Verbeteren ruwvoerproductie met de Ruwvoerscan
Verloop, J. ; Oenema, J. - \ 2016
V-focus 13 (2016)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 32 - 33.
veehouderijbedrijven - veehouderij - ruwvoer (forage) - ruwvoer (roughage) - productieprocessen - oogstfactoren - gewasopbrengst - livestock enterprises - livestock farming - forage - roughage - production processes - yield factors - crop yield
Sinds 2013 zoekt Koeien & Kansen naar mogelijkheden om de ruwvoerproductie te verbeteren onder het motto ‘Naar een productieslag voor ruwvoer’. De aanpak is doelgericht: evalueren van de bestaande ruwvoerproductie om toe te werken naar een haalbaar geachte, hogere productie. In dit artikel gaan we in op het proces en geven we een ‘door de oogharen beeld’ van resultaten.
Clearing the air: methane and milk
Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2015
dairy cattle - dairy cattle nutrition - feeds - emission - emission reduction - methane - milk protein yield - milk protein - roughage - feed conversion - feed conversion efficiency - climatic change - teaching materials
Grass silage in diets for organic growing-finishing pigs
Bikker, P. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress. - - p. 815 - 818.
graskuilvoer - varkens - varkenshouderij - ruwvoer (roughage) - groei - prestatieniveau - biologische landbouw - varkensvoeding - grass silage - pigs - pig farming - roughage - growth - performance - organic farming - pig feeding
In this study, organically raised pigs received an increasing proportion of grass silage up to 10 and 20% dry matter in the daily ration in the grower and finisher period, respectively, to determine the effects of grass silage on feed intake and growth performance. The pigs receiving a mixture of grass silage and compound feed ingested 0.3 kg DM/d (13% of their daily ration) as grass silage and realised a similar daily net energy intake as pigs fed compound feed only. However, the silage fed pigs realised a lower daily gain (37 g/d) and a lower calculated net energy utilisation (1.6 MJ/kg) for gain and a lower dressing percentage (1.1%) of the carcass. The optimal feeding system and the nutritive value of grass silage for growing pigs requires further investigation to improve the silage intake and clarify and minimise the loss in animal performance.
Vakkundig zaaien vanggewas op maisland loont
Hilhorst, G.J. ; Verloop, J. - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 29 - 31.
melkveehouderij - zea mays - akkerbouw - ondergewassen - teeltsystemen - ruwvoer (roughage) - zaaien - dairy farming - zea mays - arable farming - catch crops - cropping systems - roughage - sowing
In de afgelopen twee jaar heeft ‘Koeien & Kansen’ aandacht besteed aan de verbetering van de teelt van een vanggewas na de oogst van mais, een belangrijk aspect van de ruwvoerteelt op melkveebedrijven. Er is geëxperimenteerd met tegelijkzaai, onderzaai en nazaai. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de voor- en nadelen van de verschillende werkwijzes.
Optimale rundveevoeding en ruwvoer : meer met eigen voer
Zom, Ronald - \ 2014
cattle husbandry - cattle feeding - sustainable animal husbandry - forage - roughage - agricultural education - optimization
Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves
Webb, L.E. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; Kees van Reenen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570955 - 250
vleeskalveren - kalvervoeding - voer - kunstmelk - concentraten - ruwvoer (roughage) - abnormaal gedrag - herkauwen - voedingsvoorkeuren - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - veal calves - calf feeding - feeds - filled milk - concentrates - roughage - abnormal behaviour - rumination - feeding preferences - animal welfare - animal health
Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb
Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component. Feeding strategies used in veal production have been associated with welfare issues, including the development of abnormal oral behaviours (AOB) and poor gastrointestinal health. AOB include tongue playing, excessive oral manipulation of the environment, grazing of the coat of other calves, and sham chewing, and are thought to develop in calves when chewing activity (i.e. eating and rumination) is not adequately stimulated. Common gastrointestinal health issues include poor rumen development and lesions in the abomasum.
The aim of this thesis was to develop novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves, i.e. to minimise the development of AOB and gastrointestinal health disorders as well as maximise chewing activity.
The EU legislation stipulates a minimum of 250 g of `fibrous feed' for 20 week-old calves, but this amount does not seem supported by previous research in terms of it optimising calf welfare. In addition, it does not specify what fibrous feed refers to in terms of source and particle length of roughage. Developing novel feeding strategies for calves necessitates a better understanding of how different roughage characteristics might affect behaviour and gastrointestinal health, and this is what was investigated in Chapter 2. Because none of the single roughage sources investigated were able to improve both behaviour and health, it is likely that a combination of roughage sources would be optimal. For example, an appropriate diet choice may include a combination of roughage sources that facilitate good ruminal papillae development (e.g. maize silage), minimise plaque formation, and encourage both rumen muscularisation and rumination (e.g. straw). This chapter also suggested that hay, as a roughage source with both high levels of structure and high levels of fermentable fibre, could achieve both objectives of encouraging rumination and rumen development. Hay, however, is not used in veal production due to its high iron content that would lead to darker meat colour, which is less preferred by consumers.
In Chapter 3, different amounts of a solid feed mixture were fed to calves and behaviour was monitored. The results showed that calves fed no solid feed on top of their milk replacer still displayed a rumination-like behaviour, which was in previous literature referred to as `sham chewing'. This result gives an indication as to the importance of rumination in calves. Moreover, this chapter failed to find a straightforward linear relationship between amount of solid feed provided and level of AOB displayed. Certain amounts of solid feed were found to initially stimulate chewing activity to a high level, but later, as calves grew older and more experienced with roughage, failed to stimulate chewing above the level displayed by calves fed no solid feed. Providing such an amount of roughage seemed to be more detrimental in terms of behaviour than providing an amount that results in a constant level of chewing activity throughout the fattening period.
In order to develop animal-friendly feeding strategies, it is important to know what the animals would choose when given free choice. Therefore, in Chapter 4, the feed preferences of calves for milk replacer, concentrate, hay, straw and maize silage were investigated. This study showed that at 6 months, calves selected on average approximately 1250 g dry matter (DM) milk replacer, 1000 g DM roughage and 2000 g DM concentrate. Although all calves with free choice showed high levels of chewing activity and subsequently low levels of AOB, large individual differences existed in intake levels and feed preferences. Moreover, outcomes were dependent on the variable used to assess preferences: i.e. intake (in g DM relative to metabolic body weight), duration of feeding, or number of visits to each diet component. On average, however, calves showed a preference for milk replacer, concentrate and hay, over straw and maize silage.
In contrast to free choice testing, as was used in Chapter 4, double demand operant conditioning gives an indication as to the strength of a preference. In Chapter 5, different methods to analyse data collected from double demand operant conditioning studies were investigated. Due to the dependence level between the two resources presented simultaneously, i.e. at any given time the test animal can only work for one resource, it would seem that proportions of rewards achieved for one resource over the total number of rewards achieved for both resources would be an adequate dependent variable in this type of analysis.
In Chapter 6 the statistical method developed in Chapter 5 was used to assess the preference of calves for long and chopped hay and straw, and their preference for hay versus straw. Two to five month-old calves learned the double demand operant task and were motivated to work for roughage on top of a high energy diet of milk replacer and concentrate. They showed a preference for long over chopped hay, but not for long over chopped straw, and showed a strong preference for hay over straw.
Relationships between tongue playing and: 1) hypothesised measures of chronic stress, and 2) hypothesised temperamental traits were investigated in Chapter 8. Large individual differences in the performance of tongue playing in calves subjected to similar husbandry conditions were found. This suggests that although tongue playing might well be a warning sign for chronic stress, and hence poor welfare, individual variation in the propensity to tongue play in response to stressful conditions exists. This could be due to differences in temperament. In contrast to what theoretical papers suggest, calves that showed more tongue playing showed characteristics of a reactive coping style. This result is, however, consistent with previous experimental papers on calves and other species.
Results from Chapters 2 to 8 were combined into the design of the experiment described in Chapter 9. In this chapter, various feeding strategies (i.e. different amounts of solid feed combined with different concentrate to roughage ratios, different types of ad libitum choice diets, and feeding milk replacer via an open bucket or automated milk dispenser[AMD]) were applied and the effect on behaviour was recorded. Rumination was mainly affected by roughage provision, regardless of concentrate provision. Therefore, increasing solid feed provision without increasing the roughage content would most likely have little effect on rumination, although it would probably increase eating time to a certain extent. Because of the timing of tongue playing and oral manipulation of the environment (found in both Chapters 3 and 9), we suggest that the first of these two AOB is related to chewing activity in general, whereas the second may be more related to anticipation of an upcoming meal and positive reinforcement of feeding behaviours following an unsatisfactory meal. Calves provided ad libitum access to long straw in racks showed high levels of chewing activity and low levels of AOB relative to calves that did not have access to a straw rack but otherwise received the same diet. Six-month-old calves with ad libitum access to straw, maize silage and concentrate (but a restricted milk replacer allowance of 1050 g DM/d) consumed on average approximately 900 g DM/d roughage and 2300 g DM concentrate at 6 months of age. Feeding milk replacer via an AMD seemed to have little impact on behaviour, although it led to lower levels of tongue playing at 15 wk relative to bucket-fed calves.
In Chapter 10, I first reflect on possible underlying mechanisms of AOB and on the best methods to assess animal preferences. AOB seem to develop in veal calves due to a number of factors, starting with the thwarting of chewing activity, of which rumination at least is most likely a behavioural need. Other factors involved in the development of AOB include chronic stress resulting from the thwarting of chewing activity, anticipation of an upcoming meal, and positive reinforcement of feeding behaviours following a meal that was unsatisfactory. Of great importance is the understanding of individual variation in the propensity to develop AOB, because stereotypic behaviours in sub-optimal environments have been linked to improvements in welfare (relative to non-stereotyping animals). Ruminants seem to be able to select a diet that maximises their comfort. Developing feeding strategies to improve veal calf welfare, therefore, requires the assessment of calf feed preferences. Choice tests and cross point analysis of double demand functions are two possible methods for the assessment of animal preferences, and both these methods include drawbacks and benefits. In contrast to choice tests, double demand offers a setting that closer mimics the complexity of natural environments by imposing a cost on access to resources and enables quantification of the strength of preferences. However, this procedure requires appropriate statistical methods, which take into account the dependence structure between the two simultaneously available resources. Finally, practical implications of the research presented in this thesis are described in Chapter 10. The development of novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves is challenged by individual differences in feed preferences, chewing efficiency, and behavioural response to chronic stress caused by inadequate feeding. The latter is demonstrated by only certain calves developing AOB when chewing activity is not stimulated enough by the feeding strategy, whilst others do not develop such behaviours. This complicates the evaluation of the effects of feeding strategy on veal calf behaviour. However, based on the results of this thesis and previous research it seems that young calves should first receive a diet that optimises rumen development, before receiving coarser roughages that stimulate chewing activity, rumen muscularisation, and minimise plaque and hairball prevalence in the rumen. Adequate amounts of roughage and concentrate at 6 months of age seem to be 1000 and 2000-3000 g DM, based on voluntary intake.
Juiste bepaling van de dichtheid van ingekuild ruwvoer voor de voorraadberekening van BEX en BEP = Determination of silage density to estimate roughage supplies for BEX and BEP
Zom, R.L.G. ; Abbink, G.W. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2013
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 677) - 19
graskuilvoer - maïskuilvoer - ruwvoer (roughage) - voorraden - grass silage - maize silage - roughage - stocks
This report describes the results of a desk study on opportunities to improve the determination of the density of grass and maize silages. It is concluded that it is possible to develop a model (based on feed parameters) which estimates the density more accurate than the current tablebased method. Therefore, it is recommended to develop new calibration datasets based on silage densities as measured in common practice.
Nutrition of grazing cattle in the Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia: use of an improved n-alkane method to estimate nutrient intake
Derseh, M.B. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan; A. Tolera. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734686 - 160
rundvee - begrazing - weiden - merkers - voedingsstoffenopname (mens en dier) - voedselsamenstelling - voedingswaarde - verteerbaarheid - ruwvoer (roughage) - diervoeding - ethiopië - cattle - grazing - pastures - markers - nutrient intake - food composition - nutritive value - digestibility - roughage - animal nutrition - ethiopia
Nutrient intake is an important factor that determines the performance of production animals. In free ranging animals, direct measurement of nutrient intake is difficult to conduct, and it is frequently estimated indirectly by the aid of markers. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the potential of using cuticular n-alkanes and their carbon isotope enrichments (δ13C) as markers to study the nutritional ecology of grazing animals under tropical conditions. In addition, this improved method was used to determine the seasonal patterns of nutrient intake and diet composition of grazing cattle in the Mid Rift Valley grasslands of Ethiopia. The first focus of the thesis was to quantify the interspecies variability in the n-alkane profile and δ13C values of alkanes among commonly available pasture species in the Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The analysis showed that the variability is sufficiently large to allow n-alkane and their δ13C values to be used as diet composition markers, with a combined use of the two increasing the discriminatory power. Faecal recovery of dosed and natural alkanes in cattle consuming low-quality tropical roughages was investigated in an indoor balance study. The recovery of synthetic alkanes dosed in the form of molasses boluses was considerably higher than adjacent natural odd-chain alkanes, and correction appears necessary when intake is estimated with the double n-alkane method. The next focus of the thesis was to generate information on the nutritive value of pasture species and nutritional status of grazing cattle in the region. Large variability was observed in the nutritive value and methane production potential of pasture species as evaluated in vitro, with scope for selection of genotypes with high nutritive value and low methane production potential for a sustainable pastureland management. The nutritional status of grazing cattle measured using a combination of n-alkanes, their δ13C values and visual observations showed that diet composition and nutrient intake of the animals is highly dependent on rainfall patterns, with a cyclic positive (wet period) and negative (dry period) energy and nutrient balance observed over the grazing seasons. Energy intake was more limiting than crude protein for body weight gain in most of the grazing seasons. While mature and non-producing animals appeared to tolerate nutritional restriction in the dry period and regain lost body condition in the following wet periods, young animals before the age of puberty may need supplementary feeding. Furthermore, concentrate supplementation of finishing animals needs to coincide with the onset of the wet season to take advantage of compensatory growth. In conclusion, the n-alkanes method coupled with isotope enrichment in n-alkanes and visual observations as used in the present study can provide realistic nutritional data for free-ranging cattle which correlates well with changes in body conditions.
Sulphur levels in saliva as an estimation of sulphur status in cattle: a validation study
Dermauw, V. ; Froidmont, E. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Boever, J.L. de; Vyverman, W. ; Debeer, A.E. ; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2012
Archives of Animal Nutrition 66 (2012)6. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 507 - 513.
rumen fluid - sheep - metabolism - sulfate - plasma - roughage - blood - feed - urea - cows
Effective assessment of sulphur (S) status in cattle is important for optimal health, yet remains difficult. Rumen fluid S concentrations are preferred, but difficult to sample under practical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate salivary S concentration as estimator of S status in cattle. Saliva and rumen fluid samples were collected from dairy cows (n = 16) as well as samples of different feedstuffs offered to the animals. The N and S concentrations were determined using the Dumas technique. The average dietary N and S content were calculated as well as N:S ratio of saliva, rumen fluid and diet. Salivary S concentrations could not predict rumen fluid or dietary S concentrations (p > 0.05). The log transformed salivary N:S ratio (x) could predict the rumen fluid N:S ratio (y) with a linear equation of y = 9.83 (±4.59) x + 0.39 (±4.56) (r = 0.497, p = 0.05), but left too much residual variation to serve as reliable predictor. Further research should investigate this relationship in the search for an S status estimator.
Verzilting in de veehouderij : ervaringen op melkveebedrijven
Visscher, J. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 639) - 40
graslanden - verzilting - kwel - klimaatverandering - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - maïs - ruwvoer (roughage) - drinkwater - kustgronden - grasslands - salinization - seepage - climatic change - dairy farming - milk production - maize - roughage - drinking water - coastal soils
Dit rapport beschrijft de ervaringen van een aantal melkveehouders in de Nederlandse kuststreek met mogelijke verzilting op hun bedrijf. Verzilting kan negatieve gevolgen hebben voor drinkwatervoorziening van het vee, graslandproductie en -beheer en ruwvoerteelt van snijmaïs.
Spreiding in ruwvoeropname bij biologisch gehouden dragende zeugen
Wikselaar, P.G. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Livestock Research, Wageningen UR 575) - 23
varkenshouderij - zeugen - ruwvoer (roughage) - biologische landbouw - voeropname - pig farming - sows - roughage - organic farming - feed intake
This report addresses variation in rouphage intake in pregnant sows on the basis of a literature study and five visits to organic sow farms.
Maatregelen tegen verenpikkerij: wie van de drie?
Niekerk, Thea van - \ 2011
animal welfare - poultry farming - feather pecking - poultry feeding - roughage - animal production - hens - animal behaviour - animal health - animal nutrition - poultry
Verbeteren welzijnsprestaties in de biologische veehouderij: korte termijn prioriteiten en aanzet tot lange termijn visie = Improving welfare performance in organic farming: short term priorities and longe term vision
Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 479) - 89
dierenwelzijn - biologische landbouw - veehouderij - melkvee - horens - pluimvee - ruwvoer (roughage) - biggen - mortaliteit - lammeren - geiten - animal welfare - organic farming - livestock farming - dairy cattle - horns - poultry - roughage - piglets - mortality - lambs - goats
This report describes five projects to improve animal welfare in organic farming: breeding polled (hornless) cattle, providing roughage to poultry, reducing mortality of piglets and lambs, and providing facilities for climbing and grooming in goats. In addition the development of a longer term vision on the future of organic farming is initiated, and its short-term implications are identified.
Ruwvoer voor dragende zeugen
Bikker, P. - \ 2011
BioKennis bericht Varkensvlees 2011 (2011)18. - 4
zeugen - zwangerschap - zeugenvoeding - varkensvoeding - ruwvoer (roughage) - kuilvoer - varkenshouderij - biologische landbouw - voeropname - sows - pregnancy - sow feeding - pig feeding - roughage - silage - pig farming - organic farming - feed intake
Kan ruwvoer een deel van het krachtvoer voor dragende zeugen verantwoord vervangen? Dat is de centrale vraag van het onderzoeksproject ‘Gras- en mengkuilen voor drachtige zeugen’ van Wageningen UR Livestock Research. Het lijkt mogelijk om 1 EW (Energie Waarde) uit krachtvoer door graskuil of 1,5 EW uit krachtvoer door mengkuil te vervangen in het voer van dragende zeugen. Daarbij moet de variatie in ruwvoeropname tussen zeugen worden beperkt zodat ook jonge en ranglage dieren voldoende ruwvoer en energie opnemen.
Rijenbemestingsvorm maakt geen verschil
Schooten, H.A. van; Middelkoop, J.C. van - \ 2011
Veeteelt 6 (2011). - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 28 - 29.
rijenbemesting - stikstof - fosfaat - effecten - aanvulling - ruwvoer (roughage) - band placement - nitrogen - phosphate - effects - recharge - roughage
Recent onderzoek van Wageningen UR Livestock Research kon met enkele alternatieve vormen van rijenbemesting geen extra benutting van stikstof of fosfaat aantonen. Verder bleek dat stikstof meer effect heeft als aanvullende kunstmestgift dan fosfaat.
Van jongs af veel vezels
Verwer, C. ; Wagenaar, J.P. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2011
De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)14. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 32 - 33.
pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - verenpikken - ruwvoer (roughage) - biologische landbouw - poultry farming - poultry feeding - animal health - animal welfare - feather pecking - roughage - organic farming
Ruwvoer draagt bij aan de goede (biologische) (opfok)hennen. Het remt verenpikken en stimuleert de darmgezondheid.
Eiwitwaardering weer bij de tijd - Moderne kuilen nieuwe basis voor ruwvoerwaardering
Klop, A. ; Kruisdijk, J. ; Nicolasen, S. - \ 2011
Veeteelt 28 (2011)1/2. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 46 - 47.
voederwaardering - kuilvoer - ruwvoer (roughage) - rundveevoeding - verteerbaarheid - eiwitwaarde - berekening - feed evaluation - silage - roughage - cattle feeding - digestibility - protein value - calculation
Voor de berekening van voederwaarden van ruwvoer waren rekenregels in gebruik die gebaseerd zijn op kuilen uit de vorige eeuw. Productschap Diervoeder, BLGG AgroXpertus en Wageningen UR hebben nieuwe kuilen onderzocht om de rekenregels voor 2011 te actualiseren
Effect van inkuilmanagement op emissie van broeikasgassen op bedrijfsniveau = Effect of ensiling management on emission of greenhouse gases at farm level
Schooten, H.A. van; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 403) - 33
melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - ruwvoer (roughage) - graskuilvoer - voederkwaliteit - conserveerkwaliteit - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - dairy farming - ammonia emission - roughage - grass silage - forage quality - canning quality - farm income
This report described the losses during harvesting, storage and feed out period of grass silage. It was estimated that there was a considerable risk of extra losses due to aerobic deterioration and moderate conservation. Farmrelated computations showed that economics and emission of greenhouse gases went together in limiting extra losses. For an average farm with 100 dairy cows, net return to labour and management may decrease by €3000 to €5000 as a result of aerobic deterioration and moderate conservation. The extra emission of greenhouse gases remained limited at approximately 1.5%.
Ruwvoer in de biologische pluimveehouderij
Verwer, C.M. - \ 2010
biologische landbouw - pluimveehouderij - hennen - ruwvoer (roughage) - pluimveevoeding - voersamenstelling - diergedrag - organic farming - poultry farming - hens - roughage - poultry feeding - feed formulation - animal behaviour
Ruwvoer hoort volgens de EU-regelgeving voor biologische productie deel uit te maken van het dagrantsoen van leghennen. Maar welke producten komen in aanmerking en hoe biedt je ze aan? Waarom wordt ruwvoer gevoerd en wat zijn de effecten op de productie en gezondheid? In dit dossier leest u meer over de ervaringen van pluimveehouders.
Rantsoen van geiten sturen
Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2010
biologische landbouw - geitenvoeding - geitenhouderij - voersamenstelling - ruwvoer (roughage) - krachtvoeding - organic farming - goat feeding - goat keeping - feed formulation - roughage - force feeding
De kostprijs voor biologische geitenmelk bestond in 2007 voor 59% uit kosten voor ruwvoer en krachtvoer. Om dit aandeel terug te dringen en tegelijkertijd aan de eis van 100% biologisch voer te voldoen, hebben veel geitenhouders zich in eerste instantie geconcentreerd op de ruwvoerkwaliteit. Veel geitenhouders proberen nu ook de krachtvoercomponent beter in de vingers te krijgen. De kennis die opgedaan is in de geitenhouderij blijkt voor een groot deel ook bruikbaar te zijn in de melkveehouderij