ 2010
    Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 19 (2010)2. - ISSN 1049-8850 - p. 103 - 119.
    seafood consumption - dietary-intake - health - risks - food - benefits - mercury - quality - welfare - omega-3-fatty-acids
    This study investigated the effect of balanced, nonpersuasive information related to safety, healthiness, and sustainability of aquaculture on the image of farmed fish among European consumers. It was demonstrated that there is neither positive nor negative influence of this type of information on the predominantly positive image of fish from aquaculture. Consumers who were exposed to information related to the EU origin and aquaculture related guarantee reported a more positive image of farmed fish. These results provide valuable input for transparent communication about fish farming practices which might increase consumer trust and will not harm the image of fish from aquaculture. Increasing consumers' knowledge about aquaculture and its positive effects on the image of farmed fish is also discussed as a pathway for maintaining and improving aquaculture's positive image in the future
    Supplementation of iron alone and combined with vitamins improves haematological status, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and oxidative stress in anaemic pregnant women
    Aiguo, M. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Ye Sun, Yong ; Yang, Fang ; Xia Han, Xiu ; Zhi Zhang, Feng ; Chen Jiang, D. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2010
    The British journal of nutrition 104 (2010)11. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1655 - 1661.
    lipid-peroxidation - northeast thailand - a-deficiency - preeclampsia - riboflavin - prevalence - risks - trial
    Pregnancy is a condition exhibiting increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and Fe plays a central role in generating harmful oxygen species. The objective of the present study is to investigate the changes in haematological status, oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in anaemic pregnant women after Fe supplementation with and without combined vitamins. The study was a 2 months double-blind, randomised trial. Pregnant women (n 164) were allocated to four groups: group C was the placebo control group; group I was supplemented daily with 60 mg Fe (ferrous sulphate) daily; group IF was supplemented daily with Fe plus 400 µg folic acid; group IM was supplemented daily with Fe plus 2 mg retinol and 1 mg riboflavin, respectively. After the 2-month trial, Hb significantly increased by 15·8, 17·3 and 21·8 g/l, and ferritin by 2·8, 3·6 and 11·0 µg/l, in the I, IF and IM groups compared with placebo. Polarisation (¿) and microviscosity (¿) decreased significantly in other groups compared with placebo, indicating an increase in membrane fluidity. Significant decreases of ¿ and ¿ values compared with group C were 0·033 and 0·959 for group I, 0·037 and 1·074 for group IF and 0·064 and 1·865 for group IM, respectively. In addition, significant increases of glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases of malondialdehyde were shown in all treated groups, as well as increases of plasma retinol and urine riboflavin in group IM. The findings show that supplementation with Fe and particularly in combination with vitamins could improve the haematological status as well as oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity
    Consumer purchase habits and views on food safety: A Brazilian study
    Behrens, J.H. ; Barcellos, M.N. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Nunes, T.P. ; Franco, B.D.G.M. ; Destro, M.T. ; Landgraf, M. - \ 2010
    Food Control 21 (2010)7. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 963 - 969.
    domestic environment - public perceptions - focus groups - attitudes - hazards - risks - information - disease - issues - pathogens
    This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes towards food safety among consumers in the city of São Paulo, the major consumer market in Brazil. Focus group sessions were conducted with 30 adults responsible for food choices and purchases. Results indicated a preference for supermarkets over street markets, for the variety of foods, convenience and confidence in the safety assurance. On the other hand, the ‘‘naturalness” of the products in the street markets was the main reason for purchases in those places. Participants showed concerns with respect to food additives, hormones and pesticides – technological rather than ‘‘natural” hazards. Minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods were considered convenient products meeting the need for time/labor-savings in the kitchen, although suspicion about wholesomeness and safety came up among consumers. Lack of awareness regarding potentially risky behaviors was observed, including handling and storage of foods in the domestic environment. In conclusion, this study suggests that Brazilian regulators should create more effective risk communication combining technical information with actual consumer perceptions of food risks.
    Brazilian Consumer views on food irradiation
    Behrens, J.H. ; Barcellos, M.N. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Nunes, T.P. ; Landgraf, M. - \ 2009
    Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 10 (2009)3. - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 383 - 389.
    domestic environment - safety - information - attitudes - acceptance - knowledge - liking - risks
    This study investigated the consumer attitude to food irradiation in São Paulo, Brazil, through a qualitative research perspective. Three focus groups were conducted with 30 consumers, responsible for food choices and purchases. Both irradiated and nonirradiated food samples were served in the sessions to motivate the discussion and elicit the participants´ knowledge, opinions, feelings and concerns towards the irradiation process. Reactions were similar among the groups and differences between the irradiated and the nonirradiated samples were hardly perceived. When provided with positive information about irradiation and its benefits to foods and human health, many people still remained suspicious about the safety of the technology. Risk perception seemed to be related to unease and lack of knowledge about nuclear power and its non-defense use. Participants claimed for more transparency in communication about risks and benefits of irradiated foods to the human health, especially with respect to the continued consumption. Keywords: Irradiation, consumer research, risk perception.
    Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Nowack, B. ; Wiesner, M. - \ 2009
    Environmental Pollution 157 (2009)4. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 1110 - 1116.
    toxiciteit - sediment - waterverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - waterbodems - nanotechnologie - aquatische ecosystemen - toxicity - sediment - water pollution - soil pollution - water quality - water bottoms - nanotechnology - aquatic ecosystems - polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - nanotubes - sorption - adsorption - environment - bioaccumulation - nanomaterials - health - matter - risks
    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to aggregation or degradation, and MCNP burial in deeper sediment layers. The resultant steady state MCNP levels are compared with BCNP levels calculated from soot levels in sediments and weight fractions of nanosized fractions of these soot particles. MCNP/BCNP ratios range from 10-7 to 10-4 (w:w). This suggests that the often acclaimed effect of MCNPs on organic pollutant binding and bioavailability will likely be below the level of detection if natural BCNPs are present, even if binding to MCNP is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than to BCNPs. Furthermore, exposure and toxic effects of MCNPs in sediments and soils will be negligible compared to that of BCNPs. Concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles in sediments and soils will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon (soot) nanoparticles
    Consumer attitudes towards the development of animal-friendly husbandry systems
    Frewer, L.J. ; Kole, A.P.W. ; Kroon, S.M.A. van der; Lauwere, C. de - \ 2005
    Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2005)4. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 345 - 367.
    genetically-modified foods - risks - welfare - ethics - trust - meat - credibility - information - perception - benefits
    ABSTRACT. Recent policy developments in the area of livestock husbandry have suggested that, from the perspective of optimizing animal welfare, new animal husbandry systems should be developed that provide opportunities for livestock animals to be raised in environments where they are permitted to engage in ``natural behavior.¿¿ It is not known whether consumers regard animal husbandry issues as important, and whether they differentiate between animal husbandry and other animal welfare issues. The responsibility for the development of such systems is allocated jointly between farmers, regulators, different actors in the food chain, and consumers. This research focuses on understanding consumer attitudes and preferences regarding the development and introduction of such systems, to ensure that they are acceptable to consumers as well as producers, regulators, and scientists. Consumer perceptions of animal welfare and animal husbandry practices were evaluated using quantitative consumer survey, which focused on two animal husbandry issues ¿ farmed pigs and farmed fish. Following pilot work, 1000 representative Dutch consumers were sampled about their attitudes to either pig or fish husbandry. The results indicated that consumers think about animal welfare in terms of two broad categories related to their health and living environment, but do not think about welfare issues at a more detailed level. Greater concern was expressed about the welfare of pigs compared to fish. Consumer trust in labeling also emerged as an important issue, since consumers need to trust different food chain actors with responsibility for promoting animal welfare, and are reluctant to consider the details of animal husbandry systems. As a consequence, a transparent, enforceable, and traceable monitoring system for animal welfare friendly products is likely to be important for consumers.
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