Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Green deals : van ruimte maken naar richting geven
    Ganzevles, Jurgen ; Oorschot, Mark van; Potting, J.M.B. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. - \ 2017
    Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals (2017)juni. - p. 35 - 39.
    overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - overeenkomsten - emissiereductie - samenwerking - evaluatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - government policy - environmental policy - agreements - emission reduction - cooperation - evaluation - sustainable development
    Green Deals zijn vrijwillige afspraken tussen de Rijksoverheid en maatschappelijke partijen om innovatie en verduurzaming te bevorderen. Met deze aanpak geeft de overheid ruimte aan vernieuwing vanuit de maatschappij. Maar wat leveren Green Deals nu eigenlijk op? Partijen blijken warm te lopen voor samenwerking en vernieuwing. Maar wat mist is het vooraf goed doordenken van de ver wachte milieuwinst en het moni- toren er van tijdens de uitvoering van deals. Door meer richting te geven, zowel aan het begin als aan het einde van individuele deals, kan de Rijksoverheid bevorderen dat de Green Deals verder bijdragen aan maatschappelijke doelen.
    Aligning business processes and IT of multiple collaborating organisations
    Kassahun, Ayalew - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.J.M. Beulens; B. Tekinerdogan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432108 - 172
    information technology - businesses - business management - cooperation - organizations - informatietechnologie - bedrijven - bedrijfsmanagement - samenwerking - organisaties

    When multiple organisations want to collaborate with one another they have to integrate their business processes. This requires aligning the collaborative business processes and the underlying IT (Information Technology). Realizing the required alignment is, however, not trivial and is the subject of this thesis.

    We approached the issue of alignment in three steps. First, we explored business-IT alignment problems in detail in a real-life business case. This is done in order to clarify what alignment of business processes and IT systems across a collaboration network entails. Second, we provided a business-IT alignment framework called BITA* (pronounce bita-star). The framework provides modelling abstractions for alignment. Third, we applied the framework in two real-life case studies, including the real-life business case used in step one. By applying the framework in practice we showed that the framework can, in fact, help to address the business-IT alignment problems that we identified in the first step.

    The work presented in this thesis is conducted over a number of years in the context of four large EU sponsored research projects. The projects focused on alignment problems in two very distinct application areas. Two projects were about realizing transparency systems for meat supply chains and constitute the first case study. The other two projects were about realizing multidisciplinary modelling collaboration systems and constitute the second case study. Although the projects were conducted sequentially the research questions were addressed iteratively over the years. The research methodology that shows how the framework is designed and how the case studies are applied is discussed in detail in chapter 2.

    In chapter 3 we present BITA*, a Business-IT Alignment framework for multiple collaborating organisations. The main challenges in designing BITA* have been what models to consider for alignment and how to compare them in order to make explicit statements about alignment. We addressed this problem by introducing allocation and alignment modelling constructs to help the alignment process, and the concept of business collaboration model to represent the models that have to be aligned. We identified three groups of stakeholders for whom we designed explicit design viewpoints and associated allocation and alignment models. The Business Process to Business Process (BP2BP) alignment viewpoint is designed for business analysts who have to align diverse business collaboration process models. The IT to IT (IT2IT) alignment viewpoint is designed for software architects to align the distribution of data and IT systems across a collaboration network. The Business Process to IT (BP2IT) alignment viewpoint is designed for an interdisciplinary team of business analysts and software architects who have to align the different ways of supporting business collaboration processes with distributed IT system.

    An essential element of this thesis has been elaborating how business-IT alignment problems occur in the context of multi-organisational collaboration. The case studies were used to demonstrate business-IT alignment concerns. Particularly, the details of the first case study presented in chapters 4 and 5 were used in chapter 3 to help derive the alignment framework. The case study presented an ideal problem scenario since realizing transparency across supply chains is intrinsically a collaborative effort. The second case study was used to enhance the validity of our approach. The results of the second case study are presented in chapter 6.

    The alignment framework was designed during the iterative process we followed when realizing a generic transparency system for meat supply chains. To realize the required generic transparency system we needed a reference architecture. To derive the reference architecture we adapted an already existing and broadly-accepted generic reference architecture. We have to adapt the generic reference architecture in order to address specific requirements of the meat sector that were not considered in the generic reference architecture. The adaptation process made it clear that we needed models for representing business collaborations. We, therefore, introduced the notion of business collaboration model, which we used both to model reference architectures and to adapt them. Adaptation required aligning the generic reference architecture with the diverse business collaboration models adopted by the organisations that have to collaborate. The alignment framework is thus used for adapting a generic reference architecture in order to create a reference architecture that the collaborating organisations can, and are willing to, adopt.

    We identified three types of business collaboration models: business collaboration process model, business collaboration IT model, and a model for representing the relationship between these two. A business collaboration process model is a business process model that spans a collaboration network. A business collaboration IT model is a model of the distribution of the IT across the collaboration network. A business collaboration process-IT model is a model of the relationships between the elements of the business collaboration processes and the elements of the distributed IT.

    Each organisation is considered to adopt its own business collaboration models. For instance, different actors in meat supply chains have different views on how chain-wide transparency should be realized. Which business processes and IT systems each organisation has to deploy and use depends on the business collaboration models each food operator adopts. If two different food operators adopt the same set of business collaboration models, they are aligned; otherwise they are misaligned. Hence, alignment entails comparing the different business collaboration models adopted by the participating organisations. The results of the alignment process are explicit statements about how convergent or divergent the organisations are from the chosen generic reference architecture. The explicit statements of alignment guide how best the generic and the corresponding organisational business collaboration models can be adapted to create a better state of alignment.

    To further enhance the validity of the overall approach the second case study was conducted. The second case study was a retrospective investigation of two past research projects focusing on aligning environmental modelling processes and IT systems. A retrospective case study was chosen because launching a new business-IT alignment project involving multiple collaborating organisations was not feasible. The projects were undertaken to support the European Water Framework Directive, which mandated, among other things, participatory, multidisciplinary, river-basin wide and model-based studies to manage the water resources of Europe. The directive particularly required a collaborative approach to building environmental decision support systems and to deriving methodologies for applying existing decision support systems. We applied BITA* to aligning environmental modelling processes and IT systems in order to evaluate the suitability of the framework to addressing alignment problems in other application areas.

    The contributions of the thesis are summarized in chapter 7. The contributions include a number of design artefacts, which can be grouped into four categories: constructs, models, methods, and instantiations. The contribution in the first category includes the conceptualization of allocation and alignment. The contributions in the second category include allocation and alignment models, and reference architectures. Allocation models are representations of business collaboration models in a form that can be compared and are the basis for alignment modelling. The main contribution in the third category is the BITA* systematic approach to alignment modelling. The contributions in the fourth category are the software systems developed with the help of the reference architectures.

    Mission report Tanzania : scoping mission marine fisheries Tanzania
    Hoof, Luc van; Kraan, Marloes - \ 2017
    IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C004/17) - 66
    zeevisserij - visserij - voedselzekerheid - zeewieren - samenwerking - handel - tanzania - marine fisheries - fisheries - food security - seaweeds - cooperation - trade - tanzania
    It takes three to tango : biobased innovaties: een samenwerking tussen overheid, onderwijs en ondernemers
    Monteiro da Fonseca, Wendy ; Otterloo, Laura van; Simons, Ralph ; Ankersmit, Elis ; Vilsteren, Gerlinde van - \ 2017
    Netherlands : CoE BBE - 47
    samenwerking - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - biobased economy - kennisoverdracht - colleges - onderzoek - nederland - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - cooperation - public-private cooperation - innovations - biobased economy - knowledge transfer - colleges - research - netherlands - professional education
    De transitie naar een Biobased Economy (BBE) is al jaren een 'hot item' in Nederland, zowel binnen de Nationaal Wetenschapsagenda als binnen de topsectoren. De MKB-erst, elk in eigen niches, spelen hierbij een bepalende rol. Hiernaast hebben de hogescholen op dit domein de ambitie om een belangrijke rol voor het MKB als kennisleverancier te spelen (onderwijs en onderzoek). In dit rapport probeert helderheid te creëren over hoe dit proces verloopt.
    Grasklaverteelt motor voor samenwerking en klimaatadaptatie : 'climatecafe' evalueert samenwerking akkerbouw- en veeteeltbedrijven
    Wit, Jan de; Adelhart Toorop, R.L. de - \ 2016
    Ekoland (2016)12. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 20 - 21.
    klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - samenwerking - grasklaver - teelt - biologische landbouw - gewassen - gewasbescherming - akkerbouw - veehouderij - climate adaptation - climatic change - cooperation - grass-clover swards - cultivation - organic farming - crops - plant protection - arable farming - livestock farming
    Het wordt natter en warmer in Nederland voorspelt het KNMI. Is de biologische boer bezig met deze verandering? Dat valt wel mee. Er wordt gewerkt aan een goede bodemkwaliteit en structuur. Dat draagt bij aan het aanpassingsvermogen aan een veranderend klimaat (‘adaptatie’). Grasklaver als rustgewas helpt de akkerbouwer daarbij, zo blijkt ook uit modelberekeningen.
    Factbook: de staat en ontwikkeling van het praktijkgericht onderzoek en infrastructuur van de Nederlandse Biobased Economy
    Os, Pieter van; Starre, Bas van der; Toren, Jan Peter van den; Broens, Douwe-Frits ; Duijghuisen, Ruud - \ 2016
    Centre for Biobased economy - 46
    biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - toegepast onderzoek - samenwerking - wetenschappelijke samenwerking - kennismanagement - publiek-private samenwerking - biobased economy - biobased materials - applied research - cooperation - scientific cooperation - knowledge management - public-private cooperation
    Nationaal en internationaal zijn er belangrijke vraagstukken die om oplossingen vragen. Een groot deel daarvan zijn geformuleerd binnen de Nationale Wetenschapsagenda. Daarnaast zijn de topsectoren een belangrijks illustratie van dat waar Nederland goed in is. Een domein waarop meerdere maatschappelijke vraagstukken en meerdere topsectoren bij elkaar komen is dat van de biobased economy: het meer dan nu benutten van groene grondstoffen als alternatief voor de fossiele economie. Hogescholen kunnen met hun praktijkgericht onderzoek een relevante bijdrage leveren aan het onderzoek en aan innovaties op dit domein. Om een goede positie in kennisinfrastructuur te krijgen is het noodzakelijk de krachten te bundelen: lectoren, docenten en onderzoekers in samenwerking met bedrijven en organisaties. Voorwaarde voor deze krachtenbundeling is dat er een overzicht is van al het onderzoek dat wordt uitgevoerd (het ‘landschap’) en de trends daarin, van de ontwikkelingen in de biobased economy en van de beschikbare infrastructuur en netwerken. Dit Factbook biedt dat overzicht en is daarmee één van de bouwstenen voor het inrichten van verdergaande onderzoekssamenwerking.
    The MSP guide : How to design and facilitate multi-stakeholder partnerships
    Brouwer, J.H. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Hemmati, M. ; Verhoosel, K.S. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Practical Action Publishing Ltd - ISBN 9781853399657 - 180
    multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking - vennootschappen - ontwerp - governance - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociaal leren - innovaties - ontwikkeling - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - partnerships - design - governance - sustainable development - sustainability - social learning - innovations - development
    Inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business : sustainability-oriented networks inagro-industrial parks
    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Emiel Wubben. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577695 - 194
    biobased economy - sustainability - agribusiness - cooperation - agroindustrial sector - business parks - network analysis - netherlands - sustainable development - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouwindustrie - samenwerking - agro-industriële sector - bedrijventerreinen - netwerkanalyse - nederland - duurzame ontwikkeling

    Globally, bio-based business is often perceived as sustainable, because its renewable production can potentially lower carbon and greenhouse emissions by substituting fossil-fuel-based production, reduce environmental sourcing problems, and create turnover and jobs. However, bio-based business can also bring sustainability challenges. Urged to exploit innovative solutions and further enhance their sustainability performance, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively search for collaboration possibilities with new partners. Inter-organizational collaboration is considered as mechanism to enhance sustainability. This thesis explores the ways inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business in general and in agro-industrial parks in particular can enhance sustainability.

    Potato breeding in the Netherlands: successful collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders
    Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Mertens, L. ; Loon, Jan van; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2016
    Farming Matters 32 (2016)Special Issue April. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 34 - 37.
    potatoes - table potatoes - plant breeding - netherlands - cooperation - farmers - genetic diversity - firms - agricultural law - new variety - organic farming - aardappelen - consumptieaardappelen - plantenveredeling - nederland - samenwerking - boeren - genetische diversiteit - firma's - agrarisch recht - nieuwe variëteit - biologische landbouw
    The Dutch potato breeding model, which involves a partnership between farmers and commercial breeding companies in a modern, Western context, is unique. While there are other examples of collaborative relationships between farmers and breeders in Europe, the Dutch potato breeding model stands out in terms of its long track record, the involvement of the private sector, and the institutional integration of the relationship which up to today facilitates access to genetic materials and financial benefit sharing.
    Goed voor elkaar : over omgaan met krachtenvelden en lerend beheren in het nieuwe stelsel ANLB
    Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Westerink, J. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Och, R.A.F. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2709) - 19
    agrarisch natuurbeheer - natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - participatie - samenwerking - agri-environment schemes - nature management - landscape management - participation - cooperation
    Deze brochure is gemaakt ten behoeve van het nieuwe stelsel agrarisch natuur- en landschapsbeheer.
    Producentenorganisaties als instrument voor concurrentiekracht en innovatie : uitbreiding van perspectief door het nieuwe GLB?
    Smit, A.B. ; Prins, H. ; Litjens, M.E.G. ; Ham, A. van den; Bijman, J. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-164a) - 55
    producentengroepen - landbouwproducten - landbouwindustrie - landbouw - tuinbouw - samenwerking - marktconcurrentie - onvolledige mededinging - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - producer groups - agricultural products - agribusiness - agriculture - horticulture - cooperation - market competition - imperfect competition - sustainability - netherlands
    Producer organisations (POs) in agri- and horticulture give primary producers the opportunity to strengthen their position in the chain. Until 1 January 2014, POs were only recognised in the vegetables and fruit sector. Since then, POs can now also be organised in other agri- and horticulture sectors due to a change in EU policy. This refers to officially recognised producer organisations besides or instead of several existing horizontal cooperative organisations. This report presents the opportunities of cooperation in general and of organising a PO in the agri- and horticulture, including competition aspects which could create some barriers.
    Stakeholder interactions in nuclear emergency response for the Dutch food supply chain
    Asselt, E.D. van; Brandhoff, P.N. ; Twenhöfel, C.J.W. - \ 2015
    nuclear power stations - disasters - food industry - management - food contamination - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - kernenergiecentrales - rampen - voedselindustrie - bedrijfsvoering - voedselbesmetting - multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking
    In the Netherlands, EPAn (Unit Planning and Advice – Nuclear) assesses the radiological situation and advises the national and regional levels on protective actions. This advice is based on radiological and human health expertise provided by the Crisis Expert Team (CET) radiation. At the start of the project, CET lacked insight in the measures taken by food producers in case of a nuclear accident and communication with these stakeholders was limited. Furthermore, experience on recovery measures was primarily focused on the first stage after an incident.
    Kenniskring Duurzame Garnalenvisserij : factsheet 2015-144
    Turenhout, M.N.J. ; Klok, A.J. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2015
    garnalen - visserijbeheer - visserij - samenwerking - kennismanagement - kennisoverdracht - werkgroepen - kosten-batenanalyse - kostenanalyse - shrimps - fishery management - fisheries - cooperation - knowledge management - knowledge transfer - working groups - cost benefit analysis - cost analysis
    Informatie over de kenniskring Duurzame Garnalenvisserij. Kenniskringen zijn (studie-) van vissers die zelf uitdagingen, vragen of problemen geformuleerd hebben. Samen met andere belanghebbenden en onderzoeksinstellingen zoeken zij naar oplossingen voor een duurzamere vangst en beter economisch perspectief.
    Leren van Marke Mallem : lessen voor het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
    Salverda, I.E. ; Breman, B.C. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Dam, R.I. van - \ 2015
    Leernetwerk 'Samenspel burgerinitiatieven en overheden in het groene domein' - 36
    overheidsbeleid - burgers - natuurbeleid - sociale participatie - samenwerking - governance - publieke participatie - natuurbeheer - landbouwbeleid - waterschappen - government policy - citizens - nature conservation policy - social participation - cooperation - governance - public participation - nature management - agricultural policy - polder boards
    Deze brochure gaat over lessen die uit het initiatief Marke Mallem kunnen worden getrokken voor overheden die willen leren over het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden. In november 2014 heeft Alterra samen met het Waterschap Rijn & IJssel en de Stichting Marke Mallem een leerbijeenkomst over Marke Mallem georganiseerd omdat dit een inspirerend voorbeeld is van dit nieuwe samenspel. Deelnemers aan deze bijeenkomst waren beleidsmedewerkers van waterschappen, gemeenten en natuur- en landschapsorganisaties. Doel van de leerbijeenkomst was om uit te wisselen wat cruciale factoren waren in het proces van Marke Mallem, en wat andere overheden hiervan kunnen leren en meenemen naar hun eigen praktijken.
    Getting partnerships to work : a technography of the selection, making and distribution of improved planting material in the Kenyan Central Highlands
    Ndubi, J.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571150 - 153
    plantenveredeling - voedselzekerheid - bananen - aardappelen - technologie - innovaties - landbouwontwikkeling - vennootschappen - samenwerking - kenya - oost-afrika - afrika - plant breeding - food security - bananas - potatoes - technology - innovations - agricultural development - partnerships - cooperation - kenya - east africa - africa

    In Kenya, bananas and Irish potatoes are important staple crops. In the early 1990s, the crops were devastated by plant diseases resulting in immensely declined productivity and vulnerability of smallholder farmers. To address this problem, disease resistant varieties and tissue culture technology were introduced through partnerships. This thesis examines the working of these partnerships in the process of selecting, multiplying and disseminating improved planting materials under changeable and sometimes unanticipated social and material conditions, and whether this enabled technical change. The study describes how partnerships shape and manage technical change and how distributed task groups coordinate their actions. Partnerships organise and set in motion an evolving chain of sequential socio-technical practices, which incrementally generate technical change. Hence, partnerships are more than just an organisational tool for resource augmentation. Making partnerships work requires constant handling of the politics of selection procedures, the unanticipated consequences of material and technical problems, and the governance and control dimensions of team and group work. The study highlights the often hidden processes coordinating distributed skills and competences and the micro-politics of selection and performance as core elements for making partnerships work. The technographic approach made this visible in the performance of research teams, laboratories and collectively managed nurseries of multiplication sites. The study concludes that partnerships, as an organisational fix, are not a panacea for complicated problems, and a more thorough debate about the conditions under which partnerships may work – and for whom – is needed.

    Plan for collaborative working with ROC+
    Vogels, J.W.P.M. ; Hamersveld, N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Food & Biobased Research 1588) - 11
    data management - ontologies - computer software - information systems - cooperation - user interfaces - gegevensbeheer - ontologieën - computer software - informatiesystemen - samenwerking - gebruikersinterfaces
    Blijven boeren in de Veenkoloniën : PPO 't Kompas
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2015
    Boerderij 100 (2015)19. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 24 - 27.
    akkerbouw - innovaties - veenkolonien - regionaal landbouwbeleid - rendement - inkomen - samenwerking - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - arable farming - innovations - veenkolonien - regional agricultural policy - returns - income - cooperation - cap - farm income - farm management
    Veenkoloniale boeren moeten het gat vullen dat ontstaat door het wegvallen van inkomenssteun uit Brussel. Innovatieprogramma Landbouw Veenkoloniën draagt eraan bij met elf innovatieprojecten.
    De kracht van bundeling : samenwerking rond kennis en innovatie in zeven Greenportregio’s
    Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Os, G.J. van - \ 2015
    tuinbouw - samenwerking - nederland - regio's - interdisciplinair onderzoek - publiek-private samenwerking - horticulture - cooperation - netherlands - regions - interdisciplinary research - public-private cooperation
    Deze brochure belicht uit elke Greenportregio ( Noord-Holland Noord, Aalsmeer, Westland-Oostland, Duin- & Bollenstreek, Boskoop, Gelderland en Venlo ) een inspirerend facet van de samenwerking. Dit is een reflectie op de organisatie, aansturing, de successen, leerpunten en eye-openers. Deze reflectie is het resultaat van monitoring en evaluatie die gedurende vier jaar is uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR (beleidsondersteunend onderzoek, ministerie van Economische Zaken)
    Kennis in actie voor het landschap : inleiding themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
    Beunen, R. ; Dekker, J.N.M. ; Duineveld, M. ; During, R. ; Luttik, J. ; Straver, G.H.M.B. - \ 2015
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 108 - 109.
    burgers - natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - kennisoverdracht - kennissystemen - sociale participatie - samenwerking - citizens - nature management - landscape management - knowledge transfer - knowledge systems - social participation - cooperation
    Een deel van de Nederlandse landschappen is ontworpen door landschapsarchitecten. Landschapsvorming is echter niet de enige functie van het ontwerp, betogen we in dit artikel. In een participatief ontwerpproces voor het Europaplein in Renkum bestudeerden we de verschillende functies van ontwerpen. Ondanks het feit dat die kunnen conflicteren, blijken ze op verschillende wijze een zeer productieve bijdrage te leveren aan het verloop van het proces.
    Kloosterburen geeft geen krimp : kennis-machtrelaties en de rollen van onderzoekers: themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
    Aalvanger, A. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2015
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 118 - 125.
    burgers - sociale participatie - kennisoverdracht - kennisvalorisatie - actieonderzoek - wetenschappers - samenwerking - citizens - social participation - knowledge transfer - knowledge exploitation - action research - scientists - cooperation
    Een deel van de Nederlandse landschappen is ontworpen door landschapsarchitecten. Landschapsvorming is echter niet de enige functie van het ontwerp, betogen we in dit artikel. In een participatief ontwerpproces voor het Europaplein in Renkum bestudeerden we de verschillende functies van ontwerpen. Ondanks het feit dat die kunnen conflicteren, blijken ze op verschillende wijze een zeer productieve bijdrage te leveren aan het verloop van het proces.
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