Modelling crop production in water-scarce basins with SWAT : case studies of the Limpopo River basin and in Ethiopia
Querner, E.P. ; Herder, C. ; Fissahaye, D. ; Froebrich, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2534) - 53
gewasproductie - modelleren - schaarste - water - ethiopië - crop production - modeling - scarcity - water - ethiopia
Key role of China and its agriculture in global sustainable phosphorus management
Sattari, S.Z. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Giller, K.E. ; Zhang, F. ; Bouwman, A.F. - \ 2014
Environmental Research Letters 9 (2014)5. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 8 p.
environmental impacts - soil-phosphorus - crop yield - food-chain - fertilizer - nitrogen - perspective - scarcity - balances - industry
Growing global demand for food leads to increased pressure on phosphorus (P), a finite and dwindling resource. China is the largest producer and consumer of P fertilizer in the world. A mass balance analysis of historical P use on China's arable land shows that P input substantially exceeds crop P uptake leading to the accumulation of residual soil P. A Dynamic P Pool Simulator (DPPS) model is applied to estimate future P demand in China's arable land. Our simulations show that more sustainable use of P accounting for the residual P can save ca. 20% of the P fertilizer needed until 2050 in China relative to the Rio + 20 Trend scenario. This saving would be equivalent to half of the P required in Africa or sufficient for Western Europe to achieve target crop P uptake in 2050.
Should we be worried about the green paradox? Announcement effects of the Acid Rain Program
Maria, C. di; Lange, Ian ; Werf, E. van der - \ 2014
European Economic Review 69 (2014). - ISSN 0014-2921 - p. 143 - 162.
long-term-contracts - environmental-regulation - carbon leakage - coal markets - emissions - scarcity - policies - oil - act
This paper presents the first empirical test of the green paradox hypothesis, according to which well-intended but imperfectly implemented environmental policies may lead to detrimental outcomes due to supply side responses. We use the introduction of the Acid Rain Program in the U.S. as a case study. The theory predicts that owners of coal deposits, expecting future sales to decline, would supply more of their resource between the announcement of the Acid Rain Program and its implementation; moreover, the incentive to increase supply would be stronger for owners of high-sulfur coal. This would, all else equal, induce an increase in sulfur dioxide emissions. Using data on prices, heat input and sulfur content of coal delivered to U.S. power plants, we find strong evidence of a price decrease and of an increase in the sulfur premium, some indication that the amount of coal used might have increased, and no evidence of fuel-switching towards higher-sulfur coal. Overall, our evidence suggests that while the mechanism indicated by the theory might be at work, market conditions and concurrent regulation largely prevented a green paradox from arising. These results have implications for the design of climate policies.
Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change
Elliott, J. ; Deryng, D. ; Muller, C. ; Frieler, K. ; Konzmann, M. ; Gerten, D. ; Glotter, M. ; Florke, M.F. ; Wada, Y. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)9. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3239 - 3244.
model description - requirements - food - scarcity - impacts - part
We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, and driven by outputs of general circulation models run under representative concentration pathway 8.5 as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Models project that direct climate impacts to maize, soybean, wheat, and rice involve losses of 400–1,400 Pcal (8–24% of present-day total) when CO2 fertilization effects are accounted for or 1,400–2,600 Pcal (24–43%) otherwise. Freshwater limitations in some irrigated regions (western United States; China; and West, South, and Central Asia) could necessitate the reversion of 20–60 Mha of cropland from irrigated to rainfed management by end-of-century, and a further loss of 600–2,900 Pcal of food production. In other regions (northern/eastern United States, parts of South America, much of Europe, and South East Asia) surplus water supply could in principle support a net increase in irrigation, although substantial investments in irrigation infrastructure would be required.
Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China
Zhang, L. ; Heerink, N. ; Dries, L.K.E. ; Qu, F. - \ 2013
Ecological Economics 95 (2013)November. - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 128 - 136.
northwest china - institutional reform - heihe river - systems - scarcity - markets - agriculture - incentives - governance - panaceas
Traditional irrigation water management systems in China are increasingly replaced by user-based, participatory management through water users associations (WUAs) with the purpose to promote, economically and ecologically beneficial, water savings and increase farm incomes. Existing research shows that significant differences exist in the institutional setup of WUAs in China, and that WUAs have not been universally successful in saving water and improving farm incomes. This paper aims to examine the underlying causes of differences in WUA performance by analyzing the impact of WUA characteristics on the productivity of irrigation water. Explanatory variables in our analysis are derived from Agrawal's user-based resource governance framework. Applying a random intercept regression model to data collected among 21 WUAs and 315 households in Minle County in northern China, we find that group characteristics, particularly group size and number of water users groups, and the existing pressure on available water resources are important factors in water productivity. Resource characteristics, i.e. resource size and degree of overlap between the WUA boundaries and natural boundaries, do not significantly affect water productivity in our research area.
Mondiale voedselzekerheid en schaarste
Achterbosch, Thom - \ 2013
food security - food supply - food prices - scarcity - consumer expenditure
Verkenning mogelijke schaarste aan micronutriënten in het voedselsysteem
Chardon, W.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2413) - 43
bodemchemie - bemesting - mineralen - sporenelementen - kringlopen - borium - kobalt - koper - molybdeen - selenium - zink - schaarste - akkerbouw - tuinbouw - soil chemistry - fertilizer application - minerals - trace elements - cycling - boron - cobalt - copper - molybdenum - selenium - zinc - scarcity - arable farming - horticulture
Onder een micro-nutriënt wordt verstaan: een element dat essentieel is voor de groei en het functioneren van de plant, een dier of de mens, maar waarvan de benodigde hoeveelheid relatief klein is. In dit rapport zijn zes elementen geselecteerd omdat zij aantoonbaar essentieel zijn voor meerdere soorten gewassen of voor de veehouderij, en omdat de mate van vóórkomen in de aardkorst relatief gering is, waardoor (toekomstige) mondiale schaarste denkbaar is. Deze elementen zijn resp. borium, kobalt, koper, molybdeen, seleen en zink (B, Co, Cu, Mo, Se, en Zn). Alleen voor B en Se dragen de akker- en tuinbouw en de veehouderij significant bij aan het huidige mondiale gebruik: Se in de veehouderij 11% van totaal, en B in akker- en tuinbouw 12% van totaal verbruik. Prijsfluctuaties van Se en B zijn groot en wijzen op schaarste; binnen de industrie vindt recycling van deze elementen nauwelijks plaats. Binnen het voedselsysteem vindt recycling plaats van micronutriënten via hergebruik van dierlijke mest, gewasresten, compost en zuiveringsslib. Voor alle industrieel gebruikte micronutriënten zijn er alternatieven, behalve voor Co. In bodems vindt niet-duurzame ophoping plaats van Cu en Zn via mest, vooral in gebieden met een hoge veedichtheid.
Behoefte en verbruik van micronutriënten in de diervoeding = Requirement and consumption of micro nutrients in animal feed
Krimpen, M.M. van; Vuuren, A.M. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 673) - 31
rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - rundveevoeding - varkensvoeding - pluimveevoeding - mineralenvoeding - voer - kwantitatieve kenmerken - nutriëntenstromen - wereldeconomie - schaarste - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - cattle feeding - pig feeding - poultry feeding - mineral nutrition - feeds - quantitative traits - nutrient flows - world economy - scarcity
In this report, the requirements of some micro nutrients for cattle, pigs and poultry are summarized. Moreover, the global consumption of micro nutrients that are added to animal diets is calculated and compared with the total global use for all applications.
A participatory modelling approach to define farm-scale effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in the Lockyer Valley, Australia
Opstal, J.D. van; Huibers, F.P. ; Cresswell, R.G. - \ 2012
Water International 37 (2012)7. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 843 - 858.
simulation - systems - apsim - management - scarcity
The Lockyer Valley is an important agricultural area experiencing water insecurity, which causes a decrease in agricultural production. Regional authorities are initiating a wastewater reclamation project conveying treated municipal wastewater to water users, including potentially the Lockyer Valley. This additional (and essentially reliable) water source will change farming options and practices. A participatory modelling approach was used to analyse the consequences of changed water availability at the farm scale. This approach incorporates both farmer and scientist knowledge and gives due attention to non-technical issues like perception and acceptance. Two cropping patterns were worked out to forecast the effects on water deficit and crop yield in the projected situation.
An economic model of long-term phosphorus extraction and recycling
Seyhan, D. ; Weikard, H.P. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2012
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 61 (2012)4. - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 103 - 108.
exhaustible resources - intergenerational equity - scarcity
Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient necessary for life. In the form of phosphates it presents a mineral resource that we depend on, having no substitute for its fertilizer use. These limited reserves of P are depleting globally, and maintaining or improving food security will require careful long-term use of the resource. We study here the extraction and recycling of P with an optimal control framework, and develop a resource-specific model. We determine time-paths for extraction and recycling when both technological progress and a geological stock effect drive the supply of P. Demand is described by a hyperbolic function with a strictly positive lower bound reflecting the key properties of the resource, its non-substitutability and its essentiality. We obtain three insights: (i) Although essential and non-substitutable, P resources will be depleted due to a strict minimum consumption level. Recycling could postpone depletion costs and maintain a minimum consumption forever but at rising marginal costs. (ii) Although extraction depletes the resource and increases its scarcity over time, we observe that on an optimal path the price can fall, which will increase extraction. This underlines that market prices cannot serve as reliable scarcity indicator and fail to support resource augmenting technologies. (iii) If the shadow price is used as scarcity indicator, it would provide incentives for recycling even under declining primary resource prices. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|The end of abundance. Economic solutions to water scarcity
Zetland, D.J. - \ 2011
Mission Viejo, CA : Aguanomics Press - ISBN 9780615469737 - 294
watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - waterzekerheid - schaarste - watervoorziening - watergebruik - milieueconomie - economie - water resources - resource management - water security - scarcity - water supply - water use - environmental economics - economics
In a past of abundance, we had clean water to meet our demands for showers, pools, farms and rivers. Our laws and customs did not need to regulate or ration demand. Over time, our demand has grown, and scarcity has replaced abundance. We don't have as much clean water as we want. We can respond to the end of abundance with old ideas or adopt new tools specifically designed to address water scarcity. In this book, the author describes the impact of scarcity on our many water uses, how the institutions of abundance fail in scarcity, and how economic ideas and tools can help us direct water to its highest and best use.
Aandacht voor ruimtelijke aspecten is pure noodzaak voor zorgvuldige veehouderij
Gies, T.J.A. ; Commandeur, M.A.M. ; Hermans, C.M.L. ; Geijzendorffer, I.R. ; Naeff, H.S.D. - \ 2010
In: Over zorgvuldige veehouderij. Veel instrumenten, één concert / Eijsackers, H., Scholten, M., Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Essaybundel 2010 ) - ISBN 9789085858959 - p. 186 - 195.
intensieve veehouderij - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - schaarste - gebruik van ruimte - intensive livestock farming - physical planning - land use - scarcity - space utilization
Zorgvuldige veehouderij richt zich op een modern ingericht dier-, mens- en milieuvriendelijk systeem. Nieuwe innovatieve veehouderijconcepten, zoals het Rondeel, worden ontworpen om de veehouderij klaar te stomen voor de toekomst. Maar zijn daarmee de huidige bezwaren voor de intensieve veehouderij opgelost? Nee, we vergeten iets: zorgvuldig gebruik van onze ruimte. Hoe en waar passen deze concepten in onze schaarse ruimte en welke ruimtelijke strategieën moeten we daarvoor hanteren? Een betoog over zorgvuldige landbouw en ons ruimtegebruik.
|Stroom biologische bestrijders droogt op: Op jacht naar natuurlijke vijanden
Sleegers, J. ; Ramakers, P.M.J. ; Messelink, G.J. - \ 2010
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 2010 (2010)27. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 40 - 41.
bloementeelt - gewasbescherming - natuurlijke vijanden - schaarste - biologische bestrijding - floriculture - plant protection - natural enemies - scarcity - biological control
De stroom aan nieuwe natuurlijke vijanden is aan het opdrogen, vooral omdat ze niet te patenteren zijn. Er is echter dringend behoefte aan nieuwe beestjes. WUR Glastuinbouw pleit ervoor om onderzoek collectief te financieren.
Phosphorus in agriculture: global resoources, trends and developments : report to the Steering Committee Technology Assessment of the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The Netherlands, and in collaboration with the Nutrient Flow Task Group (NFTG), supported by DPRN (Development Policy review Network)
Smit, A.L. ; Bindraban, P.S. ; Schröder, J.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Meer, H.G. van der - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 282) - 36
gewasproductie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - fosfor - kringlopen - hulpbronnenbehoud - verarming - wereld - agro-ecosystemen - schaarste - crop production - soil fertility - phosphorus - cycling - resource conservation - depletion - world - agroecosystems - scarcity
In agroproduction systems recycling of phosphorus should be the general principle. This holds for manure, crop residues and other organic rest products. Especially the cattle feedlot industry can be a market for DGGS, being a co-product of the distillery industries. Recovery from seawater is a possible alternative for the re-use of phosphorus. These and other aspects are reviewed in this inventory on a world scale
When demand accelerates demand: Trailing the bandwagon
Herpen, E. van; Pieters, F.G.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2009
Journal of Consumer Psychology 19 (2009)3. - ISSN 1057-7408 - p. 302 - 312.
social-influence - herd behavior - consumer - product - scarcity - need - self - restrictions - information - conformity
Consumers generally prefer scarce products, which has been related to their exclusiveness. Currently scarce products, however, are not necessarily exclusive, but could be scarce because many other consumers previously bought them. We propose that consumers also prefer scarce products in this situation, which an appeal to uniqueness cannot explain. Three experiments support our predictions and reveal that scarcity effects even occur when consumers only see traces of others' behavior through emptied shelf space. Furthermore, this bandwagon effect disappears when uniqueness is threatened due to others in close spatial distance. .
Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania
Kissawike, K. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049135 - 235
ontwikkeling - irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - watertoewijzing - modernisering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - man-vrouwrelaties - landbouw met irrigatie - waterbeheer - participatie - tanzania - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - geslacht (gender) - schaarste - middelen van bestaan - development - irrigation - irrigation systems - water allocation - modernization - sustainability - gender relations - irrigated farming - water management - participation - tanzania - africa south of sahara - gender - scarcity - livelihoods
This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to contribute to a better understanding
of what kinds of livelihood and production changes (negative and positive)
eventuate under ‘modernised’ irrigation systems, and how these contrast with
conditions under the older local irrigation systems the scheme has replaced. The
central research question of the thesis is to understand how irrigation modernisation
in the 1980s shaped, and has been reshaped by, the livelihood needs and options of
water users. The thesis analyses the initiatives and interactions of agents at various
levels – i.e. international, national, community and farm levels – as they attempt to
make use of and adjust to the technical and operational demands of a modern
scheme. In methodological terms, this thesis is guided by a technographic approach,
as advocated by Richards (2002), Richards (2007) and Bolding (2005). A
technographic approach ‘focuses on the complex interactions between social groups,
collective representations, innovation processes, technical artifacts and nature’. In
this case technography is applied to a socio-technical institution, the Lower Moshi
irrigation scheme, located in semi-arid lowland terrain at the foot of Mount
The research work took place over three seasons. In addition to careful
examination of project documentation, and interviews with project staff, the study
also undertook a randomised sample survey of 300 farmers in the four main project
area settlements, and made detailed observational studies across the agricultural
cycle of a smaller number of farm holdings owned and operated by both men and
women farmers. Since only about 30% of farmers within the scheme actually
cultivate irrigated plots sampling was designed to ensure proper representation of
non-irrigating farmers, since the activities of this poorer (non-irrigating) group is
crucial to the understanding the socio-economic dynamics of the scheme more
generally. Finally, some attention was paid to off-scheme communities. Many of the
technical problems experienced by the scheme (notably, the failure to distribute
water in volumes originally planned) relate to concurrent socio-economic and
technical changes taking place in up-stream communities, in particular, and an
account is offered of some aspects of these off-project agro-technical changes, and of
the disputes that then arose over water rights.
The thesis first offers an historical summary of irrigation in the Kilimanjaro
region, based on secondary sources and project documentation. In this part of Africa
the mountains are wet and forested, and the surrounding plains are dry. The Chagga
people (Wa-Chagga) were densely populated on the mountain, farming the wetter
slopes intensively in the 19th century, and it was an aim of colonial government to
resettle “excess” population in the plains. Some development of irrigation took place
from the 1920s to encourage this relocation of population, and a diverse population
(mainly but not exclusively Wa-Chagga) settled in Lower Moshi district to farm,
assisted by possibilities of irrigation. After independence, the Japanese government
offered funding and technical assistance to the Tanzanian government to modernise,
re-develop and extend irrigation in Lower Moshi, and a new scheme came into
operation in the 1980s, with a strong emphasis on intensive rice production, using
high-yielding (Green Revolution) semi-dwarf varieties such as IR54.
The central finding from this part of the analysis (covered mainly in Chapters 1
and 2) is that the planners did not sufficiently take into account that irrigation in
Lower Moshi and among Wa-Chagga and neighboring populations was no new
thing. Many of the technical and social problems the scheme subsequently faced can
be traced to the fact that farmers were already familiar with irrigation techniques and
had developed traditional institutional arrangements to handle water rights and
labour burdens. Farmers outside the scheme undercut it by being quick to adopt
some project innovations, and to adapt their own practices accordingly. They also
diverted water from flowing into the scheme, arguing that access to water from the
mountain was an established traditional right under British rule, and still respected
by the independent government of Tanzania. The scheme thus failed to develop the
area originally intended, and is chronically short of water, undermining the
confidence of farmers within the scheme in its management procedures. A further
important finding is that women were largely excluded from the associations
involved in traditional irrigation water management (apart from providing labour on
specific occasions) and gendered notions of task and property rooted in local
tradition have continued to influence land inheritance and water rights within the
Actual as opposed to planned workings of the scheme are addressed in Chapters 3
and 4, and an account is offered of the introduction of new agricultural technology.
Impacts or changes in relation to crop production, hired employment and other
production strategies, and income distribution among population are discussed,
along with impact on livelihoods. The scheme has had a highly layered impact.
Those able to secure plots with reliable water do, indeed, make money out of
intensive rice production, but the percentage is rather small, since the project is not
able to irrigate reliably, or at all, many areas within the scheme. Farmers in tail end
areas with unreliable water, or able only to farm land the project has never succeeded
to irrigate, lack the capacity to influence management to change water distribution in
their favour. The scheme lacks capital to invest in technical solutions to inadequate
water distribution, but in any case the major problem lies in reduced flow, in part a
product of up-stream diversions by non-scheme farmers. The project management
has failed to assert its legal water right, since the government agrees that traditional
rights also apply. Scheme management and maintenance suffer as a result. Farmers
without water do not see why they should help maintain the scheme or pay dues.
Some solve their problems by becoming “free riders” and acquire water by illegal
means; others focus on (less profitable) dry-land crops. A range of these conflicts is
examined, including contradictions between different classes of scheme settlers, e.g.
wealthier farmers with better access to the scarce water and poorer farmers
(including women plot owners) found in tail end areas. A complex interaction of
modern property regimes and customary values in the modernisation process is
reported. Irrigation project managements in Africa need to take account of these legal
and cultural complexities.
Intra-household gender relations are a specific focus in the later chapters of the
thesis (5-6). Women play a crucial role in the agricultural labour process, both in
irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture. They are (by custom) the major providers of
household food, while husbands focus on earning cash for other household expenses.
The introduction of a cash crop (rice) complicates this division of responsibility.
Women continue to provide labour on irrigated plots, but men assume the main
decision making role. A small number of women has acquired rights to irrigated land
on the scheme (through purchase or inheritance) but a majority are in the position of
farm workers or tenants. Irrigated rice increases women's labour burdens and
responsibilities, since this is a cash crop and they still have to work on household
food crops as well. The scheme has continued to show many of the problems of
public irrigation development in Africa since the 1970s discussed in the introduction.
However, the situation in Lower Moshi is not as reported for parts of (West) Africa,
where women have been supplanted by men in (modernised) rice farming. Here
women never enjoyed rights over irrigated crops. What has happened on the scheme
is that their burdens have intensified. In cases where women have no husbands they
tend to be among the poorest farmers residing within the scheme, with little reliable
water or farming only rain-fed crops. In short, the scheme has widened the gap
between rich and poor, and intensified existing gender inequalities, in regard to
ownership of plots, agricultural output, division of labour, and coping strategies. The
thesis also shows that there are strong gender differentials in water rights and in
participation in water management. Alienation of women from management and
repair undermines scheme renewal. Irrigation management must develop a stronger
focus on gender issues to overcome challenges of inequitable water access, if it is to
provide any wider opportunities for better livelihoods, food security and nutrition in the area.
When less sells more and when it does not: The impact of product scarcity on preference and choice
Herpen, E. van; Pieters, F.G.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Lsg Marktkunde en Consumentengedrag (Working paper / Mansholt Graduate School of Social Sciences : Discussion paper ) - 36
consumptie - consumenten - consumentengedrag - basisproducten - schaarste - consumption - consumers - consumer behaviour - commodities - scarcity
The present research extends commodity theory, by revealing the effects of product scarcity due to different causes on consumers’ inferences, preferences and choice. The attraction of scarce products comes from two markedly different mechanisms: popularity for demand-caused scarcity and exclusiveness for supply-caused scarcity. In addition, scarcity due to excess demand may actually backfire and reduce product preferences if the need to be unique is activated. In this way, the authors have shown when less sells more and when it does not
Ethiopian Central Rift Valley: Water abundant or water scarce?
Hengsdijk, H. ; Legesse, D. ; Jansen, H.C. ; Ayenew, T. ; Spliethoff, P.C. - \ 2007
water availability - ethiopia - water conservation - rain - scarcity
|Duurzaam omgaan met een essentiele 'grondstof in overvloed'; meervoudig watergebruik op de waterplaneet
Lier, J.B. van - \ 2007
Spil 233-234 (2007)1. - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 9 - 14.
watergebruik - waterbeschikbaarheid - wereld - water - schaarste - water use - water availability - world - water - scarcity
In dit artikel worden de beschikbaarheid en het ( mogelijke meervoudige) gebruik van water als grondstof geschetst, toegespitst op de sectoren industrie en landbouw. Dit alles geplaatst in een mondiaal kader van groeiende schaarste en oplopende kosten van grondstoffen, en een dreigende monopolisering ervan. Dit artikel geeft de hoofdlijnen van de inaugurele rede (2006, bijzonder hoogleraarschap Wageningen)
The allocation of scarce resources in miscellaneous cases
Hamsvoort, C.P.C.M. van der - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer; L.C. Zachariasse. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789086150526 - 126
middelentoewijzing - hulpbronnen - economische theorie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - veilingen - landbouwgrond - grondmarkten - handelsonderhandelingen - milieu - landgebruiksplanning - schaarste - resource allocation - resources - economic theory - sustainability - auctions - agricultural land - land markets - trade negotiations - environment - land use planning - scarcity
Key words: sustainable development, environmental utilization space (EUS), auctions, conservation contracting, information asymmetry, agricultural land market, Town and Country Planning Act,AMS, agricultural trade negotiations, PSE. This book presents a number of papers that address different allocation problems. Each of them applies to specific situations, defined by the conditions assumed in the model. The papers appeared previously in different outlets and are reprinted by permission of the co-authors and publishers.
The first paper - 'Sustainability: a review of the debate and an extension'- argues that the current debate on sustainability is obscured by a number of misunderstandings. These relate, first, to the ongoing dispute between ecologists and economists holding different visions about the limits of economic growth and the carrying capacity of the Earth; and second, to the discrepancy between theoretical sustainability and practical sustainability. The paper concludes that the current vagueness surrounding sustainability may be reduced by reframing the debate. It demonstrates that the dispute between ecologists and economists can largely be considered as unproductive because the only sustainability concept supported by theory is that of 'strong sustainability'. The paper argues further that the gap between theoretical and practical sustainability may be bridged by distinguishing three concepts which properly account for informational inadequacies and human preferences in the design of sustainability constraints. These are: the 'sustainable EUS' (Environmental Utilization Space), the 'measured EUS', and the 'chosen EUS'.
In the second paper - 'Auctioning conservation contracts: a theoretical analysis and an application' - Auction theory is used to analyze the potential benefits of auctions in allocating contracts for the provision of nonmarket goods in the countryside. A model of optimal bidding for conservation contracts is developed and applied to a hypothetical conservation programme. The study shows that competitive bidding, compared to fixed‑rate payments, can increase the cost effectiveness of conservation contracting significantly. The cost revelation mechanism inherent in the bidding process makes auctions a powerful means by which to reduce the problems of information asymmetry. The study also shows that strategic bidding behaviour, which may adversely affect the performance of sequential auctions, is difficult to address by means of auction design.
The third paper - 'Auctions as a means of creating a market for public goods from agriculture' - looks at the possibility of creating a market for environmental goods and services in the countryside by awarding conservation contracts to farmers on the basis of competitive bidding. Auctions have several theoretical advantages over alternative allocation mechanisms (such as standard‑rate payments) because they allow the participants to deal with informational asymmetries and the uncertainty about the value of the (nonmarket) goods being traded. A formal model of bidding behaviour in 'green auctions' shows that bidding strategies are determined by the individual farmers' costs of implementing the conservation contracts and their beliefs about the maximum acceptable payment level, making the auction an imperfect cost revelation mechanism. Auctions can reduce the information rents accruing to farmers and can increase the cost‑effectiveness of public goods provision. Strategic bidding behaviour in multiple‑signup auctions as well as high transaction costs are potential sources of reduced efficiency.
The fourth paper - 'The pivotal role of the agricultural land market in the Netherlands' -analyzes the allocation of space in the Netherlands. In particular the effect of the 'Town and Country Planning Act', government policies in respect of agriculture, nature, landscape, and the environment and developments in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors on the allocation and price of agricultural land. The study shows that viewed separately, the environmental, nature, and agricultural policies might be consistent with the goals they are supposed to achieve, but in interaction they are conflicting and preclude the simultaneous achievement of these very same objectives. The study also shows that the agricultural land market plays a pivotal role in this network of interactions. The EU market and price policy, with the exception of the milk quotas, caused the price of land to rise, and subsequently the land price rose again due to the environmental and nature policy needed to compensate for the negative effects of that agricultural policy. In addition, the economic boom of the late '90s created a great many 'red' claims on agricultural land, which in combination with an unsteady 'Town and Country Planning Act', drives up land prices along with the general increase in real estate prices. For farmers, the resulting extremely high land price was reason to make even more intensive use of land.Finally, the fifth paper - 'The AMS in agricultural trade negotiations: a review' - reviews the role of the Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) in the agricultural trade negotiations of the Uruguay Round. Contrary to expectations at the start of these negotiations, the AMS only occupies a subsidiary position in the final agreement. In order to explain this, first an economic analysis is presented of the Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE), the basic AMS concept in the GATT discussions. Secondly, the political AMS debate is described and analyzed, using information from unpublished GATT documents. Although the PSE concept is based on simple assumptions, its measurement already meets a number of difficult problems (policy coverage, product coverage, external references prices, currency). Once these are solved, the concept may offer a brief insight into actual governmental support in agriculture. However, the calculations do not provide a sound measure of the trade distortions caused by agricultural policies. Mainly for that reason, the idea of a pure aggregated approach - based on the AMS - proved unsuccessful in the negotiations. Instead, the Contracting Parties accepted the framework of making binding agreements on three separate areas: internal support, market access and export support. While important and very specific commitments were made in the areas of agricultural imports and exports, the AMS has only found application in the internal support area.