Introduction to the Third GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS3)
Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 152 (2014)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 127 - 132.
low-level jets - diurnal cycles - land-surface - sea-ice - model - radiation - weather
The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a dominant role in the exchange of energy, water vapour, trace gases and momentum between the earth’s surface and the overlying atmosphere. Consequently, the ABL is an important part of any numerical model in use for atmospheric and climate research, for operational weather forecasting, and for air - quality and wind - energy studies. For all these applications an overall representation is needed for boundary-layer turbulence and near-surface processes, as well as for vertical diffusion above the boundary layer. This representation is typically referred as the parametrization of vertical diffusion and turbulent mixing. It appears that models at various research groups and operational centres use rather different methods to represent turbulence and vertical diffusion and the reasons behind this diversity are not that easy to unravel. Most likely, this originates for historical reasons due to the outcome of various tuning exercises and to the num
Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model for GABLS3: Impact of boundary-layer schemes, boundary conditions and spin-up
Kleczek, M.A. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 152 (2014)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 213 - 243.
nonlocal closure-model - low-level jets - wrf model - part i - vertical diffusion - diurnal cycles - sea-ice - turbulence - sensitivity - parameterization
We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study (GABLS3) one-dimensional model intercomparison. The WRF model (version 3.4.1) contains 12 different PBL parametrizations, most of which have been only partially evaluated. The GABLS3 case offers a clear opportunity to evaluate model performance, focusing on time series of near-surface weather variables, radiation and surface flux budgets, vertical structure and the nighttime inertial oscillation. The model results revealed substantial differences between the PBL schemes. Generally, non-local schemes tend to produce higher temperatures and higher wind speeds than local schemes, in particular, for nighttime. The WRF model underestimates the 2-m temperature during daytime (about TeX K) and substantially underestimates it at night (about TeX K), in contrast to the previous studies where modelled 2-m temperature was overestimated. Considering the 10-m wind speed, during the night turbulent kinetic energy based schemes tend to produce lower wind speeds than other schemes. In all simulations the sensible and latent heat fluxes were well reproduced. For the net radiation and the soil heat flux we found good agreement with daytime observations but underestimations at night. Concerning the vertical profiles, the selected non-local PBL schemes underestimate the PBL depth and the low-level jet altitude at night by about 50 m, although with the correct wind speed. The latter contradicts most previous studies and can be attributed to the revised stability function in the Yonsei University PBL scheme. The local, turbulent kinetic energy based PBL schemes estimated the low-level jet altitude and strength more accurately. Compared to the observations, all model simulations show a similar structure for the potential temperature, with a consistent cold bias (TeX2 K) in the upper PBL. In addition to the sensitivity to the PBL schemes, we studied the sensitivity to technical features such as horizontal resolution and domain size. We found a substantial difference in the model performance for a range of 12, 18 and 24 h spin-up times, longer spin-up time decreased the modelled wind speed bias, but it strengthened the negative temperature bias. The sensitivity of the model to the vertical resolution of the input and boundary conditions on the model performance is confirmed, and its influence appeared most significant for the non-local PBL parametrizations
Stable atmospheric boundary layers and diurnal Cycles-Challenges for Weather and Climate Models
Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Svensson, G. ; Baas, P. ; Basu, S. ; Beare, B. ; Beljaars, A.C.M. ; Bosveld, F.C. ; Cuxart, J. ; Lindvall, J. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Tjernstrom, M. ; Wiel, B.J.H. van de - \ 2013
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 (2013). - ISSN 0003-0007 - p. 1691 - 1706.
low-level jets - land-surface - contrasting nights - soil-moisture - ecmwf model - sea-ice - turbulence - cases-99 - parameterization - fluxes
The representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is an important part of weather and climate models and impacts many applications such as air quality and wind energy. Over the years, the performance in modeling 2 m temperature and 10 m wind speed has improved but errors are still significant. This is in particular the case under clear skies and low wind-speed conditions at night as well as during winter in stably stratified conditions over land and ice. In this paper, we review these issues and provide an overview of the current understanding and model performance. Results from weather forecast and climate models are used to illustrate the state of the art, as well as findings and recommendations from three inter-comparison studies held within the “Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX)” Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). Within GABLS, the focus has been on the examination of the representation of the stable boundary layer and the diurnal cycle over land in clear sky conditions. For this purpose, single-column versions of weather and climate models have been compared with observations, research models and Large Eddy Simulations. The intercomparison cases are based on observations taken in the Arctic, Kansas and at Cabauw in the Netherlands. From these studies, we find that even for the non-cloudy boundary layer important parameterization challenges remain.
Boundary layer stability and Arctic climate change: a feedback study using EC-Earth
Bintanja, R. ; Linden, E.C. van der; Hazeleger, W. - \ 2012
Climate Dynamics 39 (2012)11. - ISSN 0930-7575 - p. 2659 - 2673.
surface albedo feedback - polar amplification - sea-ice - model - impact - aquaplanet
Amplified Arctic warming is one of the key features of climate change. It is evident in observations as well as in climate model simulations. Usually referred to as Arctic amplification, it is generally recognized that the surface albedo feedback governs the response. However, a number of feedback mechanisms play a role in AA, of which those related to the prevalent near-surface inversion have received relatively little attention. Here we investigate the role of the near-surface thermal inversion, which is caused by radiative surface cooling in autumn and winter, on Arctic warming. We employ idealized climate change experiments using the climate model EC-Earth together with ERA-Interim reanalysis data to show that boundary-layer mixing governs the efficiency by which the surface warming signal is ‘diluted’ to higher levels. Reduced vertical mixing, as in the stably stratified inversion layer in Arctic winter, thus amplifies surface warming. Modelling results suggest that both shortwave—through the (seasonal) interaction with the sea ice feedback—and longwave feedbacks are affected by boundary-layer mixing, both in the Arctic and globally, with the effect on the shortwave feedback dominating. The amplifying effect will decrease, however, with climate warming because the surface inversion becomes progressively weaker. We estimate that the reduced Arctic inversion has slowed down global warming by about 5% over the past 2 decades, and we anticipate that it will continue to do so with ongoing Arctic warming.
Impact of climate change on Antarctic krill
Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P. ; Atkinson, A. ; Kawaguchi, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2012
Marine Ecology Progress Series 458 (2012). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 1 - 19.
euphausia-superba dana - spatial-distribution patterns - southern-ocean acidification - natural growth-rates - marginal ice-zone - sea-ice - scotia sea - marine ecosystem - circumpolar current - ozone depletion
Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (hereafter ‘krill’) occur in regions undergoing rapid environmental change, particularly loss of winter sea ice. During recent years, harvesting of krill has increased, possibly enhancing stress on krill and Antarctic ecosystems. Here we review the overall impact of climate change on krill and Antarctic ecosystems, discuss implications for an ecosystem-based fisheries management approach and identify critical knowledge gaps. Sea ice decline, ocean warming and other environmental stressors act in concert to modify the abundance, distribution and life cycle of krill. Although some of these changes can have positive effects on krill, their cumulative impact is most likely negative. Recruitment, driven largely by the winter survival of larval krill, is probably the population parameter most susceptible to climate change. Predicting changes to krill populations is urgent, because they will seriously impact Antarctic ecosystems. Such predictions, however, are complicated by an intense inter-annual variability in recruitment success and krill abundance. To improve the responsiveness of the ecosystem-based management approach adopted by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), critical knowledge gaps need to be filled. In addition to a better understanding of the factors influencing recruitment, management will require a better understanding of the resilience and the genetic plasticity of krill life stages, and a quantitative understanding of under-ice and benthic habitat use. Current precautionary management measures of CCAMLR should be maintained until a better understanding of these processes has been achieved
Arctic winter warming amplified by the thermal inversion and consequent low infrared cooling to space
Bintanja, R. ; Graversen, R.G. ; Hazeleger, W. - \ 2011
Nature Geoscience 4 (2011). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 758 - 761.
surface albedo feedback - polar amplification - sea-ice - climate-change - models
Pronounced warming in the Arctic region, coined Arctic amplification, is an important feature of observed and modelled climate change1, 2. Arctic amplification is generally attributed to the retreat of sea-ice3 and snow, and the associated surface-albedo feedback4, in conjunction with other processes5, 6, 7, 8. In addition, the predominant thermal surface inversion in winter has been suggested to pose a negative feedback to Arctic warming by enhancing infrared radiative cooling9. Here we use the coupled climate model EC-Earth10 in idealized climate change experiments to quantify the individual contributions of the surface and the atmosphere to infrared radiative cooling. We find that the surface inversion in fact intensifies Arctic amplification, because the ability of the Arctic wintertime clear-sky atmosphere to cool to space decreases with inversion strength. Specifically, we find that the cold layers close to the surface in Arctic winter, where most of the warming takes place, hardly contribute to the infrared radiation that goes out to space. Instead, the additional radiation that is generated by the warming of these layers is directed downwards, and thus amplifies the warming. We conclude that the predominant Arctic wintertime temperature inversion damps infrared cooling of the system, and thus constitutes a positive warming feedback.
Sympagic occurrence of Eusirid and Lysianassoid amphipods under Antarctic pack ice
Krapp, R.H. ; Berge, J. ; Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P. ; Gulliksen, B. ; Werner, I. - \ 2008
Deep-Sea Research. Part II, tropical studies in oceanography 55 (2008)8-9. - ISSN 0967-0645 - p. 1015 - 1023.
sea-ice - weddell sea - perdentatus chevreux - community structure - 1912 crustacea - mcmurdo sound - micronekton - shelf
During three Antarctic expeditions (2004, ANT XXI-4 and XXII-2; 2006, ANT XXIII-6) with the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern, six different amphipod species were recorded under the pack ice of the Weddell Sea and the Lazarev Sea. These cruises covered Austral autumn (April), summer (December) and winter (August) situations, respectively. Five of the amphipod species recorded here belong to the family Eusiridae (Eusirus antarcticus, E. laticarpus, E. microps, E. perdentatus and E. tridentatus), while the last belongs to the Lysianassidea, genus Cheirimedon (cf. femoratus). Sampling was performed by a specially designed under-ice trawl in the Lazarev Sea, whereas in the Weddell Sea sampling was done by scuba divers and deployment of baited traps. In the Weddell Sea, individuals of E. antarcticus and E. tridentatus were repeatedly observed in situ during under-ice dives, and single individuals were even found in the infiltration layer. Also in aquarium observations, individuals of E. antarcticus and E. tridentatus attached themselves readily to sea ice. Feeding experiments on E. antarcticus and E. tridentatus indicated a carnivorous diet. Individuals of the Lysianassoid Cheirimedon were only collected in baited traps there. Repeated conventional zooplankton hauls performed in parallel to this study did not record any of these amphipods from the water column. In the Lazarev Sea, E. microps, E. perdentatus and E. laticarpus were regularly found in under-ice trawls. We discuss the origin and possible sympagic life style of these amphipods.