Food safety hazards in the European seaweed chain
Banach, J.L. ; Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 19 (2020)2. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 332 - 364.
contamination - food safety - hazard - seafood - seaweed
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in seaweed, including factors influencing their presence, and to prioritize the hazards that may pose a risk to human health. Given current knowledge from the literature, data from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and results from a stakeholder survey, 22 food safety hazards were ranked into major (4), moderate (5), and minor (13) hazards. Arsenic, cadmium, iodine, and Salmonella were identified as major hazards. Hazards, where data gaps exist, should be carefully assessed. These include pesticide residues, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, marine biotoxins, allergens, micro- and nanoplastics, other pathogenic bacteria, norovirus, and hepatitis E virus. It is recommended to collect more data on these hazards in future studies. Many factors can affect the presence of hazards including seaweed type, physiology, season, harvest and cultivation environment, geography including the location of cultivation, alongside further processing. Moreover, when seaweed is cultivated near industrialized or anthropogenic activities, these activities may negatively influence water quality, which can increase the likelihood of hazards in seaweed. Results of the ranking prioritized hazards can be used to prioritize monitoring programs and adjusted given future additional knowledge covering the data gaps.
Three pillars of sustainability in fisheries
Asche, F. ; Garlock, Taryn M. ; Anderson, J.L. ; Bush, S.R. ; Smith, Martin D. ; Anderson, Christopher M. ; Chu, Jingjie ; Garrett, K.A. ; Lem, Audun ; Lorenzen, K. ; Oglend, Atle ; Tveteras, Sigbjorn ; Vannuccini, Stefania - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)44. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 11221 - 11225.
seafood - sustainability - social - economic - environmental
Sustainability of global fisheries is a growing concern. The United Nations has identified three pillars of sustainability: economic development, social development, and environmental protection. The fisheries literature suggests that there are two key trade-offs among these pillars of sustainability. First, poor ecological health of a fishery reduces economic profits for fishers, and second, economic profitability of individual fishers undermines the social objectives of fishing communities. Although recent research has shown that management can reconcile ecological and economic objectives, there are lingering concerns about achieving positive social outcomes. We examined trade-offs among the three pillars of sustainability by analyzing the Fishery Performance Indicators, a unique dataset that scores 121 distinct fishery systems worldwide on 68 metrics categorized by social, economic, or ecological outcomes. For each of the 121 fishery systems, we averaged the outcome measures to create overall scores for economic, ecological, and social performance. We analyzed the scores and found that they were positively associated in the full sample. We divided the data into subsamples that correspond to fisheries management systems with three categories of access—open access, access rights, and harvest rights—and performed a similar analysis. Our results show that economic, social, and ecological objectives are at worst independent and are mutually reinforcing in both types of managed fisheries. The implication is that rights-based management systems should not be rejected on the basis of potentially negative social outcomes; instead, social considerations should be addressed in the design of these systems.
Assembling sustainable territories : space, subjects, objects, and expertise in seafood certification
Vandergeest, Peter ; Ponte, Stefano ; Bush, Simon - \ 2015
Environment and Planning A 47 (2015)9. - ISSN 0308-518X - p. 1907 - 1925.
green grabbing - seafood - sustainability certification - territorialization
The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend their sovereignty.The authors call for more nuanced understandings of sustainability certification as made up of multiple logics beyond the market.
Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain
Dabade, D.S. ; Besten, H.M.W. den; Azokpota, P. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2014
Journal of Food Protection 77 (2014)9. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1642 - 1648.
food safety - temperature abuse - supply chains - transparency - challenges - assurance - handlers - industry - seafood
In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.
The ‘devils triangle’ of MSC certification: Balancing credibility, accessibility and continuous improvement
Bush, S.R. ; Toonen, H.M. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2013
Marine Policy 37 (2013). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 288 - 293.
seafood - conservation - fisheries - chains - system
The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has continued to strengthen its position in the market based on its credibility as a transparent, accountable and science-based third party certification scheme. However, the consolidation of MSC's credibility risks being undermined by the poor representation of developing world fisheries and concerns that the scheme provides little incentive for continual improvement for fisheries once certified. This paper argues that the challenge of maintaining credibility while increasing access and fisheries improvement constitutes a ‘devils triangle’. In the absence of a clear policy from MSC for balancing this triangle fisheries are taking their own actions to differentiate themselves both above (MSC-plus) and below (MSC-minus) the certification threshold. To avoid further undermining of the MSC the organisation should internalise such externally-led differentiation by moving towards an internally controlled tiered certification system based on its already existing metric-based principle indicator system. Doing so would communicate on equity and continual improvement both before and after certification, and create on-going incentives for fishers to enter into the MSC programme.
Association of health involvement and attitudes towards eating fish on farmed and wild fish consumption in Belgium, Norway and Spain
Altintzoglou, T. ; Vanhonacker, F. ; Verbeke, W. ; Luten, J.B. - \ 2011
Aquaculture International 19 (2011). - ISSN 0967-6120 - p. 475 - 488.
consumer perception - scientific evidence - european countries - benefits - behavior - seafood - risks - convenience - translation - information
Consumers in many European countries do not equally meet the recommended daily intake levels for fish consumption. Various factors that can influence fish consumption behaviour have been identified but limited research has been performed on fish consumption behaviour, discriminating between farmed and wild fish. The present survey study confirmed differences in total fish consumption, farmed fish and wild fish consumption behaviour in Belgium, Norway and Spain. Spanish consumers consumed more frequently fish of each category than Norwegian consumers. Belgian consumers reported the lowest consumption frequency of fish. Accordingly, health involvement and attitudes towards fish consumption decreased from Spain over Norway to Belgium, suggesting a positive association of health involvement and attitudes towards fish consumption with total fish consumption. Similar effects were found for farmed and wild fish consumption. In general consumers in all countries were poorly aware of the origin of the fish they consume, despite the mandatory indication of origin on fish labels. Across countries, an increased awareness about fish origin was found with increased fish consumption. The findings of the study indicate that farmed and wild fish consumption should be further stimulated among Belgian, Norwegian and Spanish consumers in association with a healthy and positive meal. Additionally, given the limited awareness of the origin of fish, transparency on the issue of farmed origin will be important in order to anticipate potential adverse communication.
Quantitative trace analysis of eight chloramphenicol isomers in urine by chiral liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Essers, M.L. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2011
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1218 (2011)41. - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 7331 - 7340.
human plasma - antibiotic chloramphenicol - enantiomeric separation - residues - meat - dextramycin - 2002/657/ec - validation - seafood - drugs
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with, apart from its human medicinal use, veterinary abuse in all major food-producing animals. Chloramphenicol occurs in four stereoisomers (all para-nitro substituted) and furthermore four meta-nitro analogs of chloramphenicol exist. In this paper these are referred to as eight chloramphenicol isomers. According to EU regulations an analytical method should be able to discriminate the analyte from interfering substances that might be present in the sample, including isomers. For the first time a quantitative method for the analysis of trace levels of eight chloramphenicol isomers in urine by chiral liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric detection is reported. The separation of the isomers on the analytical column, the clean-up of urine and the selectivity of the monitored product ions turned out to be critical parameters. To obtain reproducible retention isocratic elution on a chiral AGP column was applied. For urine samples matrix compounds present in the final extract caused decreased retention of the isomers on the chiral stationary phase and a lack of chromatographic resolution. Therefore an extended clean-up procedure that combines solid phase extraction and liquid–liquid extraction had to be developed. The final method was fully validated and showed satisfactory performance for all isomers with decision limits (CCa) ranging from 0.005 to 0.03 µg L-1 and within-laboratory reproducibility of all isomers below 20% at the minimum required performance limit level of 0.3 µg L-1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Discrimination of eight chloramphenicol isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in order to investigate the natural occurence of chloramphenicol
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Zuidema, T. ; Jong, J. de; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2011
Analytica Chimica Acta 700 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 78 - 85.
antibiotic chloramphenicol - residues - separation - meat - dextramycin - seafood - urine - milk
This paper describes the discrimination of eight different isomers of chloramphenicol (CAP), an antibiotic banned for use in food producing animals, by reversed phase and chiral liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Previously, by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) the presence of CAP was confirmed in some grass and herb samples collected on Mongolian pastures up to concentrations of 450 µg kg-1. It was not possible to establish the cause of CAP residues which has initiated research on the natural occurrence of this drug. CAP occurs in the para-configuration and in the meta-configuration and contains two chiral centers thus eight different isomeric configurations exist, namely four (RR, SS, RS, SR) meta-stereoisomers and four para-stereoisomers. It is known that only RR-p-CAP has antimicrobial properties. To find out if the CAP detected in the plant material samples is the active configuration, a high resolution reversed phase LC-MS/MS system was tested for its ability to separate the different isomers. This system proved to be able to discriminate between some isomers, but not between RR-p-CAP and SS-p-CAP, also called dextramycin. Despite a detailed elucidation of the product ions and the fragmentation patterns of all isomers, MS/MS did not add sufficient specificity for full discrimination of the isomers. Therefore a chiral liquid chromatographic separation with MS/MS detection that is able to distinguish all isomers was developed and finally the isomeric ratio of non-compliant plant material samples and some CAP formulations was determined using this system. This showed that Mongolian grass and herb samples only contain the biological active isomer of CAP as do the obtained formulations. Therefore the CAP present in the plant material might origin from the production by soil organisms or from a manufactured source.
Far More than Market-Based: Rethinking the Impact of the Dutch Viswijzer (Good Fish Guide) on Fisheries' Governance
Vos, B.I. de; Bush, S.R. - \ 2011
Sociologia Ruralis 51 (2011)3. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 284 - 303.
trust - seafood - industry - system
The sustainable seafood movement has given greater credence to non-governmental organisation (NGO) involvement in fisheries' governance through a series of market-based tools and strategies, including consumer awareness campaigns and seafood certification schemes. Despite their proliferation in recent years, the market-based translation of consumer demand directly steering fishermen towards more sustainable practices, we argue, limits our understanding of the wider patterns of interaction that these tools can engender. Using the case of the Dutch Good Fish Guide or Viswijzer, we contend that market-based tools can be effective in creating both horizontal and vertical spaces of interaction between key actors in the Dutch fishery sector. We conclude that while market-based impacts may be negligible, the Viswijzer presents a powerful communicative instrument that has succeeded in fostering more face-to-face interaction and deliberation between otherwise disparate actors. Constructive collaboration between NGOs and industry can therefore create the requisite level of trust in the transition towards sustainable fisheries
Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Larsen, R. ; Mierke-Klemeyer, S. ; Maehre, H. ; Schram, E. ; Luten, J.B. - \ 2010
Archiv für Lebensmittelhygiene 61 (2010)4. - ISSN 0003-925X - p. 139 - 144.
coronary-heart-disease - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - taurine content - 16 countries - selenium - fish - mortality - seafood - muscle - model
Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days, and 5 fish were at regular time intervals randomly drawn from the pool, filleted and freeze-dried. The samples were analyzed for contents of selenium, taurine and fatty acids. During ice storage, water content at fillets increased due to influx of water from melted ice. Only concentrations of water soluble taurine were found to decrease significantly, approximately 25 %, whereas concentration of selenium and the fatty acid profile did not substantially change during storage.
Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes
Sveinsdottir, K. ; Martinsdottir, E. ; Green-Petersen, D. ; Hyldig, G. ; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M. - \ 2009
Food Quality and Preference 20 (2009)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 120 - 132.
fish consumption - quality - health - behavior - segmentation - convenience - strategies - vegetables - seafood - disease
Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study the liking in terms of different consumer attitudes and demographics. The QDA discriminated well between the products. The farmed cod products were considerably different from wild cod, with more light and even colour, meaty texture, odour and flavour. Country differences were considerable with regard to fish consumption, attitudes and preferences of the eight cod products. However, it was demonstrated that within each country, different segments of consumers existed with different preferences, motives/barriers and demographic background. The results indicated various potential to increase fish consumption.