Seeds as biosocial commons : an analysis of various practices in India
Patnaik, Archana - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578302 - 166
rice - seeds - plant genetic resources - plant genetics - seed production - seed storage - community development - gender - social environment - india - rural development - rijst - zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengenetica - zaadproductie - opslag van zaden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - sociaal milieu - india - plattelandsontwikkeling
This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities). Therefore, conservation and management of PGRs in the form of seeds are essential for plant breeding, agricultural production and to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. However, the changed use of PGRs through enclosures and appropriation of the Intellectual Property Rights creates underutilisation of these resources, risking their important societal role. Thus, this research aimed at analysing how the processes of commonisation of PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons emerge in the Indian context.
The research applied an in-depth qualitative research approach using case study method. It focused on four distinct issues of disconnection, collective resistance, strategies of repossession and ability of stakeholders to provide insights broadly into the processes of commonisation of PGRs. Describing the different cases it also establishes whether and how opportunities for commonisation of PGRs as biosocial commons emerge within these contexts. The research analysed four cases where one case reflected on the intellectual commons produced through institutionalisation of PGRs and the other three cases reflected on the bottom-up perspective of commons produced through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).
The research through its first case, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a public ex situ genebank, describes the disconnection of PGRs, while through the second case reflects on the collective activity of resistance through management of community seed banks (CSBs) by the Deccan Development Society (DDS). The third and fourth cases involved small, local initiatives; Loka Samabaya Pratisthan (LSP) and Sambhav that fostered collective action for repossession through in situ seed banks. The research used various techniques, such as interviews with respondents, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observation for primary sources of data, with published and unpublished documents, reports and official websites as secondary sources.
The second chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of disconnection and argues that storing seeds at genebanks disconnects the resources from their biosocial environment. Further, the evaluation of genetic traits within the stored seeds through the scientific intervention at the genebank creates the divide between the resources (seeds) and their informational content. Thus, this chapter concludes that disconnection of seeds from their biosocial environment leads to the creation of exclusive but positive intellectual commons.
The third chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of collective resistance and argues that disconnection of the community from their local food system can generate resistance and collective activity among the community. This chapter finds that the resistance and collective activity further brought in the interaction between the resource and the stakeholders through informal social relations and seed networks.
The fourth chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of strategies of repossession and argues that socio-political and ecological context play an important role in determining the strategy for repossession and commonisation of PGRs which further inhibits or facilitates the production of seeds as biosocial commons.
The fifth chapter of the thesis analyses the ability of stakeholders and finds that apart from institutional rights other factors like the social relations, ideology, negotiations and social identity of a stakeholder determines their ability in accessing the conserved resources.
The overall finding of the research suggests that the informal seed networks in the cases analysed stimulated in establishing the biosocial relations between the stakeholders and the resources. The biosocial relation further led seeds to function as biosocial commons. The research thus proposes that strengthening of these biosocial relations through informal seed networks can lead to the commonisation of the PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons in the Indian context.
Beroep op zadenbank op Spitsbergen
Visser, B. - \ 2015
zaden - opslag van zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - syrië - seeds - seed storage - plant genetic resources - syria
Voor het eerst sinds de opening in 2008 maakt een land aanspraak op zaden uit de Svalbard Global Seed Vault, de wereldwijde ondergrondse kluis voor landbouwzaden op Spitsbergen. Syrië heeft een deel van haar ingeleverde zaden nodig, omdat de eigen zadenbank bij Aleppo in de oorlog zwaar beschadigd is, en veel van de daar opgeslagen gewassen vervangen moeten worden. Bert Visser, directeur van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland, in deze uitzending.
Zaad langer goed zonder zuurstof
Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2014
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR (2014). - ISSN 1874-3625
opslag van zaden - zaden - vacuümverpakking - zuurstof - genenbanken - koudeopslag - vochtigheid - seed storage - seeds - vacuum packaging - oxygen - gene banks - cold storage - humidity
Zaden zijn het beste houdbaar als je ze koel en droog bewaart. Maar het kan nog veel beter: zuurstofloos. Dat toont onderzoek van Steven Groot (PRI) en collega’s aan.
Seed germination methods for native Caribbean trees and shrubs : with emphasis on species relevant for Bonaire
Burg, W.J. van der; Freitas, J. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Report / Plant Research International 551) - 60
zaadkieming - bomen - struiken - zaden - opslag van zaden - zaad verzamelen - kiemrust - bonaire - caribisch gebied - seed germination - trees - shrubs - seeds - seed storage - seed collection - seed dormancy - bonaire - caribbean
This paper is intended as a basis for nature restoration activities using seeds of trees and (larger) shrubs native to Bonaire with the aim of reforestation. It describes the main seed biology issues relevant for species from this region, to facilitate decisions on time and stage of harvesting, safe storage, breaking dormancy and germinating seeds and planting the young trees in the field. The paper also emphasises that natural process of seedling establishment and succession must be observed in order to be successful. The choice of species and method of protection once planted in nature will prove essential. The paper ends with stressing that such a reforestation activity needs to be planned far ahead: seeds must be collected from tree species taking care of genetic diversity and their storage potential. Recalcitrant seeds (see paper) must be treated carefully and in a different way.
Over diversiteit, genenbanken en zaden
Bas, Noortje - \ 2012
gene banks - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - seed storage
Genetic diversity and CGN, with some extra PGR documentation issues
Hintum, Theo van - \ 2012
gene banks - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - seed storage - data management - databases
Betere test voor houdbaarheid zaad
Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2011
Kennis Online 2011 (2011)14 juni. - p. 9 - 9.
zaadkwaliteit - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - opslag van zaden - vermeerderingsmateriaal - seed quality - keeping quality - seed storage - propagation materials
Een nieuwe test maakt het mogelijk de houdbaarheid van zaaizaad nauwkeuriger vast te stellen. Dat geeft meer zekerheid bij bewaring en kan ook helpen bij de veredeling op houdbaarheid van zaad.
Seed quality in genetic resources conservation : a case study at the Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands
Groot, S.P.C. ; Groot, E.C. de - \ 2008
Wageningen : Centre for genetic resources (CGN) (Report / Centre for Genetic Resources 2008/11) - 47
zaden - kiemrust - zaadlevensduur - zaadkieming - zaadkwaliteit - zaadveroudering - zaadleeftijd - genenbanken - gewassen - zaad verzamelen - aardappelen - uien - spinazie - slasoorten - erwten - vicia faba - bonen - meloenen - komkommers - tomaten - vlas - graansoorten - akkerbouw - zaadproductie - ex-situ conservering - opslag van zaden - seeds - seed dormancy - seed longevity - seed germination - seed quality - seed aging - seed age - gene banks - crops - seed collection - potatoes - onions - spinach - lettuces - peas - vicia faba - beans - melons - cucumbers - tomatoes - flax - cereals - arable farming - seed production - ex situ conservation - seed storage
This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed on seed longevity and health.
Getting genes: Rethinking seed system analysis and reform for sorghum in Ethiopia
McGuire, S. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Conny Almekinders. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085041795 - 279
plantenveredeling - sorghum - sorghum bicolor - zaden - zaadkwaliteit - boeren - bedrijfssystemenonderzoek - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ethiopië - inheemse kennis - opslag van zaden - plant breeding - sorghum - sorghum bicolor - seeds - seed quality - farmers - farming systems research - indigenous knowledge - plant genetic resources - ethiopia - seed storage
Crop improvement and seed supply are central activities in agricultural development. Many interventions have sought to involve farmers more closely in crop development and seed supply, to improve the effectiveness of plant science, enhance biodiversity conservation, or empower farmers, with Participatory Plant Breeding' (PPB) being the most recent strategy for reform. However, there is little critical analysis of the existing technical and institutional practices of formal systems, and almost no knowledge at all of farmers' own strategies for accessing and using crop genetic resources. For these reasons, interventions risk being mis-directed. Moreover, without a broad analysis of institutions and policies, interventions may result lead to only temporary change, at best. This research analyses both farmer and formal seed systems for sorghum in
Survival and vigour of ultra-dry seeds after ten years of hermetic storage
Hong, T.D. ; Ellis, R.H. ; Astley, D. ; Pinnegar, A.E. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Kraak, H.L. - \ 2005
Seed Science and Technology 33 (2005)2. - ISSN 0251-0952 - p. 449 - 460.
zaadkieming - groeikracht - uitdrogingstolerantie - daucus carota - aardnoten - koolzaad - allium cepa - opslag van zaden - seed germination - vigour - desiccation tolerance - daucus carota - groundnuts - rape - allium cepa - seed storage - moisture-content limit - logarithmic relation - theoretical basis - longevity - temperatures - groundnut - protocols - lettuce
Seeds of carrot, groundnut, lettuce, oilseed rape and onion were stored hermetically in laminated aluminium foil packets in four environments (dry or ultra-dry moisture contents combined factorially with temperatures of 20 degrees C or -20 degrees C), replicated at several sites. After ten years' hermetic storage, seed moisture content, equilibrium relative humidity, viability (assessed by ability to germinate normally in standard germination tests) and vigour were determined. After a decade, the change in seed moisture content of samples stored at -20 degrees C was small or nil. Except for groundnut and lettuce (where loss in viability was about 8 and 3%, respectively), no loss in viability was detected after 10 years' hermetic storage at -20 degrees C. In all cases, there was no difference in seed survival between moisture contents at this temperature (P > 0.25). Comparison of seed vigour (root length and rate of germination) also confirmed that drying to moisture contents in equilibrium with 10-12% r.h. had no detrimental effect to longevity when stored at -20 degrees C: the only significant (P <0.05) differences detected were slightly greater root lengths for ultra-dry storage of four of the six seed lots. Seed moisture content had increased after a decade at 20 degrees C (generally to the level in equilibrium with ambient relative humidity). Hence, sub-zero temperature storage helped maintain the long-term integrity of the laminated aluminium foil packets, as well as that of the seeds within.
Desiccation and storage of Lannea microcarpa from Burkina Faso
Daws, M.I. ; Gaméné, C.E. ; Sacandé, M. ; Pritchard, H.W. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Hoekstra, F. - \ 2004
In: Comparative Storage Biology of Tropical Tree Seeds / Sacandé, M., D.Joker,, Rome, Italy : International Plant Genetic Resources Institute - ISBN 9789290436416
lannea - verdroging - opslagkwaliteit - opslag van zaden - lannea - desiccation - storage quality - seed storage
Seeds of Lannea microcarpa collected from Brurkina Faso in 1997 and 1998 were subjected to desiccation and a range of storage conditions.Seeds were able to tolerate desiccation to low moisture contents (ca 5%) with little loss of viability. In addition, it was possible to store seeds at 25 degrees centigrade at reduced moisture contents (approx. 6%), for up to 14 months. However, seeds stored at -20 or 4 degrees centigrade exhibited a reduction in viability within three months of storage. This indicates that seeds of L. microcarpa may exhibit non-orthodox seed storage behaviour.
Characterization of green seed, an enchancer of abi3-1 in Arabidopsis that affects seed longevity
Clerkx, E.J.M. ; Vries, M.H.C. de; Ruijs, G.J. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Koornneef, M. - \ 2003
Plant Physiology 132 (2003)2. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1077 - 1084.
biologische landbouw - zaadbehandeling - zaadlevensduur - zaadfysiologie - opslag van zaden - organic farming - seed treatment - seed longevity - seed physiology - seed storage - abscisic-acid biosynthesis - chlorophyll degradation - protein accumulation - signal-transduction - stay-green - mutants - thaliana - quality - gene - deterioration
Seeds are usually stored in physiological conditions in which they gradually lose their viability and vigor depending on storage conditions, storage time, and genotype. Very little is known about the underlying genetics of seed storability and seed deterioration. We analyzed a mutant in Arabidopsis disturbed in seed storability. This mutant was isolated as a grs (green-seeded) mutant in an abi3-1 (abscisic acid 3) mutant background. Genetic and physiological characterization showed that the monogenic grs mutant was not visibly green seeded and mapped on chromosome 4. This enhancer mutation did not affect the ABA sensitivity of seed germination or seed dormancy but was found to affect seed storability and seedling vigor. Seed storability was assessed in a controlled deterioration test, in which the germination capacity of the mutant decreased with the duration of the treatment. The decrease in viability and vigor was confirmed by storing the seeds in two relative humidities (RHs) for a prolonged period. At 60% RH, the mutant lost germinability, but storage at 32% RH showed no decrease of germination although seed vigor decreased. The decrease in viability and vigor could be related to an increase in conductivity, suggesting membrane deterioration. This was not affected by light conditions during imbibition, expected to influence the generation of active oxygen species. During seed maturation, ABI3 regulates several processes: acquiring dormancy and long-term storability and loss of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that GRS is a common regulator in the latter two but not of dormancy/germination
Seeds are usually stored in physiological conditions in which they gradually lose their viability and vigor depending on storage conditions, storage time, and genotype. Very little is known about the underlying genetics of seed storability and seed deterioration. We analyzed a mutant in Arabidopsis disturbed in seed storability. This mutant was isolated as a grs (green-seeded) mutant in an abi3-1 (abscisic acid 3) mutant background. Genetic and physiological characterization showed that the monogenic grs mutant was not visibly green seeded and mapped on chromosome 4. This enhancer mutation did not affect the ABA sensitivity of seed germination or seed dormancy but was found to affect seed storability and seedling vigor. Seed storability was assessed in a controlled deterioration test, in which the germination capacity of the mutant decreased with the duration of the treatment. The decrease in viability and vigor was confirmed by storing the seeds in two relative humidities (RHs) for a prolonged period. At 60% RH, the mutant lost germinability, but storage at 32% RH showed no decrease of germination although seed vigor decreased. The decrease in viability and vigor could be related to an increase in conductivity, suggesting membrane deterioration. This was not affected by light conditions during imbibition, expected to influence the generation of active oxygen species. During seed maturation, ABI3 regulates several processes: acquiring dormancy and long-term storability and loss of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that GRS is a common regulator in the latter two but not of dormancy/germination.
Genetic analysis of seed-soluble oligosaccharides in relation to seed storability of Arabidopsis
Bentsink, L. ; Alonso-Blanco, C. ; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Tesnier, K. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Koornneef, M. - \ 2000
Plant Physiology 124 (2000). - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1595 - 1604.
uitdrogingstolerantie - oligosacchariden - zaadfysiologie - opslag van zaden - desiccation tolerance - oligosaccharides - seed physiology - seed storage
Seed oligosaccharides (OSs) and especially raffinose series OSs (RSOs) are hypothesized to play an important role in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and consequently in seed storability. In the present work we analyzed the seed-soluble OS (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) content of several Arabidopsis accessions and thus identified the genotype Cape Verde Islands having a very low RSO content. By performing quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in a recombinant inbred line population, we found one major QTL responsible for the practically monogenic segregation of seed stachyose content. This locus also affected the content of the two other OSs, sucrose, and raffinose. Two candidate genes encoding respectively for galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase were located within the genomic region around this major QTL. In addition, three smaller-effect QTL were identified, each one specifically affecting the content of an individual OS. Seed storability was analyzed in the same recombinant inbred line population by measuring viability (germination) under two different seed aging assays: after natural aging during 4 years of dry storage at room temperature and after artificial aging induced by a controlled deterioration test. Thus, four QTL responsible for the variation of this trait were mapped. Comparison of the QTL genetic positions showed that the genomic region containing the major OS locus did not significantly affect the seed storability. We concluded that in the studied material neither RSOs nor sucrose content had a specific effect on seed storability.