Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Modelling rainfall-runoff processes in lowland catchments
    Brauer, C.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Ryan Teuling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738547 - 93
    hydrologie - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - regen - afvloeiingswater - laaglandgebieden - modelleren - nederland - hydrology - catchment hydrology - rain - runoff water - lowland areas - modeling - netherlands
    Lowland catchments can be divided into mildly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat areas with managed surface water levels. In this thesis, data from two Dutch field sites are used. The mildly sloping, freely draining Hupsel Brook catchment is located in the east of The Netherlands, with elevations ranging from 22 to 35 m above sea level. This catchment has been an experimental catchment since the 1960s. The flat Cabauw polder is located in the west of The Netherlands at an “elevation” of 1 meter below sea level. This area is part of the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR).
    Water redistribution at the soil surface : ponding and surface runoff in flat areas
    Appels, W.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Sjoerd van der Zee, co-promotor(en): Patrick Bogaart. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735065 - 154
    afvloeiingswater - oppervlakkige afvoer - bodemwater - plasvorming - hydrologie - topografie - runoff water - runoff - soil water - ponding - hydrology - topography
    In The Netherlands, one of the most important targets for the improvement of surface water quality as aimed for in the European Water Framework Directive, is the reduction of nutrient concentrations (both nitrogen and phosphorus). To identify the most suitable and effective measures for reducing the tranport of nutrients from field to stream, it is important that the processes that control the transport are well identified and quantified. The PhD research presented in this thesis was part of the Alterra project “Relationships between groundwater and surface water”
    Stro in de sloot : onderdeel van IP-KRW project ‘Landbouw Centraal’
    Buck, A.J. de; Schoot, J.R. van der; Harmsen, J. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 21
    boerderijen - erven - afvloeiingswater - sloten - biologische filtratie - stro - melkveehouderij - farm dwellings - yards - runoff water - ditches - biological filtration - straw - dairy farming
    Hemelwater wat op het erf van melkveebedrijven valt wordt geheel of deels afgevoerd naar het oppervlaktewater. Eventueel aanwezige voerresten en andere verontreinigingen spoelen daarbij mee naar de sloot. Dit leidt tot ongewenste puntbelastingen in het watersysteem. Binnen het project KRW ‘Landbouw Centraal’ is bij een zestal melkveehouders interesse ontstaan voor het toepassen van een strofilter in de sloot om erfwater te zuiveren. Dit rapport beschrijft beknopt de theorie van de werking, de aanleg van de pilot en de meetresultaten van het laatste kwartaal van 2011.
    Simulation of low flows and drought events in WATCH test basins: impact of climate forcing datasets
    Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van; Loon, A.F. van; Hanel, M. ; Haddeland, I. ; Horvát, O. ; Koutroulis, A. ; Machlica, A. ; Weedon, G.P. ; Fendeková, M. ; Tsanis, I. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 2011
    2011 : European Commission (Technical report / WATCH no. 44) - 19
    geohydrologie - gegevensanalyse - resolutie - aardoppervlak - afvloeiingswater - bodemwater - klimatologie - evaporatie - geohydrology - data analysis - resolution - land surface - runoff water - soil water - climatology - evaporation
    The impact of both spatial and temporal resolution on the components of the terrestrial hydrological cycle are investigated using the WATCH forcing dataset (WFD) and the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) land surface model. The various spatial resolutions are achieved by degrading the native half degree latitude/longitude resolution WATCH dataset to both one degree and two degrees. The temporal resolutions are created by degrading the native three hourly WATCH forcing dataset to six hourly and using the WATCH interpolator to derive a one hour forcing dataset. There is little difference in the moisture stores of soil water and canopy water in the long term mean from the various resolutions, so the analysis presented is for the changes in evaporation and runoff. The evaporation is further analysed into its various components for the spatial resolution. Results suggest that there is little impact from spatial resolution, but the interpolation method for temporal resolution can have a significant effect on the total mean evaporation/runoff balance.
    Terugdringing fosfaatafspoeling van boerenland
    Slobbe, E.J.J. van; Weerd, R. van de; Gerdes, S. ; Velthorst, E.J. ; Oenema, O. ; Chardon, W.J. ; Schrauwen, R. ; Aulich, C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR
    landbouwgrond - oppervlakkige afvoer - afvloeiingswater - waterverontreiniging - fosfaten - landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agricultural land - runoff - runoff water - water pollution - phosphates - agriculture - farm management
    De aanleiding van dit innovatieonderzoek was het groeiende inzicht dat een belangrijke transportroute van fosfaat van boerenland naar het oppervlaktewater bestaat uit oppervlakkige afspoeling. Na hevige neerslag stroomt water via greppels, of gewoon via het oppervlak naar de sloot. Als er net bemest is dan kan het wegstromende water een aanzienlijk deel van de mest meenemen naar de sloot. Boeren op slecht doorlatende gronden herkennen dit uit eigen observatie. De ‘snelle P route’ opent nieuwe mogelijkheden om fosfaat emissies te verkleinen. De vraag is dan hoe fosfaat uit, naar de sloot stromend water, gehaald kan worden zonder dat de afwatering van agrarische percelen gehinderd wordt? En dan liefst op een manier die boeren gemakkelijk in hun bedrijfsvoering kunnen inpassen, zodat de maatregelen daadwerkelijk kans van slagen hebben
    Schoon oppervlaktewater
    Haan, J.J. de - \ 2010
    Biokennis
    biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - oppervlaktewater - afvloeiingswater - uitspoelen - voedingsstoffen - stikstof - fosfaat - organic farming - arable farming - surface water quality - surface water - runoff water - leaching - nutrients - nitrogen - phosphate
    De Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) vereist dat alle Europese wateren in het jaar 2015 een goede ecologische kwaliteit hebben. Om dit te bereiken kan het nodig zijn dat belasting van het oppervlaktewater met stikstof en fosfaat wordt teruggedrongen. De overheid scherpt het mestbeleid aan. Het nog verder terugdringen van nutriëntenoverschotten is kostbaar, terwijl de effecten op de waterkwaliteit lang op zich laten wachten. Toch zijn er genoeg voorbeelden die laten zien dat landbouw en goede waterkwaliteit elkaar niet in de weg hoeven te staan.
    A method for improving Centre for Environmental Studies (CML) characterisation factors for metal (eco)toxicity - the case of zinc gutters and downpipes
    Ligthart, T.N. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2010
    The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15 (2010)8. - ISSN 0948-3349 - p. 745 - 756.
    runoff water - bioavailability - toxicity
    Background, aim and scope - The environmental impact of building products made from heavy metals has been a topic of discussion for some years. This was fuelled by results of life cycle assessments (LCAs), where the emission of heavy metals strongly effected the results. An issue was that the characterisation factors of the Centre for Environmental Studies (CML) 2000 life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology put too much emphasis on the impact of metal emissions. We adjusted Zn characterisation factors according to the most recent insights in the ecotoxicity of zinc and applied them in an LCA using zinc gutters and downpipes as an example. Materials and methods - The CML 2000 methodology was used to assess the environmental impact of the zinc products. To adjust the Zn characterisation factors, the uniform system for the evaluation of substances (USES)–LCA model and the biotic ligand model were used. Results and discussion - The first correction was based on updating the effect values for zinc. This resulted in a reduction of the characterisation factors for zinc to 42% of their original values. Additional correcting for the bioavailability of zinc leads to final Zn characterisation factors for the freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity potential (FAETP), the marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential (MAETP) and the terrestrial ecotoxicity potential (TETP) of 25%, 42% and 0.006%, respectively, of the original values. The CML 2000 LCIA methodology is based on the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of a substance. PNEC is not value-free as political considerations are used to decide on it. Using a more robust toxicity measure as the hazardous concentration at which 50% of the species is affected (HC50) will provide value-free results. The production of standard high-grade zinc shows main contributions to six of the ten environmental impact categories. The recycling of zinc at the end of the life cycle shows beneficial effects for these same categories. Despite the reduction of the characterisation factor of Zn, the runoff emissions of Zn are still dominant. Conclusions and recommendations - To improve LCA characterisation factors for ecotoxicity in the CML 2000 methodology, it is recommended to use either the geometric mean of the effect data or the HC50. The HC50 should be based upon the EC50 values from chronic ecotoxicity tests. It is proposed to include the bioavailability of metals in LCA in three steps: (1) separate soluble fraction, (2) separate dissolved fraction and (3) separate bioavailable fraction. The issue of essentiality could not be resolved in this study. However, this could be accounted for by leaving out the fraction of the emission below the maximum permissible admission
    Schoner oppervlaktewater in maïsteeltgebieden
    Brinks, Harm ; Kroonen-Backbier, B. - \ 2010
    Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 72 - 75.
    maïs - herbiciden - pesticiden - waterverontreiniging - oppervlaktewater - afvloeiingswater - maize - herbicides - emission - water pollution - surface water - runoff water
    Het is mogelijk om de emissie van maïsherbiciden naar het oppervlaktewater terug te dringen. Dat blijkt uit bemonstering van oppervlaktewater in twee Brabantse gebieden. Het aantal overschrijdingen van de maximale toegestane concentratie is er in 2009 sterk afgenomen.
    Phytoremediation of nutrient polluted stormwater runoff: water hyacinth as a model plant
    Fox, L.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; J.E. Nowak. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853916 - 103
    biologische filtratie - waterplanten - waterverontreiniging - afvloeiingswater - waterkwaliteit - eichhornia crassipes - fytoremediatie - biological filtration - aquatic plants - water pollution - runoff water - water quality - eichhornia crassipes - phytoremediation
    Phytoremediation of nutriënt polluted stormwater runoff using water hyacinth as a model plant was explored in greenhouse and field studies in south-eastern Virginia, USA
    Exposure in surface waters for the aquatic risk assessment at EU level
    Adriaanse, P.I. ; Leerdam, R.C. van; Boesten, J.J.T.I. - \ 2009
    pesticiden - afvloeiingswater - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - uitspoelen - toxische stoffen - risicoschatting - milieu - scenario-analyse - pesticides - runoff water - surface water - water pollution - leaching - toxic substances - risk assessment - environment - scenario analysis
    Poster presentation. In the FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios, an important entry route for plant protection products (PPP) into the water course is run-off from the adjacent field. Not much is known on the effect of run-off on the concentration in the FOCUS stream
    Resultaten van een inventarisatie van de waterkwaliteit : nog teveel gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in oppervlaktewater
    Staaij, M. van der - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)3. - p. 76 - 77.
    kassen - afvloeiingswater - pesticiden - waterkwaliteit - normen - pesticidenresiduen - oppervlaktewater - lozing - glastuinbouw - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - waterschappen - nutriëntenuitspoeling - greenhouses - runoff water - pesticides - water quality - standards - pesticide residues - surface water - disposal - greenhouse horticulture - surface water quality - polder boards - nutrient leaching
    In alle waterstromen in een kas zijn gewasbeschermingsmiddelen aangetroffen. Als norm voor de waterstromen binnen de kas is de MTR (Maximaal Toelaatbaar Risico) voor oppervlaktewater genomen. Wanneer water met een concentratie aan middel boven de MTR wordt geloosd kan dit een probleem zijn voor de kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater. Recirculeren is de beste oplossing, maar telers zijn dan afhankelijk van de kwaliteit van het water waarmee ze starten
    Interpretation of the mitigation of runoff on the FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios as described in the FOCUS l&M report
    Horst, M.M.S. ter; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1794) - 33
    pesticiden - afvloeiingswater - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - risicoschatting - uitspoelen - toxische stoffen - milieu - scenario-analyse - pesticides - runoff water - surface water - water pollution - risk assessment - leaching - toxic substances - environment - scenario analysis
    Our interpretation is that the reduced runoff fluxes (water and mass) of the 20 ha upstream are combined with the unchanged runoff water fluxes of the remaining 80 ha upstream catchment. This implies that the reduction factor on exposure concentrations in FOCUS streams of Step 4 FOCUS scenarios calculations compared to those of Step 3 calculations approximately equals the reduction factor applied on the runoff fluxes (water and mass of the 20 ha upstream).
    Soil moisture prediction: bridging event and continuous runoff modelling
    Sheikh, V. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): E.E. van Loon. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045335 - 190
    bodemwater - voorspelling - afvloeiingswater - wiskundige modellen - simulatiemodellen - hydrologische gegevens - landgebruik - zuid-limburg - soil water - prediction - runoff water - mathematical models - simulation models - hydrological data - land use - zuid-limburg
    The general objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of providing spatially distributed soil moisture data for event-based hydrological models close before a rainfall event. The study area is known as "Catsop", a small catchmment in south Limburg. The models used are: LISEM and SWAP
    Measures to reduce glyphosate runoff from hard surfaces, 2: effect of time interval between application and first precipitation event
    Luijendijk, C.D. ; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Smidt, R.A. ; Pas, L.J.T. van der; Kempenaar, C. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI) (Note / Plant Research International 353) - 24
    glyfosaat - bestrating - oppervlakkige afvoer - afvloeiingswater - waterverontreiniging - regen - onkruidbestrijding - glyphosate - pavements - runoff - runoff water - water pollution - rain - weed control
    In this research the effect of moisture conditions of hard surfaces on emission of herbicides from hard surfaces was quantified. In addition the dissipation of glyphosate applied on brick-pavement is determined in time. The outdoor experiment was carried out on 3 and 17 June 2003. In previous research (part 1) the effect of a buffer zone around drains of sewage systems on glyphosate runoff was tested experimentally (Luijendijk et al., 2003)
    Evaluatie van de richtlijnen voor Duurzaam Onkruidbeheer (DOB) op verhardingen
    Kempenaar, C. ; Kok, C.J. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Nota / Plant Research International 350) - 10
    onkruidbestrijding - chemische bestrijding - afvloeiingswater - uitspoelen - herbiciden - bestrating - bestrijdingsmethoden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - weed control - chemical control - runoff water - leaching - herbicides - pavements - control methods - sustainability
    Duurzaam onkruidbeheer op verhardingen (DOB) heeft als doel om onkruiden op verhardingen in te perken en om de emissies van bestrijdingsmiddelen naar het oppervlaktewater terug te dringen. Het DOB-systeem bestaat onder meer uit twee shortlisten met richtlijnen, te gebruiken door de partijen die zijn betrokken bij onkruidbeheersing. De richtlijnen zijn ontwikkeld en getest in samenwerking met gemeenten in het beheersgebied van Zuiveringsschap Hollandse Eilanden en Waarden en met de aannemers en uitvoerders in de betreffende gemeenten. In het najaar van 2004 zijn de richtlijnen voor DOB geëvalueerd
    Measures to reduce glyphosate runoff from hard surfaces; 1 effect of a bufferzone around the drain
    Luijendijk, C.D. ; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Wolters, M.F. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 269)
    glyfosaat - oppervlakkige afvoer - afvloeiingswater - waterverontreiniging - bestrating - drainagewater - onkruidbestrijding - glyphosate - runoff - runoff water - water pollution - pavements - drainage water - weed control
    Urban runoff pollution : modelling and uncertainty in return period analysis
    Grum, M. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Lijklema. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085009 - 161
    afvloeiingswater - oppervlakkige afvoer - stedelijke gebieden - water - waterverontreiniging - modellen - multivariate analyse - afvalwaterbehandeling - riolering - denemarken - nederland - runoff water - runoff - urban areas - water - water pollution - models - multivariate analysis - waste water treatment - sewerage - denmark - netherlands

    Since the construction of wastewater treatment plants combined sewer overflows have become an increasingly important limitation to the quality of the surrounding surface waters. Over the years urban water resources have often been so modified by anthropogenic activity that water quality management requires an integrated approach both at an evaluation and an investment level. Effects of acute pollutants, such as oxygen depletion caused by excessive organic material, should be evaluated on the basis of their return periods. Models of the relevant water systems are then used both to calculate the present return periods and to predict those of proposed amelioration projects. In traditional deterministic modelling of combined sewer systems there has been a tendency to continuously add new processes to the model structure in an attempt to improve the quality of the predictions made. This has often resulted in many model parameters with unknown values and the inclusion of processes much less significant than others that are not known or well understood. An alternative approach is to describe only the most essential processes and to include stochastic terms to describe the remaining variation. The present study has focused on comparing and contrasting deterministic and stochastic approaches to modelling of urban runoff pollution and water quality in general. Methodologies surrounding the application of models in return period analysis and its uncertainty have also been studied.

    A multivariate analysis was made on event mean concentrations data sets from three Dutch and two Danish combined sewer catchments (Chapter 3). This was done to examine the underlying structure of variations in event mean concentrations. Results confirmed expectations that the most pronounced common variations relate to the groups of particulate pollutants and dissolved pollutants. The distribution of the principal factors clearly reconfirmed the bimodal or mixed distribution that have earlier been reported for event mean concentrations of particulate substances.

    Non-linear event lumped models were developed to predict combined sewer discharged volume and event mean concentrations as a function of rainfall variables (Chapter 4). The aim was to combine basic understanding of the physical system with information held in the data. The discharged volume was well described with a wetness dependent runoff coefficient. Seasonality revealed initially by the data and then described using an empirical "cut-off" sinusoidal expression exhibited a remarkable agreement with average monthly open water evaporation data. Using open water evaporation as an input variable to the model improved the prediction whilst at the same time reducing the number of model parameters. The event lumped rainfall variables were only able to explain very little of the variations in the event mean concentrations of the combined sewer overflow and subsequently some of the water quality variables were characterised by their probability distributions alone.

    An analysis of the underlying assumptions made during mathematical modelling of water systems in time has resulted in a new portrayal of the essential differences between deterministic and stochastic modelling (Chapter 5). The implicit assumption made during deterministic modelling is that our model gives a perfect description of reality and that all deviation between modelled and observed values is a result of observation error. During stochastic modelling the implicit assumption is that the model only gives a partial description of reality and that deviation between modelled and observed values results from unexplained random behaviour of the system being modelled as well. Having isolated to the core differences between deterministic and stochastic modelling allows for more interchange of methods and approaches, thus enhancing the quality of water and water quality modelling. Knowledge of the dominating physical, chemical and biological processes of our system can be built into the traditionally empirical stochastic models. Parameter statistics, experimental design, empirical elements and concepts of identifiability can be applied to deterministic models. Quantitative a priori knowledge of given model parameter values can be incorporated into the estimation procedure. In the long term it is the aim that the selected approach will depend more on the appropriateness of the assumptions made (viewed also in relation to the available resources and the possible consequences of a poor model) than on background of the modeller, as is often the case today. Parameters of a combined sewer rainfall-runoff model have been estimated both in a deterministic and in a stochastic model to study and illustrate the main points of the chapter.

    Using a stochastic differential equations approach water quantity and quality models for a combined sewer system were formulated and their parameters estimated (Chapter 6). The aim was to evaluate the potentials and limitations of this approach where the sewer system is defined by a set of differential equations that is solved stochastically in continuous time. Parameter estimation was possible for the water quantity model and a very small observation error confirmed the relevance of a stochastic modelling approach. Results from the water quality modelling suggest that more work is needed in order to fully appreciate potentials and limitations of the approach.

    A non-linear random coefficient model to describe suspended chemical oxygen demand in a combined sewer system was identified and its parameters were estimated (Chapter 7). In random coefficient modelling certain selected parameters are assumed to vary from event to event and a value for these parameters is estimated for each event. In the present study a critical soft threshold flow at which resuspension begins is assumed to be a random coefficient. Although there is a lack of data in the period before overflow begins, the results suggest that there is a high potential for random coefficient modelling in urban runoff pollution both as an alternative to and in combination with stochastic modelling. The recipient water quality model used in the uncertainty analysis of Chapter 9 was also estimated using this approach.

    Methods and approaches studied in the preceding chapters have been discussed in a broader perspective whilst drawing attention to some interesting developments within the field of water and water quality modelling (Chapter 8). Structuring our physical, chemical and biological theory in stochastic state space models we acknowledge that the deviation between "what we model" and "what we see" is the result of both unexplained random behaviour of the system being modelled and observation error. This acknowledgement will reduce bias in parameter estimates and therefore improve the models' abilities to predict and extrapolate in time and to new circumstances. Although stochastic state space modelling using the Kalman filter had its main entry into hydrology and water quality modelling in the late 1970s, this was mostly with empirical formulations based entirely on observed data and therefore of little use to the engineer wishing to examine and compare alternative scenarios. To avoid over-parameterised models with highly interchangeable parameters it is important that model structure is identifiable on the basis of data being used to estimate the model parameters. The a posteriori estimation criteria incorporating quantitative a priori knowledge present an interesting formalised method of introducing the engineer's intuition and experience into the parameter estimation procedure.

    A new methodology for evaluating the uncertainty of a return period analysis is presented and exemplified in an integrated approach to urban runoff pollution involving models of both the combined sewer and the receiving water (Chapter 9). The underlying hypothesis of the presented methodology is that a distinction has to be made between inherent variation and uncertainty resulting from a lack of knowledge. This distinction is attained through embedded error propagation, which was here implemented as Embedded Monte Carlo Simulations. It is argued that pooling uncertainty with inherent variation systematically increases the frequency of extreme events resulting in return period curves with little or no engineering value. The study also demonstrates that efforts are needed to implement faster alternatives to the crude Monte Carlo simulations to reduce computation time, which would be necessary for use in practice.

    A review of methodologies surrounding return period analysis in urban runoff pollution and its uncertainty was carried out with the aim of viewing the new methodology presented in Chapter 9 in its broader perspective (Chapter 10). Three principally different methods of calculating return periods of given effects have been described: direct fitting, moments transformation and analytical or numerical integration. Combining these methods with the different types of models (in terms of input and output being time series or event lumped variables) results in a framework encompassing most approaches to return period analysis. Uncertainty in engineering work becomes particularly relevant when design criteria are based on return periods of very rare events. Because they are rare the precision with which they are described is poor and cannot be ignored when large investments and consequences are at stake. A distinction should be made between inherent variation and uncertainty due to a lack of knowledge. Furthermore, an effort should be made to use stochastic models in return period analysis to reduce bias resulting from inappropriate assumptions during parameter estimation and to avoid underestimation of the frequencies of extreme occurrences due to the exclusion of certain inherent random behaviour.

    Duurzaam watergebruik
    Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. ; Wolters, G.M.V.H. - \ 1998
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (Publicatie / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR) 128) - 52
    watergebruik - melkveebedrijven - waterkwaliteit - kraanwater - grondwater - oppervlaktewater - afvloeiingswater - water use - dairy farms - water quality - tap water - groundwater - surface water - runoff water
    Alternatieven voor leidingwater zijn grondwater, oppervlaktewater, hemelwater en effluent van eigen zuivering. Het gebruik van deze alternatieven kunnen de kosten voor leidingwater verminderen. De kwaliteit van de alternatieve waterstromen is van belang voor een juiste aanwending op het melkveebedrijf.
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