Governing Risks of Multi-Use: Seaweed Aquaculture at Offshore Wind Farms
Burg, Sander W.K. van den; Röckmann, Christine ; Banach, Jennifer L. ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
Frontiers in Marine Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-7745
multi-use at sea - private standards - public regulation - risk governance - seaweed
Spatial claims concerning the rapidly growing European offshore wind sector give rise to various ideas for the multi-use application of wind farms. Seaweed is considered a promising feedstock for food and feed that could be produced at offshore wind farms. Concerns about risks resulting in liability claims and insurance premiums are often seen as show-stoppers to multi-use at offshore wind farms. In this study, key environmental risks of seaweed cultivation at offshore wind farms, identified through literature review, are characterized based on stakeholder consultation. The current approach to risk governance is evaluated to assess how it can handle the uncertain, complex, and/or ambiguous risks of multi-use. It is concluded that current risk governance for multi-use is poorly equipped to deal with the systemic nature of risks. Risk governance should be a joint effort of governments and private regulators. It can improve if it is based on an adaptive framework for risk assessment that can deal with complex, systemic risks. Furthermore, it should be flexible and inclusive, i.e., open to new incoming information and stakeholder input, and taking into account and communicate about the different stakes and values of the various parties involved. The importance of communication and inclusion must be recognized, which promotes participation of concerned stakeholders.
Food safety hazards in the European seaweed chain
Banach, J.L. ; Hoek-van den Hil, E.F. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 19 (2020)2. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 332 - 364.
contamination - food safety - hazard - seafood - seaweed
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in seaweed, including factors influencing their presence, and to prioritize the hazards that may pose a risk to human health. Given current knowledge from the literature, data from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and results from a stakeholder survey, 22 food safety hazards were ranked into major (4), moderate (5), and minor (13) hazards. Arsenic, cadmium, iodine, and Salmonella were identified as major hazards. Hazards, where data gaps exist, should be carefully assessed. These include pesticide residues, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, marine biotoxins, allergens, micro- and nanoplastics, other pathogenic bacteria, norovirus, and hepatitis E virus. It is recommended to collect more data on these hazards in future studies. Many factors can affect the presence of hazards including seaweed type, physiology, season, harvest and cultivation environment, geography including the location of cultivation, alongside further processing. Moreover, when seaweed is cultivated near industrialized or anthropogenic activities, these activities may negatively influence water quality, which can increase the likelihood of hazards in seaweed. Results of the ranking prioritized hazards can be used to prioritize monitoring programs and adjusted given future additional knowledge covering the data gaps.
The economic feasibility of seaweed production in the North Sea
Burg, Sander W.K. van den; Duijn, Arie Pieter van; Bartelings, Heleen ; Krimpen, Marinus M. van; Poelman, Marnix - \ 2016
Aquaculture Economics & Management 20 (2016)3. - ISSN 1365-7305 - p. 235 - 252.
Economic modelling - north sea - seaweed - sensitivity analysis - wind energy
Seaweeds are increasingly seen as an alternative to land-grown products in food and feed applications. Interest in production of seaweeds in temperate waters is rising, in particular in combination with offshore wind energy generation. This article reports an investigation of the economic feasibility of seaweed production in the North Sea using economic modelling. Often, an overly positive picture of the costs and benefits of seaweed production is sketched. Based on current available information, offshore seaweed production in the North Sea is not economically feasible. Sensitivity analysis shows that revenues would have to increase by roughly 300%, all other things equal, to make a profit. A number of opportunities to improve the economic feasibility of a North Sea seaweed value chain are identified. Technical innovation and the design of systems that enable multiple harvests per year can reduce production costs. Successful marketing of seaweed as human food, and the development of biorefinery concepts can increase the value of the produced seaweed.