Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The contribution of biorefineries to rural development: the case of employment in Hungary
Heijman, W.J.M. ; Szabo, Zoltan ; Veldhuizen, Esther - \ 2019
Studies in Agricultural Economics 121 (2019). - ISSN 1418-2106 - 12 p.
biofuels - biofuel policies - ethanol - rural development - input-output analysis - employment
Most recent research concerning biofuels focuses on their potential for mitigating climate change, while their rural development dimension is given less prominence. Ongoing policy debates, including EU and US biofuel policies, pay little attention to this feature of the industry. This paper explores the impact of biorefineries on rural development, and employment in particular. It shows that biorefineries can have a considerable economic impact on the regions in which they are located. Embedded in the local social and economic fabric, the paper demonstrates their influence on regional and national labour markets. The case of a bioethanol plant in Hungary and its effect on the rural labour market in two counties of the country is studied by way of an input-output model. The research has found that the operation of a biorefinery stimulates the creation and maintenance of jobs in both farming and service industries. Results suggest that biorefineries are an important driver of rural development and that this aspect of the industry should be given greater weight in formulating biofuel policies.
Rural marginalisation and the need for social innovation and nexogenous development
Bock, Bettina - \ 2017
rural development - inclusive development
Klimaatmaatregelen en het gemeentelijk landbouwbeleid : verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor versterking van klimaatmaatregelen binnen het toekomstig GLB in Nederland
Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Kuikman, Peter - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2803) - 51
landbouwbeleid - plattelandsontwikkeling - klimaat - maatregelen - mitigatie - agricultural policy - rural development - climate - measures - mitigation
China’s grassland policies and the Inner Mongolian grassland system
Liu, Min - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): J. Huang; Liesbeth Dries; Xueqin Zhu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430241 - 156
grassland management - livestock farming - china - rural development - policy evaluation - social systems - ecological restoration - sustainable agriculture - mongolia - nei mongol - normalized difference vegetation index - graslandbeheer - veehouderij - china - plattelandsontwikkeling - beleidsevaluatie - sociale systemen - ecologisch herstel - duurzame landbouw - mongolië - nei monggol - genormaliseerd verschil in de vegetatie-index

Grasslands play a significant role in the global ecosystem, livestock production and millions of household livelihoods. However, grassland degradation has become a worldwide problem, and rural poverty has become exacerbated in some pastoral areas. The sustainable management and use of grasslands that maintain the productive and adaptive capacity of ecosystems while providing for the well-being of human communities are crucial concerns. In practice, various policy interventions have been initiated by governments all over the world to devote to grassland conservation, livestock production and improving local household livelihoods. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the policy interventions for grassland ecosystems and livestock production in the pastoral areas of China. The conceptual framework for this research is based on Ostrom’s Social-Ecological Systems (SESs) framework. Four specific research questions are addressed. It is hoped that the research findings of this thesis can make a contribution to providing some references for policy development in light of the sustainable management and use of grasslands.

Climate variability, farmland value, and farmers’ perceptions of climate change : implications for adaptation in rural Pakistan
Arshad, Muhammad ; Kächele, Harald ; Krupnik, Timothy J. ; Amjath-Babu, T.S. ; Aravindakshan, Sreejith ; Abbas, Azhar ; Mehmood, Yasir ; Müller, Klaus - \ 2017
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 24 (2017)6. - ISSN 1350-4509 - p. 532 - 544.
adaptation - Climate change - land use - land valuation - Ricardian analysis - rural development - South Asia

Many studies have examined the impact of climatic variability on agricultural productivity, although an understanding of these effects on farmland values and their relationship to farmers’ decisions to adapt and modify their land-use practices remains nascent in developing nations. We estimated the impacts of the deviation in our study year's (2012) temperature and precipitation patterns from medium-term (1980–2011) climatic patterns on farmland values in Pakistan. This was accomplished by employing a modified form of a Ricardian regression model. We also examined farmers’ perceptions of climate change during this period, as well as their perceptions of climate change impacts on farm productivity, in addition to past and anticipated farm adaptation strategies. Our results indicate that positive temperature deviation from the medium-term mean – indicative of climatic change – affects farmland values in Pakistan. Deviation in annual cumulative precipitation conversely appears to have no significant impact. Estimates of the marginal impact of temperature deviation suggested a slight but negative linear relationship with farmland values. The location of farms in areas where farmers can avail financial or extension services conversely had a positive impact on farmland values, as did the availability of irrigation facilities. Our analysis of farmers’ perceptions of climate change and their consequent adaptation behavior indicated a relatively high degree of awareness of climatic variability that influenced a number of proactive and future anticipated farm adaptation strategies. Examples included increased use of irrigation and farm enterprise diversification, as well as land-use change, including shifting from agriculture into alternative land uses. National policy in Pakistan underscores the importance of maintaining a productive rural agricultural sector. Our findings consequently highlight the importance of appropriate adaptation strategies to maintain both farm productivity and farmland values in much of Pakistan. The implications of increased extension and financial services to enhance farmers’ potential for climate change adaptation are discussed.

Seeds as biosocial commons : an analysis of various practices in India
Patnaik, Archana - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578302 - 166
rice - seeds - plant genetic resources - plant genetics - seed production - seed storage - community development - gender - social environment - india - rural development - rijst - zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengenetica - zaadproductie - opslag van zaden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - sociaal milieu - india - plattelandsontwikkeling

This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities). Therefore, conservation and management of PGRs in the form of seeds are essential for plant breeding, agricultural production and to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. However, the changed use of PGRs through enclosures and appropriation of the Intellectual Property Rights creates underutilisation of these resources, risking their important societal role. Thus, this research aimed at analysing how the processes of commonisation of PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons emerge in the Indian context.

The research applied an in-depth qualitative research approach using case study method. It focused on four distinct issues of disconnection, collective resistance, strategies of repossession and ability of stakeholders to provide insights broadly into the processes of commonisation of PGRs. Describing the different cases it also establishes whether and how opportunities for commonisation of PGRs as biosocial commons emerge within these contexts. The research analysed four cases where one case reflected on the intellectual commons produced through institutionalisation of PGRs and the other three cases reflected on the bottom-up perspective of commons produced through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).

The research through its first case, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a public ex situ genebank, describes the disconnection of PGRs, while through the second case reflects on the collective activity of resistance through management of community seed banks (CSBs) by the Deccan Development Society (DDS). The third and fourth cases involved small, local initiatives; Loka Samabaya Pratisthan (LSP) and Sambhav that fostered collective action for repossession through in situ seed banks. The research used various techniques, such as interviews with respondents, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observation for primary sources of data, with published and unpublished documents, reports and official websites as secondary sources.

The second chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of disconnection and argues that storing seeds at genebanks disconnects the resources from their biosocial environment. Further, the evaluation of genetic traits within the stored seeds through the scientific intervention at the genebank creates the divide between the resources (seeds) and their informational content. Thus, this chapter concludes that disconnection of seeds from their biosocial environment leads to the creation of exclusive but positive intellectual commons.

The third chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of collective resistance and argues that disconnection of the community from their local food system can generate resistance and collective activity among the community. This chapter finds that the resistance and collective activity further brought in the interaction between the resource and the stakeholders through informal social relations and seed networks.

The fourth chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of strategies of repossession and argues that socio-political and ecological context play an important role in determining the strategy for repossession and commonisation of PGRs which further inhibits or facilitates the production of seeds as biosocial commons.

The fifth chapter of the thesis analyses the ability of stakeholders and finds that apart from institutional rights other factors like the social relations, ideology, negotiations and social identity of a stakeholder determines their ability in accessing the conserved resources.

The overall finding of the research suggests that the informal seed networks in the cases analysed stimulated in establishing the biosocial relations between the stakeholders and the resources. The biosocial relation further led seeds to function as biosocial commons. The research thus proposes that strengthening of these biosocial relations through informal seed networks can lead to the commonisation of the PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons in the Indian context.

Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile
Carter Leal, L.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Helmut Saatkamp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578173 - 171
business economics - rural development - development policy - agricultural development - regional development - livestock farming - farmers - chile - south america - bedrijfseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - veehouderij - boeren - chili - zuid-amerika
Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178
rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marketing - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme

Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.

The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).

The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.

Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.

Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.

Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.

Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.

The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.

Under the lens of embeddedness : socio-cultural perspective on home-grown school feeding in Ghana
Sulemana, N. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; D. Millar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577800 - 201
rural areas - schools - school food service - rural development - agricultural development - ghana - west africa - platteland - scholen - maaltijdverzorging op scholen - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - ghana - west-afrika
Grondig boeren met maïs in Drenthe: eindverslag project periode 2012-2015
Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Schans, D.A. van der; Schooten, H.A. van; Groten, J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 94
zea mays - maïs - drenthe - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - duurzame ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - systeeminnovatie - innovaties - onderzoeksimplementatie - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - maize - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use - sustainable development - rural development - system innovation - innovations - implementation of research - demonstration farms
De duurzaamheid van agroproductie in Nederland staat onder toenemende belangstelling. Duurzaamheid wordt niet alleen meer gezien als een ecologisch en sociaal-economisch aspect van agroproductie maar ook steeds meer als unique selling point. De duurzaamheid van de maïsteelt in Nederland staat onder druk en de noodzaak om een flinke stap te zetten naar meer duurzaamheid is groot. Inmiddels worden steeds meer duurzaamheidsproblemen geassocieerd met de huidige maïsteelt, zoals uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten, een slechte bodemstructuur, lager wordende gehaltes aan organische stof in de bodem, achteruitgaande bodembiodiversiteit, toenemende druk van ziekten en plagen en productie van broeikasgassen als lachgas. Op de langere termijn zal dit niet houdbaar blijken te zijn. Om deze problemen de baas te worden is een stap nodig naar een ander, innovatief teeltsysteem dat genoemde problemen niet heeft en daardoor de maïssector een substantiële stap op het pad naar meer duurzaamheid te zetten. Dit nieuwe teeltsysteem bestaat uit een vruchtwisseling met gras, een geslaagde nateelt en een maïs met kortere groeiduur die de nateelt ondersteunt aangevuld met innovaties als niet-kerende grondbewerking en aangepaste teeltwijze. Dit nieuwe teeltsysteem geeft het gebruikelijke rendement als de huidige teeltwijze, maar draagt bij aan 1) een beter bodemkwaliteit en structuur met een geleidelijk hoger wordend organisch stofgehalte (koolstof vastlegging) en een lager wordende uitstoot van overige broeikasgassen (lachgas) 2) vermindering van de ziektedruk door bodem- en gewasgebonden ziekten, plagen en onkruiden 3) een hogere bodembiodiversiteit en 4) vermindering van de uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten naar het grond- en oppervlaktewater. 5) Een rendabele teeltwijze ook na aanscherping van mineralen gebruiksnormen. Dit teeltsysteem is in onderzoek nu zo ver ontwikkeld dat implementatie in de praktijk mogelijk is. Voor de provincie Drenthe is daarom een demonstratieproject ontwikkeld onder de titel “Grondig Boeren met Maïs”. In dit project zullen de projectpartners Agrifirm en Wageningen UR een tweetal demonstratiepercelen in de praktijk aanleggen waarin verschillende systeemvarianten getoond worden samen met relevante deelinnovaties. De demonstraties worden ondersteund met waarnemingen om de beoogde milieueffecten aan te tonen. Via zomer- en winterbijeenkomsten worden maïstelers en loonwerkers uitgenodigd mee te denken. Een communicatieplan zal er zorg voor dragen dat inzicht, kennis en kunde over dit nieuwe teeltsysteem ingebed wordt in de Drentse maïspraktijk.
Life and capital : development and change in the 21st century
Büscher, B.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573680 - 36 p.
development studies - rural development - environmental degradation - environmental impact - social change - developing countries - quality of life - ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - sociale verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kwaliteit van het leven
Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study
Broek, J.A. van den; Subedi, A. ; Jongeleen, F. ; Naing Lin Oo, - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-018) - 74
seed production - varieties - seeds - farmers - rural development - markets - farms - agricultural policy - myanmar - south east asia - asia - zaadproductie - rassen (planten) - zaden - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbeleid - zuidoost-azië - azië
The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an analysis of three seed value-chains and Myanmar’s seed farm system; as well as business opportunities for the private sector. The report concludes with a number of pathways for developing a vibrant seed sector in which quality seed of superior varieties can be accessed by farmers.
EKHC end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-033) - 78
rural development - civil society - society - empowerment - development projects - ethiopia - east africa - africa - plattelandsontwikkeling - maatschappelijk middenveld - samenleving - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of Ethiopian Kale Heywit Church (EKHC) in Ethiopia is a partner of Tear Fund Netherlands under the ICCO Alliance. It assesses EKHC’s efforts to strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which EKHC contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain EKHC’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Ethiopian Rural Self-Help Association (ERSHA) end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Hofstede, M. ; Terefa, W. ; Getaw, H. ; Getu, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten CDI-15-072) - 58
rural development - self help - groups - society - civil society - empowerment - ethiopia - east africa - africa - plattelandsontwikkeling - zelfhulp - groepen - samenleving - maatschappelijk middenveld - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika
This report describes the findings of the end line assessment of the Ethiopian Rural Self-Help Association (ERSHA) that is a partner of ICCO and IICD under the Connect4Change (C4C) Consortium. It assesses ERSHA’s contribution towards strengthening Civil Society in Ethiopia based upon the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which ERSHA contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain ERSHA’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Local institutions and rural development : evidence from Liberia
Beekman, G. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Lonneke Nillesen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575080 - 200
plattelandsontwikkeling - gezinnen - netwerken - lokale netwerken - sociale netwerken - instellingen - micro-economische analyse - micro-economie - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - liberia - west-afrika - rural development - families - networks - local area networks - social networks - institutions - microeconomic analysis - microeconomics - economic development - agricultural development - liberia - west africa

Local institutions and rural development: Evidence from Liberia

This thesis focusses on the role of local (informal) institutions for development, based on data from Liberia. I show that dense family networks can be an obstacle for economic decision making, due to strict income sharing obligations that often belong to them. I also demonstrate the importance of local governance quality: corrupt village leaders negatively affect daily investment decisions by villagers. Finally, I evaluate the impact of a rural development project that aims to strengthen food security and social cohesion between villagers. The results indicate that the impact is marginal at most, and local institutions again do play a role.

Institutions are difficult to change, as they are rooted in an historical context. However, policy makers could support the emergence of alternative institutions. Either way, a deeper understanding of the far-going impact of local institutions is important: this research contributes to that.

Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - land - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions

Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia

Mequanint Biset Melesse


Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.

Nadere analyse vrijkomende agrarische bebouwing Gelderland
Gies, T.J.A. ; Smidt, R.A. ; Och, R.A.F. van; Vleemingh, M.P.I. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2632) - 21
plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - boerderijen - regionale planning - prognose - asbest - sloop (afbraak) - bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - inventarisaties - gelderland - rural development - farm buildings - farm dwellings - regional planning - prognosis - asbestos - demolish - farm closures - inventories
Nadere uitwerking van aard en omvang vrijkomende agrarische bebouwing 2012-2030 in de provincie Gelderland. De onderzoeksresultaten zijn op verschillende manier ruimtelijk gedifferentieerd en is de aard (bouwjaar en bedrijfstype) nader geanalyseerd. Tevens is een inschatting van de te verwachten leegstand, de te verwachten oppervlakte schuren met asbest en de te verwachten sloopopgave in beeld gebracht.
Ruimte voor de toekomst in het landelijk gebied : trendverkenning 2020-2030 voor gemeenten met veel landelijk gebied /
Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Och, R.A.F. van; Rooij, L.L. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2628) - 81
plattelandsomgeving - tendensen - gemeenten - platteland - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw - demografie - werkgelegenheid - recreatie op het platteland - rural environment - trends - municipalities - rural areas - rural development - agriculture - demography - employment - rural recreation
Hoe het landelijk gebied er in 2040 uit zal zien, weet niemand. Toch is een aantal trends aan te wijzen dat nu al zichtbaar is en voor een groot deel de richting zal bepalen waarin het zich gaat ontwikkelen. Het landelijk gebied wordt steeds meer een multifunctionele leef- en werkomgeving, waarbinnen initiatieven van burgers en bedrijven oplossingen aandragen voor lokale problemen. Schaalvergroting van (agrarische) bedrijven en voorzieningen gaat gelijk op met een toename van kleinschalige en lokale initiatieven van burgers en bedrijven. Technologische innovatie kan de bedrijvigheid en de leefbaarheid in het landelijk gebied vergroten. Tot slot is een toename van extreme gebeurtenissen mogelijk door klimaatverandering of de uitbraak van dierziekten. Dit rapport beschrijft een aantal van de belangrijkste trends voor gemeenten met veel landelijk gebied. De trends worden besproken aan de hand van verschillende thema's.
Rural development : knowledge and expertise in governance
Assche, K.A.M. van; Hornidge, A.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862566 - 396
plattelandsontwikkeling - kennis - governance - rural development - knowledge
This book offers a perspective on rural development, by discussing the most influential perspectives and rendering their risks and benefits visible. The authors do not present a silver bullet. Rather, they give students, researchers, community leaders, politicians, concerned citizens and development organizations the conceptual tools to understand how things are organized now, which development path has already been taken, and how things could possibly move in a different direction. The authors pay special attention to the different roles of knowledge in rural development, both expert knowledge in various guises and local knowledge. Crafting development strategies requires understanding how new knowledge can fit in and work out in governance. Drawing on experiences in five continents, the authors develop a theoretical framework which elucidates how modes of governance and rural development are inextricably tied. A community is much better placed to choose direction, when it understands these ties.
Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda
Mastenbroek, A. ; Chebet, A. ; Muwanika, C.T. ; Adong, C.J. ; Okot, F. ; Otim, G. ; Birungi, J. ; Kansiime, M. ; Oyee, P. ; Ninsiima, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 273
seed production - seed development - seed quality - rural development - farming - markets - businesses - small businesses - regional development - training courses - training - agricultural development - uganda - west africa - africa - zaadproductie - zaadontwikkeling - zaadkwaliteit - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw bedrijven - markten - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - regionale ontwikkeling - scholingscursussen - opleiding - landbouwontwikkeling - west-afrika - afrika
The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering selection, monitoring and sustaining local seed businesses; technically equipping local seed businesses, professionally organising LSBs; orienting LSBs to the market and strategically linking them to service providers.
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