Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Opportunities and barriers to effective operation and maintenance of public toilets in informal settlements: perspectives from toilet operators in Kampala
Ssekamatte, Tonny ; Bosco Isunju, John ; Enock Balugaba, Bonny ; Nakirya, Doreen ; Osuret, Jimmy ; Mguni, P. ; Mugambe, Richard ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2018
International Journal of Environmental Health Research 29 (2018)4. - ISSN 0960-3123 - p. 359 - 370.
sanitation - occupational hazards - exposure - risk - hygiene
Although classified by the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) as unimproved sanitation facilities, public toilets still play a critical role in eliminating open defecation in informal settlements. We explored perspectives of toilet operators on opportunities and barriers to operation and maintenance (O&M) of public toilets in informal settlements. A cross-sectional study design was used. Up to 20 in-depth interviews were used to obtain data on the experiences of public toilet operators. Thematic content analysis was used. Ressults show that opportunities for improving O&M include; operation of public toilets is a source of livelihood; operators are knowledgeable on occupational risks, and the community is involvedin sanitation activities. Barriers to effective O&M include; high operation costs, failure to break even and a lack of investments in occupational health Therefore, there is need to recognise the significance of public toilets as a viable alternative to open defecation in areas where ownership of private sanitation facilities is difficult. Failure to observe the health and safety of toilet operators may further compromise O&M.
Sanitation planning in developing countries : added value of resource recovery
Kerstens, S.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Ingo Leusbrock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576889 - 316
sanitation - developing countries - recovery - urban planning - waste water treatment - waste treatment - waste management - environmental technology - volksgezondheidsbevordering - ontwikkelingslanden - terugwinning - stedelijke planning - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwerking - afvalbeheer - milieutechnologie

Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia.

The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitation interventions complicates the sanitation planning process. Conventional sanitation systems consume energy, chemicals and land or produce a sludge that requires disposal, whereas a range of opportunities exists that enables valorization of resources from our “waste”. To support policy makers in planning sanitation that considers sustainability dimensions (social, environment and economy), a new sanitation framework was developed. This framework resolves trade-offs of sanitation alternatives across spatial and temporal scales in three steps. First, it identifies feasible wastewater and solid waste systems in relation to the type of residential area. Secondly, the anticipated population development, current access and formulated targets are an input to generate the number of required systems, their location and associated implementation costs. The required systems are visualized in geographical maps, while budgets are allocated to responsible implementing institutions. Thirdly, the potential demand from “back-end users” of sanitation products, such as agriculture for compost and phosphorus, aquaculture for produced duckweed and industries for recovered plastic and paper, to substitute conventionally produced materials is determined. These three steps are then combined to quantitatively evaluate the (1) environmental impact, (2) operational costs and benefits, and (3) the potential of selected sanitation alternatives to close material cycles. A case study of the Citarum River was performed in which (monetized) benefits such as health, welfare and revenues from the sale of recovered resources were compared with the costs of different (conventional and resource recovery) sanitation systems. The study showed that the economic Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR) of resource recovery technologies is bigger than BCR of conventional (low cost) technologies, while improving the water quality. It thus shows that resource recovery is a potential driver to accelerate sanitation development. The framework was illustrated using Indonesia as an example, but its application can benefit the quality of millions of lives worldwide.

Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system
Butkovskyi, A. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water Research 85 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 384 - 392.
Anaerobic degradation - Black water - Grey water - Micropollutant removal - Pharmaceuticals - UASB reactor

Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification in a rotating biological contactor and struvite precipitation. Grey water is treated in an aerobic activated sludge process. Concentration of 10 pharmaceuticals and 2 transformation products in black water ranged between low μg/l to low mg/l. Additionally, 5 pharmaceuticals were also present in grey water in low μg/l range. Pharmaceutical influent loads were distributed over two streams, i.e. diclofenac was present for 70% in grey water, while the other compounds were predominantly associated to black water. Removal in the UASB reactor fed with black water exceeded 70% for 9 pharmaceuticals out of the 12 detected, with only two pharmaceuticals removed by sorption to sludge. Ibuprofen and the transformation product of naproxen, desmethylnaproxen, were removed in the rotating biological contactor. In contrast, only paracetamol removal exceeded 90% in the grey water treatment system while removal of other 7 pharmaceuticals was below 40% or even negative. The efficiency of pharmaceutical removal in the source separated sanitation system was compared with removal in the conventional sewage treatment plants. Furthermore, effluent concentrations of black water and grey water treatment systems were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations to assess toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of diclofenac, ibuprofen and oxazepam in both effluents were higher than predicted no-effect concentrations, indicating the necessity of post-treatment. Ciprofloxacin, metoprolol and propranolol were found in UASB sludge in μg/g range, while pharmaceutical concentrations in struvite did not exceed the detection limits.

Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC : Creating an enabling environment for sanitation marketing
Klaver, D.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation - p. 1 - 38.
marketing - marketing policy - sanitation - new sanitation - governance - civil rights - congo democratic republic - east africa - marketing - marketingbeleid - volksgezondheidsbevordering - nieuwe sanitatie - governance - burgerrechten - democratische republiek kongo - oost-afrika
This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

• It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena in terms of actors involved and decision-making process and power;
•Assesses the strengths and weaknesses of these different governance arrangements in solving collective problems in the field of sanitation, and
•Presents different policy propositions on how to create more enabling governance arrangements for the sustainable provision of sanitation services.
Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation
Butkovskyi, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): L. Hernández Leal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574168 - 189
verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - afvalwater - stedelijk afvalwater - volksgezondheidsbevordering - waterzuivering - verwijdering - geneesmiddelen - farmaceutische producten - antibioticumresiduen - residuen - pollutants - pollution - water pollution - waste water - municipal wastewater - sanitation - water treatment - removal - drugs - pharmaceutical products - antibiotic residues - residues
Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse of liquid and solid products of source separated sanitation, the quality of these materials has to meet (future) standards, i.e. for micropollutant concentrations. Therefore the objectives of this thesis included assessment of micropollutant content of source separated sanitation products intended for resource recovery and examination of post-treatment technologies for micropollutant mitigation within source separated sanitation
Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste
Ombis, L.O. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Habitat International 48 (2015). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 188 - 197.
multi-regime dynamics - management - expectations - perspective - sanitation - reconfiguration - metropolises - collection - sociology - prospects
This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of plastic waste prevention, reuse or recycling. An assessment is made as to whether the innovations lead to changes in the regimes of waste management and plastic production and eventually an integrated regime for plastic production and reuse. The study comprises of a review of policy documents and statistics, site visits and in-depth interviews with main actors involved in plastic waste related innovation. The comparative analysis of social network building, actor expectations and learning processes in the 7 innovation routes reveals that Kenya is still far from having a well-aligned plastic production-cum-waste regime that enables plastic waste prevention, recycling and handling practices. Innovations by yard shop owners and home grown industries contribute to an aligned plastic waste recycling regime, where PET exporters, bio-degradable plastic sellers and CBO collectors fail to do so. All innovation actors face a lack of governmental recognition and guidelines to close the loop of plastic production and waste handling.
Limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes: the case of Ghaziabad, Delhi, India
Mehta, L. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. - \ 2015
Habitat International 48 (2015). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 159 - 168.
periurban interface - political ecology - water management - cities - governance - city - adaptation - sanitation - lessons - science
The notion of the waterscape has been proposed to capture the interconnectedness of economic, political, cultural and social processes embedded in water. More recently recognised, yet still relatively under-theorised are waterscapes that are ‘in-between’ the city and the periphery. This article focuses on peri-urban Delhi, specifically the area around Ghaziabad. We show that peri-urban waterscapes do not fit into existing urban or rural planning models because these same models largely fail to recognise the peri-urban interface as a distinct form of territorial development. As a result a diverse range of mobilisations around water relevant to the peri-urban poor are systematically undermined while power asymmetries that shape access to water remain unrecognised. Peri-urban spaces thus continue to be planned as if in a transition towards urban modernity despite the complex social, political, technological and cultural realities these spaces represent. The failure to address current limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes has long term implications for the resilience, sustainability and transformative adaptation of both city and periphery.
A new and scalable approach for rural sanitation in Egypt : the village of Deir Gabal El-Tair as a pilot
Harmsen, J. ; Ghodell, K.O. ; Tony, M.S.S.S. El; Wagieh, H. El; Michael, E. ; Helmy, E. ; Veen, F. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2584) - 81
volksgezondheidsbevordering - water - waterbeschikbaarheid - egypte - sanitation - water availability - egypt
Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres
Oyoo, R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Arthur Mol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738424 - 179
volksgezondheidsbevordering - afval - milieueffect - stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - verontreiniging - afvalverwerking - oost-afrika - sanitation - wastes - environmental impact - urban environment - urban areas - pollution - waste treatment - east africa

Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres


If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban authorities in other developing countries, most cities in the vicinity of Lake Victoria (East Africa) have been unsuccessful in providing adequate solid waste and sanitation services to their residents. To effectively manage urban waste flows, the current and future trends for the solid waste and sanitation flows and their environmental impact need to be assessed. A model was developed that represents waste flows management through the social and natural systems of East African cities. This simulation tool was designed to enable the projection of future waste flow trends and their environmental impacts under different management regimes. The results for the model simulations indicate that the annual organic load to the inshore of Lake Victoria increased twofold between 2001 and 2011. The model projections also show that a lack of optimal measures to mitigate various waste flows would further deepen the current environmental crisis in the near future. The executed multi-criteria analysis reveals that mixtures of diverse waste technologies and management regimes matching with local socio-economic and environmental conditions have a positive impact on East African cities’ environmental quality. The integration of resource recovery into the formal waste management sector is found to improve the environmental performance of waste sector in East African cities. These results contribute to the development of an integrated policy support approach, which aims at strengthening the sustainable management of urban waste flows in East African cities. This could then form the basis for improving the urban environmental quality in these cities. Also, in agreement with the modernised mixture approach, this study can conclude that applying a mix of diverse waste technologies and management regimes, and matching these with the local conditions in each city will have positive impacts on East African cities’ environmental quality. This diversity in waste technologies and management strategies for waste flows should be driven by modernised mixture principles. This would safeguard the water quality for Lake Victoria from pollution by waste, and improve the well-being of humans depending on the lake.

1Health4Food : focus op gezondheid mens-dier
Kimman, T.G. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Parée, P. - \ 2014
V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 22 - 24.
veehouderij - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - volksgezondheid - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - onderzoeksprojecten - diagnostiek - antibioticaresistentie - volksgezondheidsbevordering - verbreed spectrum bèta-lactamases - immuniteit - immuunsysteem - immunologie - voedselveiligheid - voeding en gezondheid - mens-dier relaties - livestock farming - animal production - animal health - public health - scientific research - research projects - diagnostics - antibiotic resistance - sanitation - extended spectrum beta-lactamases - immunity - immune system - immunology - food safety - nutrition and health - human-animal relationships
1Health4Food is een ambitieus onderzoeksprogramma op het gebied van dier- en volksgezondheid. Het landbouwbedrijfsleven heeft in sterke mate bepaald waar de prioriteiten moeten liggen: bij de ESBL’s en de snelle diagnostiek. Binnen 1Health4Food wordt kennis ontwikkeld voor meerdere sectoren, kennis die veehouders en hun adviseurs, zoals dierenartsen, in staat stellen om rendabel te produceren op een wijze die ook veilig is voor de mens. De ambitie is om in de toekomst gezamenlijk een gezonde en veilige veehouderij te realiseren.
Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa
Vliet, B.J.M. van; Buuren, J.C.L. van; Mgana, S. - \ 2014
London and New York : Routledge (Routledge studies in sustainable development ) - ISBN 9780415833776 - 176
volksgezondheidsbevordering - rioolwater - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - technologie - beleid - afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - oost-afrika - sanitation - sewage - wastes - sustainability - sustainable development - technology - policy - waste management - urban areas - east africa
Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures of waste and sanitation systems and to ensure wider access, increase flexibility and ecological sustainability. It shows how the problem is not the current diversity in waste and sanitation infrastructures and services and variety of types and scales of technology, of formal and informal sector involvement, and of management and ownership modes. The book focuses instead on the lack of an integrative approach to managing and upgrading of the various waste and sanitation configurations and services so as to ensure wider access, flexibility and sustainability for the low income populations who happen to be the main stakeholders. This approach, coined "Modernized Mixtures", serves as a nexus throughout the book. The empirical core addresses the waste and sanitation challenges and debates at each scale - from the micro-level (households) to the macro-level (international support) - and is based on the results of a five-year-long interdisciplinary, empirical research program. It assesses the socio-technical diversity in waste and sanitation and provides viable solutions to sanitation and waste management in East Africa. This book provides students, researchers and professional in environmental technology, sociology, management and urban planning with an integrated analytical perspective on centralized and decentralized waste and sanitation configurations and tools for improvement in the technology, policy and management of sanitation and solid waste sectors.
Sanitation in unsewered urban poor areas: technology section, quantitative microbial risk assessment and grey water treatment
Katukiza, A.Y. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Piet Lens, co-promotor(en): M. Ronteltap. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138015555 - 256
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - volksgezondheidsbevordering - stedelijke gebieden - stedelijk afvalwater - risicoschatting - volksgezondheid - waste water treatment - water treatment - sanitation - urban areas - municipal wastewater - risk assessment - public health
Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities
Letema, S.C. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jules van Lier, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734136 - 167
volksgezondheidsbevordering - sanitaire voorzieningen - oost-afrika - riolering - anaërobe afbraak - stedelijk afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - sanitation - sanitary facilities - east africa - sewerage - anaerobic digestion - municipal wastewater - waste water treatment - waste water treatment plants

The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence
of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user
groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the
performance of both the mixtures as a whole and the different sanitation approaches constituting
these mixtures, novel approaches for analyses are required. This thesis, therefore, departs from
the centralised-decentralised approaches to a modernised mixtures (MM) approach in seeking a
more inclusive assessment of sanitary configurations taking into account public and environmental
health, accessibility and flexibility of sanitation systems as sustainability criteria. To achieve this,
the four objectives formulated for this thesis are to:
1. Make an inventory of sanitary systems in Kampala and Kisumu.
2. Assess and map sanitary systems along MM dimensions in Kampala and Kisumu.
3. Assess sustainability of sanitary systems on defined MM criteria in Kampala and Kisumu.
4. Enhance insights on the applicability of MM criteria as conceptual model, assessment and
prescriptive tool for sanitary mixtures in East African cities.
Case study cities were chosen from a typology of primary and secondary cities that have urban
sewer systems since colonial times. The two cities were deemed to offer rich cases that would give
a general outlook of other East Africa cities, thus can offer possibilities for generalization. The
thesis utilised a multi-method and multi-level approach in data collection and analysis. A multicriteria
analysis is used in sustainability performance assessment of sanitation systems based on
defined MM criteria.
Firstly, modernisation debates and resultant modernities in sanitation provision were reviewed
in Chapter 2. The review shows that Western modernisation and resultant modernities and their
structures of service provision have not resonated well in developing countries. Consequently,
alternative theories that dispute a universal approach to modernity emerged to offer alternatives
to modernisation. Alternative options are characterised by multiple rationalities, diversity and
multiplicity. Modernities in terms of sanitation provision are further operationalized as competition
between the proponents of centralised versus decentralised solutions. A third way of looking at
sanitation modernisation that is more inclusive is advanced through the introduction of the MM
In Chapter 3, the presence of urban sewer systems in Kampala and Kisumu cities is assessed. The
results show that urban systems are of medium scale and serve about 10% of the city population.
They are publicly owned and managed by public enterprises under new public management.
Besides, they are conventionally designed, constructed and operated without the involvement
of end-users. Treatment plants are either overloaded, underutilised or treatment stages are
mismatched. Consequently, about 30-70% of the treatment stages are not operational. Effluent
discharge standards and bio-solids reuse requirements are not met, and the adopted treatment
technologies are inappropriate for the investigated conditions. Sewer networks are supported by
pumping stations and siphons that are only partially operational due to high operational costs and
mechanical failures. Public sewerage is further plagued by urban informality and multiplicity of
city spatial structures. Planned city core, and to a limited extent peri-urban areas, are served by
public sewers, while sewer trunk lines pass through informal slum settlements without connections.
In Chapter 4, satellite systems are analysed and configurations mapped. Satellite systems are
intermediate semi-collective decentralised sewerage and treatment systems developed parallel to
urban and onsite systems. They are provided by multiple actors, serve planned middle and high
income residential, industrial complexes, endowed public and private universities, and government
facilities. In terms of scale, they are community, neighbourhood and small-urban sanitation
solutions. Besides, satellite systems are private sewerage systems that utilise gravity sewers and
localised mechanised or non-mechanised treatment. The flows are based on land use or facility
specific and are treated close to the point of generation. They are based on conventional designs
and construction protocols without end-user involvement.
Onsite systems in Kampala and Kisumu cities are examined in Chapter 5. Planning forecast
indicates that onsite systems will dominate sewer (urban and satellite) systems beyond the next
two decades. They are small-scale, highly decentralised and use simple technologies. Pit latrines
dominate septic tanks in number, with eco-san on pilot scales and bio-latrine being a new
sanitation option. Faecal sludge collection, treatment and safe disposal is dismal. The private
sector dominates over local authorities in provision of faecal sludge services, but public sewerage
agencies receive and co-treat faecal sludge with sewage although sewage works are not designed to
receive faecal sludge. They are regulated by the Ministry of Health, enforced by the city councils
and are provided by multiple actors solely or in partnership. Onsite sanitation can be a transient
or permanent solution depending on mass flows and spatial requirements. However, for better
sanitation provision, a permanent solution, with room for amendments to anticipate changes in
space and mass flow is imperative.
In Chapter 6, sustainability performance of sanitation systems are assessed following the defined
three MM criteria. The performance shows that there is no sanitation system that is completely
outcompeted in performance, neither are there systems with a very good performance. Sanitation
system choices, consequently, are made among imperfect options, which call for balancing the
various elements of sanitation provision to suit different policy and local contexts. Varying the
assigned relative weight of the various criteria used in the overall MCA assessment indicates
that generally, any slight increase in weight has an impact on systems that already have a high
performance whereas in the case of systems with low performance the change is dismal or even
negative. Therefore, programmes for improvement of sanitation systems might be directed to
improvement options where systems already have a relatively high performance. However, those
with a low performance may need comprehensive or even system reconfigurations for significant
impacts to be realised.
In conclusion, sanitation mixtures are theorised as the co-existence of different phases of
modernity in tandem with local context variables. Thus, there is no one-fit-all paradigmatic way
to sanitation provision if the local contexts are apparently different even within the same city.
However, a shift of the centralised-decentralised dichotomy to modernised mixtures paradigm
offers better impetus as it can utilise the advantages of both centralised and decentralised
approaches without jeopardising existing provision pathways. The MM approach is helpful in assessing, mapping and describing sanitation systems in cities where sanitation mixtures are the
norm rather than the exception.
One way to modernise sanitation mixtures is by shifting the centralised-decentralised paradigm
in order to modernise the mixed sanitation landscape. This is premised on the notion that such
a shift will result in merging the strengths of centralised approach, e.g. economies of scale,
efficiency, and convenience, with strengths of decentralised approach, e.g. accessibility, flexibility,
participation, and reuse and recovery in development of intermediate systems configuration. This
can be achieved through, among others, avoiding use of pumping stations, adoption of multiple
service levels, involvement of private sector, servicing households at intermediate scale, and
establishing sanitation suitability and management zones.
The MM approach is also very helpful as a conceptual model for organising a research
agenda which can be set along the four assessment dimensions of scale, management, flows
and participation, as well as in searching for appropriate intervention measures along one or
more of these dimensions. As an assessment and decision making tool, it is helpful in finding
out which elements highlighted in the sustainability assessment need to be restructured and
which need improvement in order to enhance their sustainability. However, translation of the
proposed conceptual MM model into a mathematical model is a challenge yet to be explored.
Considering its intrinsic dynamic character in dependence to varying spaces, flows, and scales
along city development, a mathematical MM model would provide a regulatory design tool
for city planners for adopting amendments to existing sanitation solutions. Obviously, up to
date monitoring and inventory records are a pre-requisite for applying such a model, requiring
institutional upgrading. Although the current results described in this thesis provide the basis
for a more structured assessment and generalisation of sanitation mixtures, more research and
contextualisation is needed in other regions, for further elaboration of MM model, and for the
refinement of the assessment tool.

Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities
Letema, S.C. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Environmental policy series vol. 6) - ISBN 9789086867691 - 161
volksgezondheidsbevordering - sanitaire voorzieningen - riolering - anaërobe afbraak - stedelijk afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - oost-afrika - sanitation - sanitary facilities - sewerage - anaerobic digestion - municipal wastewater - waste water treatment - waste water treatment plants - east africa
Antibioticagebruik en veehouderij: ESBL en MRSA in dieren en de genomen controlemaatregelen
Mevius, D.J. - \ 2012
Infectieziekten bulletin 23 (2012)3. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 82 - 83.
veehouderij - antibiotica - dosering - antibioticaresistentie - volksgezondheidsbevordering - landbouwbeleid - livestock farming - antibiotics - dosage - antibiotic resistance - sanitation - agricultural policy
Het antibioticagebruik in Nederlandse veehouderij is hoog, zeker in vergelijking met de humane sector. Daardoor zijn ook de resistentieniveaus in dieren in de veehouderij hoog. De bezorgdheid over de gevolgen hiervan voor de volksgezondheid heeft geleid tot een aantal maatregelen, waaronder de reductiedoelstellingen in antibioticumgebruik (20% in 2011 en 50% in 2013). Het streefcijfer voor 2011 is bereikt, maar voor het oplossen van de huidige en toekomstige bedreigingen door multiresistente organismen in (voedselproducerende) dieren voor de volksgezondheid is een aanzienlijke verdere afname in gebruik noodzakelijk en op de langere termijn een verandering in de dierlijke productiesystemen.
Civil society in urban sanitation and solid waste management: The role of NGOs and CBOs in metropolises of East Africa
Tukahirwa, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730121 - 166
maatschappelijk middenveld - volksgezondheidsbevordering - afvalbeheer - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - stedelijke samenleving - bevolkingsgroepen met een laag inkomen - milieubeleid - steden - oost-afrika - uganda - civil society - sanitation - waste management - non-governmental organizations - community involvement - urban society - low income groups - environmental policy - towns - east africa - uganda

Urban sanitation and solid waste management are among the most significant factors that affect the poor in developing countries and contribute to their sustained poverty. It is the poorest people, particularly children, who suffer most from weak or non-existent services, through illness, distress and many early and preventable deaths. This intolerable state of affairs is caused by a combination of political, socio-economic, cultural, and technological aspects. In recent years, sanitation and solid waste management have received increasing attention as shown in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which aim at halving the proportion of the population without access to sustainable basic sanitation by 2015 and at achieving significant improvements in the lives of slum-dwellers by 2020 (MDG Goal 7). Today, with less than five and ten years to fulfill these targets,when compared to other developing continents, Africa is lagging behind and there is need for effective action to address this challenge.

This research is placed within this debate and tries to contribute to achieving the aim of universal access to sanitation and solid waste management services. The focus is on the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in urban slums of East Africa because these organizations are considered key players in the provision of sanitary and solid waste disposal services in such areas and yet their work has not been critically assessed. Two main questions were addressed; (i) In what ways are NGOs/CBOs participating in the development and implementation of sanitation and solid waste management and what are the key factors influencing their participation? (ii) How and to what extent are the sanitation and solid waste management activities of NGOs/CBOs sustainable; accessible to the poor; and flexible and resilient under changing socio-political, institutional and economic conditions? The conceptual framework developed for answering these research questions was based on the Modernized Mixtures Approach and several other theories (such as partnership paradigm, social network theory and institutional pluralism) that serve to explain key factors influencing the role of NGOs/CBOs in such activities.

The research confirmed that NGOs/CBOs are fully involved in the provision of the two services and the idea of environmental partnership is widely shared and supported. Empirical evidence gathered showed a modernized mixture model emerging, where the conventional advocates of large-scale, privatized, and high-technological sanitation and solid waste services partner with NGOs/CBOs. This research also found that access to sanitation and solid waste services is driven by both NGOs/CBOs and the urban poor in collaboration. Social proximity is important, next to the conventional factors of spatial proximity, socio-economic characteristics and perception of the perceived competence of NGOs/CBOs. User acceptance of innovative technologies was found to be a key factor when trying to improve sanitary facilities for the urban poor.

Keywords: Sanitation, Solid Waste Management, East Africa, NGOs, CBOs, Modernized Mixtures Approach

SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Buuren, J.C.L. van - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): Katarzyna Kujawa. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858263 - 424
afvalverwerking - volksgezondheidsbevordering - drainage - vietnam - stedelijk afvalwater - waste treatment - sanitation - drainage - vietnam - municipal wastewater
Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries

The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their health and living conditions. This thesis takes an analysis of the causes and consequences of that provision deficit as point of departure and seeks more effective mechanisms for inclusive and environmentally sustainable drainage and sanitation implementation. This occurs at two levels. Firstly, there is the level of the developing cities in general, and secondly the level of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Despite political will for improvement and many ongoing urban upgrading projects, environmental agencies in Ho Chi Minh City appeared unable to meet the demand for adequate infrastructure. New fast-growing residential areas demonstrated a replication of the flooding and wastewater disposal problems, that are addressed in economically more important areas. The main cause seemed insufficient capacity in land and housing management. Small wastewater-treatment plants of hospitals, hotels, markets and residential projects, meant to reduce pollution in the absence of large-scale treatment works, showed serious shortcomings due to inadequate design and operation.
As the mentioned provision deficit is analyzed as rooted in a top-down approach, with a too limited involvement of the users of systems, a more effective approach is sought in a bigger contribution of communities and private parties to project planning, implementation and operation, without denying the important role of government.
The contribution of this thesis to a multi-stakeholder approach drainage and sanitation planning is SANCHIS (Sanitation Choice Involving Stakeholders). This planning methodology brings about a learning process in which experts and non-experts are enabled to connect local experience with systemic knowledge, in order to generate, assess and select sustainable drainage and sanitation solutions. The method is supported by a data-base which describes assessment criteria and 58 drainage and sanitation system options clustered into 12 groups. Subsequently, detailed descriptions of toilet, on-site treatment, transport, treatment, reuse and disposal technologies are presented. These enable the distinction between feasible and non-feasible system options in a situation under study and a comparison of performances of options. SANCHIS enables the application of material flow analysis of water, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus to identify the repartition of these substances over the gaseous, liquid and solid products of drainage and sanitation systems. SANCHIS also facilitates a quantitative analysis of methane emissions, energy consumption and capacity-cost relationships.
In an application to three different types of residential areas in Ho Chi Minh City SANCHIS has proven its worth to systematically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of drainage and sanitation system options.
Through application during workshops in Ho Chi Minh City insight was gained in the possibilities of the method and in items to be improved. It was concluded, that the SANCHIS method led to a shared and deepened view of the addressed problem and its solutions and a strengthened commitment among stakeholders to realize the new infrastructure. The participation of stakeholders from a wide range of practices has likely delivered more specific options to choose from than if only provider-related experts had been offering options. The experiences confirmed the author’s expectation that multi-criteria decision methods are an essential element in a participatory approach in infrastructure development and that they can be tools in the transformation of infrastructure to environmental sustainability and increased involvement of a variety of public, community and private formal and informal actors.
Meeting Social Challenges in Developing Sustainable Environmental Infrastructures in East African Cities
Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2010
In: Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge / van Vliet, B.J.M., Spaargaren, G., Oosterveer, P.J.M., Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9789048137206 - p. 11 - 30.
dar-es-salaam - developing-countries - urban areas - water - sanitation - management - governance - uganda - tanzania - services
The slum population in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to grow from 101 million in 1990 to 313 million in 2015. Modernizing sanitation therefore has to adapt to the context of cities with high densities of poor people under the conditions of absent or fragmented environmental infrastructures and services. Addressing this problem requires an integrated approach that deviates both from the Western large-scale, high-technological, and grid-based systems, as well as from the small-scale, low-tech, decentralized alternative options. A Modernized Mixtures approach should be developed that combines the strong elements from these opposing alternatives. This chapter presents the Modernized Mixtures approach and its contribution to sustainability. It discusses the contribution this approach can make to improving accessibility of urban infrastructures for the poor, while strengthening flexibility and resilience. It is argued that the successful introduction of a Modernized Mixtures approach to urban environmental infrastructures in East African cities requires the careful consideration of social and political factors next to technological innovation.
Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge
Vliet, B.J.M. van; Spaargaren, G. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2010
Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9789048137206 - 242
volksgezondheidsbevordering - sociologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rioolwater - afvalwater - stedelijke gebieden - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelde landen - sanitation - sociology - sustainability - sewage - waste water - urban areas - developing countries - developed countries
In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and scales, including concept development, institutional learning and governance building. In the developing world the sanitation challenge is to provide sanitation services to the poor and the very poor, without compromising on sustainability. New configurations employing the best practices of sanitation technology and management for rural and urban contexts are needed. The sanitation challenge in both worlds is to go beyond traditional dichotomies between ‘small, appropriate’ and ‘modern/advanced’ technologies and to develop rural and urban sanitation with a mix of scales, strategies, technologies, payment systems and decision-making structures, that better fit the physical and human systems for which they are designed.
Urban environmental services and the state in East Africa; between neo-developmental and network governance approaches
Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2009
Geoforum 40 (2009)6. - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 1061 - 1068.
sub-saharan africa - private-sector - water - uganda - sanitation - politics - tanzania - kampala - consolidation - perspective
Although governments are generally expected to provide environmental services such as sanitation and solid waste collection for their citizens, most (municipal) governments in Sub-Saharan Africa seem hardly able to take up this task. Without ignoring the lack of material resources resulting from poverty, there are other structural causes for this failure as well and related to the role of the state. Since independence, the state in Africa has been debated in political as well as in academic circles and opposing views can still be discerned today. While some promote a strong interventionist state which can effectively enhance development, others consider introducing network governance by involving various societal actors in combination with different levels of government a more promising alternative. After presenting an historical overview, in this paper I will summarize this debate and discuss future options for East African authorities for providing more effective and sustainable urban environmental infrastructures and services
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