East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA-EA) 'worry' more about potassium deficiency than drought stress
Taulya, G. - \ 2013
Field Crops Research 151 (2013). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 45 - 55.
foliar nutrient status - biomass allocation - osmotic adjustment - plant-growth - root ratio - soil-water - nitrogen - shoot - fertilizer - weevil
Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to rain-fed East African highland banana (EAHB) production in Uganda. It was hypothesised that the reduction in fresh bunch mass and increase in dry matter (DM) allocation to corms with drought stress, K and N deficiency is additive. Individual plant measurements at harvest from two field trials in central and south western Uganda were analyzed to evaluate effects of cumulative rainfall (CRF) received 365 days from sucker emergence, mineral K and N inputs on EAHB bunch yields. Dry matter content in aerial shoot (leaves and pseudostems) relative to that in the subterranean corm was also analyzed to evaluate DM allocation plasticity due to drought stress, K and N deficiency. This was verified with allometric analysis using pre-harvest stage plants from farms of known K and N nutritional status and plants from a screen house drought stress pot trial in Uganda. Dry matter production and yields were mainly driven by K interacting with CRF. Within 12 months, K input (250-600 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1)) increased bunch yield from 8 to 15 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) irrespective of whether dry (CRF <1100 mm) or wet (CRF >= 1100 mm) conditions prevailed, possibly due to K-mediated osmotic adjustment under dry conditions. Without K input, wet conditions increased bunch yield from 6 to 8 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) while dry conditions decreased it from 6 to 4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) within 12 months. Total DM and its distribution between the biomass structures followed similar trends. Nitrogen input (150-400 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) neither affected bunch yield nor DM allocation at harvest stage. At pre-harvest stage, reduction in DM allocation to the corm per unit increase in total DM was 14-22% significantly lower with N and/or K deficiency compared with that under sufficient K and N. Drought stress per se had no effect on DM allocation but enhanced DM allocation shifts due to K deficiency. Drought-stressed EAHB thus increase DM allocation to subterranean structures only if K-deficient, unlike responses reported for other plant species. Potassium nutrition is perhaps a more viable entry point for mitigation of drought stress in EAHB cropping systems than irrigation but this requires further agronomic and economic evaluation. It may be important to account for carbon allocated to osmotic adjustment for realistic simulation of water- and K-limited growth in EAHB. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Interaction of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition in determining growth
Groot, C.C. de; Marcelis, L.F.M. ; Boogaard, R. van den; Kaiser, W.M. ; Lambers, H. - \ 2003
Plant and Soil 248 (2003)39479. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 257 - 268.
ricinus-communis l - phaseolus-vulgaris - triticum-aestivum - nitrate uptake - intact plants - abscisic-acid - p deficiency - root ratio - cytokinins - phosphate
In this paper we discuss the differences and similarities in the growth response of tomato plants to N and P limitation, and to their interaction. Two detailed growth experiments, with varied N or P supply, were conducted in order to unravel the effects of N and P limitation on growth of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Relative growth rate (RGR) initially increased sharply with increasing plant P concentration but leveled off at higher plant P concentrations. In contrast, RGR increased gradually with increasing plant N concentration before it leveled off at higher plant N concentrations. The relationship of RGR with organic leaf N and P showed the same shape as with total N and P concentrations, respectively. The difference in response is most likely due to the different roles of N and P in the machinery of the plant's energy metabolism (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration). Plant N concentration decreased with increasing P limitation. We show that this decrease cannot be explained by a shift in dry-mass partitioning. Our results suggest that the decrease in N concentration with increasing P limitation may be mediated by a decrease in leaf cytokinin levels and is less likely due to decreased energy availability at low P conditions. Dry-mass partitioning to the roots was closely linearly related to the leaf reduced-N concentration. However, treatments that were severely P limited deviated from this relationship.