Good taste or gut feeling? A new method in rats shows oro-sensory stimulation and gastric distention generate distinct and overlapping brain activation patterns
Roelofs, Theresia J.M. ; Luijendijk, Mieneke C.M. ; Toorn, Annette van der; Camps, Guido ; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dijkhuizen, Rick M. ; Adan, Roger A.H. - \ 2020
International Journal Eating Disorders (2020). - ISSN 0276-3478
functional magnetic resonance imaging - functional neuroimaging - rats - satiation - stomach - taste
Satiation is influenced by a variety of signals including gastric distention and oro-sensory stimulation. Here we developed a high-field (9.4 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to test how oro-sensory stimulation and gastric distention, as induced with a block-design paradigm, affect brain activation under different states of energy balance in rats. Repeated tasting of sucrose induced positive and negative fMRI responses in the ventral tegmental area and septum, respectively, and gradual neural activation in the anterior insula and the brain stem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), as revealed using a two-level generalized linear model-based analysis. These unique findings align with comparable human experiments, and are now for the first time identified in rats, thereby allowing for comparison between species. Gastric distention induced more extensive brain activation, involving the insular cortex and NTS. Our findings are largely in line with human studies that have shown that the NTS is involved in processing both visceral information and taste, and anterior insula in processing sweet taste oro-sensory signals. Gastric distention and sucrose tasting induced responses in mesolimbic areas, to our knowledge not previously detected in humans, which may reflect the rewarding effects of a full stomach and sweet taste, thereby giving more insight into the processing of sensory signals leading to satiation. The similarities of these data to human neuroimaging data demonstrate the translational value of the approach and offer a new avenue to deepen our understanding of the process of satiation in healthy people and those with eating disorders.
How oro-sensory exposure and eating rate affect satiation and associated endocrine responses-a randomized trial
Lasschuijt, Marlou ; Mars, Monica ; Graaf, Cees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2020
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 111 (2020)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1137 - 1149.
cephalic phase - eating behavior - eating rate - ghrelin - human - insulin - oro-sensory exposure - pancreatic polypeptide - satiation
BACKGROUND: Longer oral processing decreases food intake. This can be attributed to greater oro-sensory exposure (OSE) and a lower eating rate (ER). How these factors contribute to food intake, and the underlying physiological mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the independent and simultaneous effects of OSE and ER on satiation and associated endocrine responses. METHODS: Forty participants in study 1 [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 4 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 22 ± 2] and 20 in study 2 (mean ± SD age: 23 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 2) participated in a 2 × 2 randomized trial. In both studies, participants ate chocolate custard with added caramel sauce (low OSE) or caramel fudge (high OSE) and with short (fast ER) or long breaks (slow ER) in between bites, until fullness. In study 2, endocrine responses were measured during the meal. RESULTS: In study 1, participants ate (mean ± SEM) 42 ± 15 g less in the slow- than in the fast-ER condition, only within the high-OSE condition (P = 0.04). In study 2, participants ate 66 ± 21 g less in the high- than in the low-OSE condition and there were no intake differences between slow and fast ER (P = 0.35). Eight minutes after starting to eat, insulin concentrations increased by 42%-65% in all treatments compared with the control. At the end of the meal, insulin concentrations were 81% higher in the high-OSE, slow-ER than in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.049). Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) increased by 62%, 5 min after meal onset in the low-OSE, fast-ER condition (P = 0.005). Ghrelin concentrations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Greater OSE increases insulin responsiveness. In contrast, PP responses are stronger when OSE is reduced and ER is fast. Insulin and PP responses may mediate the independent effects of OSE and ER on food intake. These may be beneficial eating strategies, particularly for type 2 diabetic patients, to control food intake and maintain glucose homeostasis.This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NL6544.
Good practice in food-related neuroimaging
Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dagher, Alain ; Hare, Todd A. ; Kullmann, Stephanie ; Laan, Laura N. van der; Poldrack, Russell A. ; Preissl, Hubert ; Small, Dana ; Stice, Eric ; Veldhuizen, Maria G. - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 491 - 503.
aroma - data sharing - food choice - food viewing - functional magnetic resonance imaging - good practice - neuroimaging - satiation - taste
The use of neuroimaging tools, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, in nutritional research has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. Neuroimaging is a research tool with great potential impact on the field of nutrition, but to achieve that potential, appropriate use of techniques and interpretation of neuroimaging results is necessary. In this article, we present guidelines for good methodological practice in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and flag specific limitations in the hope of helping researchers to make the most of neuroimaging tools and avoid potential pitfalls. We highlight specific considerations for food-related studies, such as how to adjust statistically for common confounders, like, for example, hunger state, menstrual phase, and BMI, as well as how to optimally match different types of food stimuli. Finally, we summarize current research needs and future directions, such as the use of prospective designs and more realistic paradigms for studying eating behavior.
External cues challenging the internal appetite control system—Overview and practical implications
Bilman, Els ; Kleef, Ellen van; Trijp, Hans van - \ 2017
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57 (2017)13. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 2825 - 2834.
Food environment - food intake - obesity - satiation - satiety
Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.
Longer Oral Exposure with Modified Sham Feeding Does Not Slow Down Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Energy-Dense Gastric Loads in Healthy Young Men
Wijlens, G.M. ; Erkner, A. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2015
The Journal of Nutrition 145 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 365 - 371.
food-intake - appetite - stimulation - fat - responses - humans - satiation - ghrelin - liquids - volume
Background: A long oral exposure to food and a high-energy density of food are shown to increase satiety feelings. The effect of energy density is predominantly caused by an inhibition of gastric emptying. It is hypothesized that prolonging oral exposure may have an additional effect on this inhibition of gastric emptying. However, little human data are available to support this hypothesis. Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of oral exposure duration to food on gastric emptying rate of gastric loads (GLs) low and high in energy density and on satiety feelings. Methods: Twenty-six healthy men (22 ± 3 y, 23 ± 1 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover trial with 4 treatments and a control. Treatments consisted of either 1- or 8-min modified sham feeding (MSF) of cake, and a GL of either 100 or 700 kcal infused in the stomach via a nasogastric tube (500 mL, 62.5 mL/min). The control consisted of no MSF and a GL of 500 mL of water. Gastric emptying rate was assessed with a 13C breath test. Breath samples and satiety feelings were collected at fixed time points until 90 min after start of the treatment. Results: Gastric emptying rate and satiety feelings were not affected by duration of MSF (P = 0.27). However, the 700-kcal GL treatments slowed gastric emptying [41% lower area under the curve (AUC)] and increased satiety feelings (22–31% higher AUC) compared with the 100-kcal GL treatments (P <0.001). No interaction between MSF duration and energy density of GL was found (P = 0.44). Conclusions: Higher gastric energy density inhibited gastric emptying and increased satiety feelings in healthy young men. However, prolonging oral exposure to food did not have an additional effect. This study provides more insight in satiety regulation. This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR3601.
Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Forde, C.G. ; Cheng, Y.J. ; Xu, H.H. ; Martin, N. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
bite size - young-adults - eating rate - weight - obesity - satiation - appetite - meal - men - viscosity
Background: Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives: The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design: Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2), age: 24 +/- 2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results: Hard foods led to a similar to 13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P <0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P <0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P=0.16). Conclusions: Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.
Food choice: The battle between package, taste and consumption situation
Gutjar, S. ; Graaf, C. de; Palascha, A. ; Jager, G. - \ 2014
Appetite 80 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 109 - 113.
hedonic ratings - appropriateness - expectation - satiation - liking - time
The present study compared how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) product properties influence actual food choice in combination with the concept of product appropriateness in a specific consumption context. Food choice of seven test products was measured in three breakfast sessions within a simulated cafeteria setting with subsequent product consumption. Test products were five breakfast drinks and two dessert products considered as inappropriate for breakfast. One hundred and three participants took part in a blind taste session, after which they chose one out of the seven foods to consume for breakfast. In a second session (familiar package session), the same participants based their choice on the package of the seven foods they tasted in the first session. An additional group of 65 participants took part in a third naïve package session, where they chose just on the basis of package without being previously exposed to the foods. Results showed that food choices in the naïve package session were guided by the package that labelled the products as “breakfast product”. Food choices in the blind session were strongly correlated (r¿=¿0.8) with the liking of the products. Food choice in the “familiar package session” lay between the blind and naïve package session. It is concluded that food choice in a simulated cafeteria setting is guided by extrinsic (package) as well as intrinsic (sensory) properties and both can act as a cue for product appropriateness given a specific consumption context. Depending on the salience of either intrinsic or extrinsic properties during the choice moment their impact on choice is stronger.
Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake
Wanders, A.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Jonathan, M.C. ; Schols, H.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2014
Physiology and Behavior 128 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 212 - 219.
body-weight - food-intake - guar gum - satiety - viscosity - glucose - meal - satiation - glycemia - humans
An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber properties, including methods of supplementation, on appetite and energy intake. This was a randomized crossover study with 29 subjects (21 ± 2 y, BMI: 21.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2) consuming dairy based liquid test products (1.5 MJ, 435 g) containing either: no pectin, bulking pectin (10 g), viscous pectin (10 g), or gelled pectin (10 g). The gelled pectin was also supplemented as capsules (10 g), and as liquid (10 g). Physicochemical properties of the test products were assessed. Appetite, glucose, insulin and gastric emptying were measured before ingestion and after fixed time intervals. Energy intake was measured after 3 h. Preload viscosity was larger for gelled > viscous > bulking > no pectin, and was larger for gelled > liquid > capsules. Appetite was reduced after ingestion of gelled pectin compared to bulking (p <0.0001), viscous (p = 0.005) and no pectin (p <0.0001), without differences in subsequent energy intake (p = 0.32). Gastric emptying rate was delayed after gelled pectin (82 ± 18 min) compared to no pectin (70 ± 19 min, p = 0.015). Furthermore, gelled (p = 0.002) and viscous (p <0.0001) pectin lowered insulin responses compared to no pectin, with minor reductions in glucose response. Regarding methods of supplementation, appetite was reduced after ingestion of the gelled test product compared to after capsules (p <0.0001) and liquid (p <0.0001). Energy intake was lower after ingestion of capsules compared to liquid (- 12.4%, p = 0.03). Different methods of supplementation resulted in distinct metabolic parameters. Results suggest that different physicochemical properties of pectin, including methods of supplementation, impact appetite and energy intake differently. Reduced appetite was probably mediated by preload physical properties, whereas inconsistent associations with metabolic parameters were found.
Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects
Wanders, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J. ; Graaf, C. de; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
International Journal of Obesity 38 (2014). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 794 - 800.
sustained pectin ingestion - libitum food-intake - lupin-kernel fiber - chain fatty-acids - body-weight - in-vitro - glucose-tolerance - sensory exposure - appetite - satiation
Background: Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure. Objective: To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms. Design: In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9¿kg¿m-2) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5¿MJ, 200¿g) with either 10¿g gel-forming pectin or 3¿g gelatin and 2¿g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured. Results: Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P=0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P=0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin (+2.1%, P=0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study. Conclusions: Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not
Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal
Forde, C.G. ; Kuijk, N.L. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N. - \ 2013
Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 180 - 186.
bite size - energy-intake - portion size - questionnaire - satiation - weight - young - consumption - intensity - healthy
Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. Methods: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 +/- 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 +/- 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 +/- 0.6). Results: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 +/- 20.3 g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 +/- 20.0 g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 +/- 2.5 g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 +/- 2.5 g (p <0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. Discussion: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste * texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
increased meal intake - energy-intake - portion size - bite size - cognitive-factors - healthy women - satiety - fat - satiation - appetite
Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effects of sip size in a focused state and a distracted state on ad libitum intake and on the estimated amount consumed. Design In this 3×2 cross-over design, 53 healthy subjects consumed ad libitum soup with small sips (5 g, 60 g/min), large sips (15 g, 60 g/min), and free sips (where sip size was determined by subjects themselves), in both a distracted and focused state. Sips were administered via a pump. There were no visual cues toward consumption. Subjects then estimated how much they had consumed by filling soup in soup bowls. Results Intake in the small-sip condition was ~30% lower than in both the large-sip and free-sip conditions (P
Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure
Kremer, S. ; Shimojo, R. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Köster, E.P. ; Mojet, J. - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 27 (2013)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 179 - 190.
mere exposure - boredom - pleasantness - complexity - satiation - curiosity - liking - taste
The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at which table salt could be replaced with soy sauce without significantly changing overall taste intensity. Secondly, the same consumers rated their liking for 5 samples with varying table salt and/or soy sauce content to determine the optimal exchange rate (OER), which is the highest concentration of NaCl in products that can be replaced with soy sauce without significant losses in both overall taste intensity and product liking. Finally, a new group of 64 consumers performed rapidly repeated exposure tests with two variants per product type: the non-salt-reduced standard variant (A) and a salt/soy sauce variant (B) based on the OER (NaCl reduction soup: 24.4%; bread & ham: 38.9%). Repeated exposure to the soy sauce variant had a significant to very significant positive effect on the liking for the products in all groups of subjects with the exception of a small group that did not like the soy sauce variant of bread. The influence of the rapidly repeated exposure was interpreted in terms of the optimal arousal theory. The results also demonstrated the importance of determining the ER, the OER and the development of preference over repeated exposure in the developed three-stage procedure.
Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods
Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Stafleu, A. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
International Journal of Obesity 36 (2012)9. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1229 - 1235.
satiation - satiety - humans - compensation - viscosity - carbohydrate - responses - behavior - stimuli - flavor
BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, participants (n = 27, age: 21 +/- 2.4 years, body mass index: 22.2 +/- 1.6 kg m(-2)) repeatedly consumed highly novel foods that were either low-energy-dense (LE: 30 kcal per 100 g) or high-energy-dense (HE: 130 kcal per 100 g), and either liquid or semi-solid, resulting in four product conditions. In each condition, a fixed portion of test food was consumed nine times as an obligatory part of breakfast, lunch and dinner on 3 consecutive days. All meals continued with an ad libitum buffet; food items for evening consumption were provided and the intake (kcal per day) was measured. RESULTS: Buffet intake depended on energy density and day of consumption of the test foods (day*energy interaction: P = 0.02); daily buffet intake increased from day 1 (1745 +/- 577 kcal) to day 3 (1979 +/- 567 kcal) in the LE conditions; intake did not change in the HE conditions (day 1: 1523 +/- 429 kcal, day 3: 1589 +/- 424 kcal). Food texture did not affect the intake (P = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Intake did depend on energy density of the test foods; participants increased their buffet intake over days in response to learning about the satiating capacity of the LE foods, but did not change buffet intake over days when repeatedly consuming a HE food as part of their meal. The adjustments in intake were made irrespective of the food texture.
Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety
Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Appetite 59 (2012)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 419 - 424.
energy-intake - meal-size - satiation - viscosity - humans - flavor - appetite - women
Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a randomised cross-over study, participants (n = 53; age: 21 ± 2.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2) consumed one of two iso-energetic dairy foods (liquid or semi-solid) for breakfast in each 5-day test condition. Expectations regarding satiety were measured on days 1, 2, and 5. Foods were offered ad libitum on days 1 and 5 and in a fixed volume on days 2–4. Appetite sensations were rated up to 180 min after the start of the session on fixed time points. Expected satiety effects of the semi-solid food were higher than of the liquid food on all days (p <0.0001). Ad libitum intake of the liquid food was higher than of the semi-solid food on day 1 (liquid: 391 ± 177 g, semi-solid: 277 ± 98 g; p <0.0001) and day 5 (liquid: 477 ± 161 g, semi-solid: 375 ± 148 g; p <0.0001). On day 2, hunger was rated lower and fullness rated higher after the semi-solid compared with the liquid food; on day 4, no differences were observed (significant product* exposure interaction AUC). Changes in hunger and fullness indicated that the fixed volumes of liquid and solid food were perceived to be equally satiating after repeated consumption, but this did not result in the anticipated changes: expected satiety effects remained lower, and ad libitum intake higher for the liquid compared with the semi-solid food. The effect of texture on a food’s expected satiety effects and its ad libitum intake appears to be large, also after repeated consumption. Expectations based on sensory cues are not easily changed.
Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Appetite 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 48 - 55.
sensory-specific satiety - free-living humans - energy density - bite size - palatability - meal - satiation - consumption - viscosity - appetite
The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.
Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study
Zijlstra, N. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 297 - 306.
food-intake curve - bite size - flavor release - energy-intake - appetite control - obesity - women - meals - satiation - humans
Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retronasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m(2)) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m(2)) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P=0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting.
Effects of bite size and duration of oral processing on retro-nasal aroma release - features contributing to meal termination
Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Zijlstra, N. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Dijkstra, A. ; Burgering, M.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 105 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 307 - 315.
flavor release - swallowing process - food-intake - perception - time - satiation - desserts - texture - mouth - taste
The brain response to a retro-nasally sensed food odour signals the perception of food and it is suggested to be related to satiation. It is hypothesised that consuming food either in multiple small bite sizes or with a longer durations of oral processing may evoke substantial oral processing per gram consumed and an increase in transit time in the oral cavity. This is expected to result in a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation, which in turn may lead to increased feelings of satiation and decreased food intake. Using real-time atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS, in vivo retro-nasal aroma release was assessed for twenty-one young, healthy and normal-weight subjects consuming dark chocolate-flavoured custard. Subjects were exposed to both free or fixed bite size (5 and 15 g) and durations of oral processing before swallowing (3 and 9 s) in a cross-over design. For a fixed amount of dark chocolate-flavoured custard, consumption in multiple small bite sizes resulted in a significantly higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a smaller amount of large bite sizes. In addition, a longer duration of oral processing tended to result in a higher cumulative extent of retro-nasal aroma release per gram consumed compared with a short duration of oral processing. An interaction effect of bite size and duration of oral processing was not observed. In conclusion, decreasing bite size or increasing duration of oral processing led to a higher cumulative retro-nasal aroma stimulation per gram consumed. Hence, adapting bite size or duration of oral processing indicates that meal termination can be accelerated by increasing the extent of retro-nasal aroma release and, subsequently, the satiation.
Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake
Graaf, C. de; Kok, F.J. - \ 2010
Nature Reviews Endocrinology 6 (2010)5. - ISSN 1759-5029 - p. 290 - 293.
bite size - satiety - satiation - viscosity - origins - weight - cues
This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.
Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain
Spetter, M.S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 831 - 840.
sensory specific satiety - food-intake - neural representations - mammalian taste - aversive taste - human amygdala - bite size - humans - perception - satiation
The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller amounts. The optimal taste intensity of a food is the intensity at which it is perceived as most pleasant. When taste intensity decreases or increases from optimal, the pleasantness of a food decreases. Here, we investigated the brain representation of sweet and salty taste intensity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen subjects visited twice and tasted a range of 4 watery solutions (0–1 M) of either sucrose or NaCl in water. Middle insula activation increased with increasing concentration for both NaCl and sucrose. Despite similar subjective intensity ratings, anterior insula activation by NaCl increased more with concentration than that by sucrose. Amygdala activation increased with increasing NaCl concentration but not sucrose concentration. In conclusion, sweet and salty taste intensity are represented in the middle insula. Amygdala activation is only modulated by saltiness. Further research will need to extrapolate these results from simple solutions to real foods
Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 789 - 799.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dietary-sodium - bite size - ingestive behavior - energy density - liquid food - taste - satiation
Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption