Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada
Makaske, B. ; Smith, D.G. ; Berendsen, H.J.A. - \ 2002
Sedimentology 49 (2002)5. - ISSN 0037-0746 - p. 1049 - 1071.
Canada - fysische geografie - rivierkunde - sedimentatie - Noord-Amerika - Canada
Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and morphological stages in channel development were recognized. Additionally, floodplain sedimentation rates were established. The new data demonstrate that the upper Columbia River is a long-lived, dynamic anastomosing system. Results show that anastomosis at the study location has persisted since at least 2700 cal. years BP, with avulsions occurring frequently. At least nine channels have formed in the studied cross-valley transect within the past 3000 years. Channel lifetimes from formation to abandonment appear to be highly variable, ranging from approximately 800 to 3000 years. Log jams provoking avulsions and/or silting up of old channels are proposed as reasons for this variability. Long-term average floodplain sedimentation rates appear to be significantly lower than previously proposed by Smith (1983, Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., 6, 155-168). A long-term (4550 years) average of 1.75 mm per year (after compaction) was based on C-14 dates, whilea short-term sedimentation rate of 0.8 mm was determined for a single, relatively small, seasonal flood in 1994 using sediment traps. However, short-term sedimentation rates vary considerably over the floodplain, with levees aggrading up to four times faster than floodbasins. Channels of the upper Columbia River anastomosed reach follow a consistent pattern in their development, with each stage being characterized by different morphology and processes. Channel evolution comprises the following succession: (1) avulsion stage, in which a crevasse splay channel deepens by scour and levee sedimentation; (2) widening and deepening stage, in which bank slumping and bed scouring dominates; (3) infilling stage, in which either channel narrowing (bank accretion) or channel shallowing (bed accretion) takes place; and (4) abandonment stage, in which the residual (remnant) channel is filled exclusively by silt, clay and organic material. Vertical stacking (super-imposition) of active channels on recent channel-fill sand bodies is a notable feature of the upper Columbia River, which suggests that reoccupation of residual channels is a common process.
|LARCH: an ecological application of GIS in river studies
Jochem, R. ; Koolstra, B.J.H. ; Chardon, J.P. - \ 2002
In: Application of geographic information systems and remote sensing in river studies / Leuven, R.S.E.W., Poudevigne, I., - p. 163 - 181.
landschapsecologie - modellen - geografische informatiesystemen - maas - habitatfragmentatie - fauna - geografisch informatiesysteem - geo-informatie - landschapecologie - rivierkunde - versnippering - Limburg - landscape ecology - geographical information systems - models - river meuse - habitat fragmentation - fauna
|A decision support system for restoration planning of stream valley ecosystems
Pieterse, N.M. ; Verkroost, A.W.M. ; Wassen, M. ; Olde Venterink, H. ; Kwakernaak, C. - \ 2002
Landscape Ecology 17 (2002)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 69 - 81.
landschapsecologie - natuurontwikkeling - rivierherstel - rivierkunde - Brabant - Dommel - België
Despite efforts that have been put into conservation, there is a continuing loss of species and ecosystems in Western Europe. There is a growing awareness that restoration is an essential step to stop this tide. Unfortunately, there is lack of understanding about the multitude of functions and the complexity of spatial interactions in a landscape. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate that an integrated decision support system (IDSS) is indispensable to offer insight into this complexity and to design efficient restoration programmes. The IDSS is applied in a lowland catchment on the border between the Netherlands and Belgium and leads to the following recommendations: the site conditions on the location where restoration is planned must be close to the range that is required for the target ecosystem; the manager has to decide for the most attainable targetecosystem, and accept the inevitable loss of other ecosystems as a result from this choice; restoration planning involves that the optimal measure for each catchment, subcatchment or region is assessed, being ecological, urban or agricultural; for each ecosystem an optimal set of measures must be selected. An analysis of the restoration efficiency (ecological gain divided by economic costs) is crucial for this selection.
The formation of natural levees as a disturbance process significant to the conservation of riverine pastures
Wolfert, H.P. ; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Prins, A.H. ; Stam, M.H. - \ 2002
Landscape Ecology 17 (2002)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 47 - 57.
waterlopen - geomorfologie - vegetatie - natuurbescherming - overijssel - ecohydrologie - landschapsecologie - natuurbehoud - rivierkunde - uiterwaard - Dinkel - streams - geomorphology - vegetation - nature conservation - ecohydrology - overijssel
Disturbances and patch dynamics are inherent to many ecosystems of the world, especially in the riparian zone. This paper describes the influence of natural levee overbank deposition on riverine grasslands along the meandering River Dinkel (the Netherlands). Here, the rare vegetation type Diantho-Armerietum, characterised by Dianthus deltoides, Thymus pulegioides, Pimpinella saxifraga and Galium verum, has been identified as important to nature conservation. Diantho-Armerietum shows a strong preference for dry, nutrient poor, sandy and relatively young soils, with an elevation approximately 30-50 cm above bankfull discharge level, corresponding to a flooding frequency of 2-3 times per year. The lower zones are strongly influenced by nutrient-rich water, whereas the higher zones are vulnerable to soil acidification. In the intermediate zone, soil development may be reset due to the supply of calcium, adsorbed to recently deposited levee sands. Since deposition rates will decrease with increasing levee heights, new levees are regularly needed to stop the decline of this floriferous vegetation type. The formation of new natural levees is favoured by the occurrence of meander cutoffs, causing a cyclic succession of landforms along the river. Thereforea conservation strategy for this vegetation type needs to aim at the rehabilitation of the natural levee disturbance process, in conjunction with encouraging the meandering of the river.
Setting targets in strategies for river restoration
Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Blust, G. de; Looy, K. van; Rooij, S.A.M. van - \ 2002
Landscape Ecology 17 (2002)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 5 - 18.
rivieren - herstel - ecosystemen - maas - natuurtechniek - biodiversiteit - landschapsecologie - rivierherstel - rivierkunde - rivers - rehabilitation - ecosystems - ecological engineering - river meuse
Since about 90% of the natural floodplain area of rivers in Europe has been reclaimed and now lacks river dynamics, nature rehabilitation along rivers is of crucial importance for the restoration of their natural function. Flood protection, self-purification of surface water, groundwater recharge, species protection and migration are all involved in this process. It is now generally recognised that rivers form natural arteries in Europe but are also of economic importance and are recognisable cultural landscape. Many examples are already available of successful small river restoration projects. Several species thought to be extinct have now reappeared and characteristic species have also expanded in recent years. This paper concentrates on the concept of setting targets for river restoration as exemplified by the Meuse River. A modelling exercise shows the restraints of current habitat configuration and the potential for habitat restoration along the river. A policy analysis, using a strategic approach, illustrates the influence of the decision making process on the targets for natural river development. River dynamics play a key factor in determining the potential for persistent populations of target animal species along the river, with the help of an expert system (LARCH, Landscape ecological Analysis and Rules for the Configuration of Habitat). The potentials for the increase of dispersion and biodiversity and the maximisation of ecological benefits at different scales, are also considered.
|Intermeuse: the Meuse reconnected; final report of IRMA/SPONGE project No. 9, December 2001
Geilen, N. ; Pedroli, B. ; Looy, K. van; Krebs, L. ; Jochems, H. ; Rooij, S. van; Sluis, T. van der - \ 2001
Delft : NCR - 82
stroomvlakten - hoogwaterbeheersing - herstel - evaluatie - stroomgebieden - rivieren - ruimtelijke ordening - integraal waterbeheer - maas - ecologie - rivierherstel - rivierkunde - Europa - Frankrijk - België - Nederland - Zuid-Holland - Brabant - Limburg - floodplains - flood control - rehabilitation - evaluation - watersheds - rivers - physical planning - integrated water management - river meuse
|Meuse-econet; ecological networks in flood-protection scenarios: a case study for the River Meuse
Sluis, T. van der; Rooij, S.A.M. van; Geilen, N. - \ 2001
Unknown Publisher - 59 p.
fauna - fauna - landschapsecologie - rivierkunde - vegetatie - Maas - Frankrijk - België - Nederland
|Downstream changes of facies architecture in a Middle Holocene advulsion belt, Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands
Makaske, B. ; Berendsen, H.J.A. ; Ree, M.H.M. van - \ 2001
In: Fluvial sedimentology 2001; 7th international conference on fluvial sedimentology. Lincoln NB (USA), University of Nebraska, 2001 / Mason, J.A., Diffendal, R.F., Joeckel, R.M., - p. 185 - 185.
fysische geografie - rivierkunde - sedimentatie - Rijn - Maas
|Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada
Makaske, B. ; Smith, D.G. ; Berendsen, H.J.A. - \ 2001
In: Fluvial sedimentology 2001; 7th international conference on fluvial sedimentology. Lincoln NB (USA), University of Nebraska, 2001 / Mason, J.A., Diffendal, R.F., Joeckel, R.M., - p. 184 - 184.
Canada - fysische geografie - rivierkunde - sedimentatie - Noord-Amerika - Canada
|Guidelines for spatial distribution of ecotopes, based on ecological networks and geomorphological boundary conditions
Rooij, S.A.M. van; Liefveld, W.M. ; Maas, G.J. - \ 2001
In: River basin management. Southampton (UK), WIT, 2001. Progr. Water Resourc. 15 / Falconer, R.A., Blain, W.R., - p. 261 - 269.
geomorfologie - landschapsecologie - rivierkunde - Maas
Geomorphological change and river rehabilitation; case studies on lowland fluvial systems in the Netherlands
Wolfert, H.P. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra - 199
geomorfologie - rivieren - herstel - nederland - oevers - uiterwaarden - aquatische ecologie - fysische geografie - rivierherstel - rivierkunde - geomorphology - rivers - rehabilitation - netherlands - shores - river forelands
|Richtlijnen voor de ruimtelijke verdeling van ecotopen langs de Maas op basis van ecologische netwerken en geomorfologische kansrijkdom
Liefveld, W.M. ; Maas, G.J. ; Wolfert, H.P. ; Koomen, A.J.M. ; Rooij, S.A.M. van - \ 2000
Arnhem : RIZA - 73
rivieren - ecosystemen - habitats - geomorfologie - nederland - aquatische ecosystemen - maas - landschapsecologie - rivierkunde - rivers - ecosystems - habitats - geomorphology - netherlands - aquatic ecosystems - river meuse
|Survey of available data
Rooij, S.A.M. van - \ 2000
Unknown Publisher - 59 p.
fauna - bodem - broedvogels - ecologie - fauna - geomorfologie - hydrologie - rivierkunde - vegetatie - Maas - Frankrijk - België - Nederland