Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios
    González-Muñoz, N. ; Linares, J.C. ; Castro-Díez, P. ; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Forest Research 133 (2014)6. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 1073 - 1086.
    quercus-petraea - acacia-dealbata - environment interaction - pinus-halepensis - seedling growth - diameter growth - northwest spain - drought stress - responses - oak
    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests of Northwest Spain, where the exotic invaders Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica and the naturalized Pinus pinaster. We selected adult, dominant trees of each species, collected increment cores, measured the ring width and estimated the basal area increment (BAI, cm2 year-1). Climate/growth models were built by using linear mixed-effect models, where the previous-year BAI and seasonal temperature and precipitation were the fixed factors and the individual the random factor. These models were run to project the fate of studied species in the A2 and B2 CO2 emission scenarios until 2100. The models explained over 50 % of BAI variance in all species but E. globulus, where growth probably occurs whenever a minimum environmental requirement is met. Warm autumns favoured BAI of both natives, probably due to an extension of leaf lifespan, but hampered A. dealbata and P. pinaster BAI, maybe because of water imbalance and/or the depletion of carbon reserves. The projections yielded a positive BAI trend for both Quercus along the twenty-first century, but negative for the invader A. dealbata and clearly declining for the naturalized P. pinaster. Our results disagree with previous literature pointing at climate change as a driver of invasive species’ success and call for further studies regarding the effect of climate change on co-occurring natives and invaders.
    Bepaling hoeveelheid stikstof in berkenopslag op het Fochteloërveen
    Mol, J.P. ; Bolhuis, P.R. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2380) - 26
    energiecentrales - luchtverontreiniging - stikstof - emissie - groningen - natuurbescherming - natuurgebieden - groei van zaailingen - bomen - drenthe - power industry - air pollution - nitrogen - emission - groningen - nature conservation - natural areas - seedling growth - trees - drenthe
    In de vergunning voor de bouw van een energiecentrale aan de Eemshaven is opgenomen dat het energiebedrijf RWE beheers-maatregelen financiert in o.a. het Fochteloërveen om de extra belasting van N-depositie door de energiecentrale te mitigeren. Eén van de maatregelen is de verwijdering van berkenopslag o.a. om stikstof te verwijderen uit het systeem. In dit rapport wordt het onderzoek beschreven waarmee een schatting is gemaakt van de hoeveelheid biomassa en de hoeveelheid stikstof die wordt afgevoerd bij de verwijdering van berkenopslag van twee geselecteerde gebieden in het Fochteloërveen. De totaal berekende hoeveelheid stikstof in berkenopslag is geschat op 329 - 610 kg. Een grotere hoeveelheid stikstof kan worden afgevoerd als de berkenopslag in de zomer verwijderd wordt, als het blad nog aan de bomen zit.
    Leaf adaptations of evergreen and deciduous trees of semi-arid and humid savannas on three continents
    Tomlinson, K.W. ; Poorter, L. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Borghetti, M. ; Ward, D. ; Bie, S. de; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2013
    Journal of Ecology 101 (2013)2. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 430 - 440.
    carbon-isotope ratios - functional traits - tropical forest - water relations - life-span - growth-responses - seedling growth - atmospheric co2 - root morphology - high-rainfall
    1. Drought stress selects for a suite of plant traits at root, stem and leaf level. Two strategies are proposed for trees growing in seasonally water-stressed environments: drought tolerance and drought avoidance. These are respectively associated with evergreen phenology, where plants retain their leaves throughout the year, and deciduous phenology, where plants drop their leaves during dry seasons. Evergreen species are thought to have leaf traits supporting lower photosynthesis and transpiration rates, in order to conserve water during dry periods. 2. We evaluated 18 morphological, chemical and physiological leaf traits of 51 abundant savanna tree species that differed in leaf habit (deciduous and evergreen), selected from two climate types (semi-arid and humid) in three continents (Australia, Africa and South America) (annual rainfall range: 500–1550 mm), and grown in a common garden experiment. We hypothesised that evergreen species have more conservative water use and differ more across climate types than deciduous species because evergreen species are forced to endure extended water deficits during dry seasons. 3. Trait shifts between semi-arid and humid savannas did not differ between evergreen and deciduous species. 4. Evergreen species had similar assimilation rates but lower photosynthetic water-use efficiency (PWUE) than deciduous species, possibly to extend their leaf lifespans by protecting their photosynthetic machinery from overheating through evaporative cooling. 5. Species of humid and semi-arid environments did not differ with respect to assimilation rate or PWUE, but semi-arid species did have smaller leaf sizes and greater leaf potassium and phosphorus concentrations. These traits may enable semi-arid species to maximize growth during episodes of favourable moisture availability. 6. Species from the three continents differed in their leaf traits. These probably reflect the greater proportion of evergreen species in Australia as compared to the other continents and generally infertile soils in the South American sampling sites compared to the wider fertility range in the African sites. 7. Synthesis: Water stress in savannas does not select for more conservative water use, but may select for rapid adjustment to prevailing water conditions and for heat avoidance mechanisms.
    Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control
    Kruidhof, H.M. ; Bastiaans, L. ; Kropff, M.J. - \ 2009
    Plant and Soil 318 (2009)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 169 - 184.
    rye secale-cereale - chenopodium-album l - seedling growth - soil-moisture - particle-size - green manure - hairy vetch - brassica - allelochemicals - biofumigation
    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and placement of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) residue on seedling emergence under field conditions. For both species two cultivars, differing in allelochemical content, were used. Residues incorporated in the upper soil layer exerted a large inhibitory effect on the establishment of the relatively early emerging lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings, whereas the inhibitory effect on the slightly later emerging Stellaria media L. seedlings was variable, and often a stimulatory effect on the very late emerging Chenopodium album L. seedlings was observed. Differences between cover crop cultivars were minor. For winter oilseed rape residue, pre-treatment strongly affected the time-course of residue-mediated effects. Finely ground residues were only inhibitory to seedling establishment during the first two to three weeks, whereas cut residues became inhibitory after this period. For winter rye, residue placement was most important. Residue incorporation gave variable results, whereas placement of winter rye residue on top of the soil inhibited the emergence of all receptor species. In conclusion, the optimal residue management strategy for weed suppression depends both on the cover crop species used and the target weed species
    Commercial organic pelleting and priming treatments for sugar beet seed
    Halmer, P. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Birnbaum, Y.E. ; Groeneveld, R.M.W. ; Swaay, N. - \ 2008
    suikerbieten - groei van zaailingen - zaadbehandeling - biologische landbouw - sugarbeet - seedling growth - seed treatment - organic farming
    Is plant biodiversity driven by decomposition processes? An emerging new theory on plant diversity
    Mazzoleni, S. ; Bonanomi, G. ; Giannino, F. ; Rietkerk, M. ; Dekker, S.C. ; Zucconi, F. - \ 2007
    Community Ecology 8 (2007)1. - ISSN 1585-8553 - p. 103 - 109.
    old-field succession - seedling growth - soil feedback - population-dynamics - species richness - tropical forest - ecological significance - germination inhibition - litter decomposition - spatial-patterns
    Diversity of forest trees ranges from monospecific stands to the astonishing richness of tierra firma tropical forests. Such patterns are observed along gradients of latitude, altitude, soil fertility and rainfall. So far, the proposed coexisting mechanisms do not provide a comprehensive and unequivocal explanation of these patterns at the community level. We propose a new theory linking species diversity with organic matter cycle and negative plant-soil feedback induced by litter autotoxicity. This approach focuses on resource-waste rather than resource-only dynamics. High diversity does occur where litter decomposition is rapid and ecosystem nutrient cycles are closed. On the other hand, single species dominance is found where litter decomposition is slow and/or autotoxicity is removed from the nutrient cycle pathway. Unlike previous theoretical views, the one we present proves potentially capable of explaining differences in species diversity both along environmental gradients and within the tropics.
    Differences in regeneration between hurricane damaged and clear-cut mangrove stands 25 years after clearing
    Ferwerda, J.G. ; Ketner, P. ; McGuiness, K.A. - \ 2007
    Hydrobiologia 591 (2007)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 35 - 45.
    marina forsk vierh - avicennia-marina - rhizophora-apiculata - natural regeneration - seedling growth - predation - forest - salinity - establishment - propagules
    The effect of human disturbance on mangrove forest may be substantially different from the effects of natural disturbances. This paper describes differences in vegetation composition and structure of five vegetation types in two mangrove areas near Darwin, Australia, 25 years after disturbance. The vegetation in clear-felled forest showed more adult Avicennia marina than in the hurricane-affected forest, and a virtual absence of A. marina juveniles and saplings. This indicates that A. marina will be replaced by other species in the canopy, showing a multi-phase vegetation development in mangrove forest after human disturbance. The mechanism of disturbance and the conditions after clearing therefore affects the vegetation composition for at least 25 years after this disturbance took place.
    Natuurlijke verjonging van grove den; handvatten voor bosbeheerders
    Oosterbaan, A. ; Wolf, R.J.A.M. - \ 2006
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 3 (2006)3. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 11 - 13.
    bosbouw - natuurlijke verjonging - zaadverspreiding - groei van zaailingen - forestry - natural regeneration - seed dispersal - seedling growth
    Grove den is de meest voorkomende boomsoort in Nederland. Bij het huidige beheer van bossen wordt veel gebruik gemaakt van natuurlijke verjonging. De grove den speelt daarin een sleutelrol. Dit artikel geeft uitleg over kieming, vestiging en groei, concurrentie en komt met aanbevelingen voor beheer
    Disentangling above- and below-ground competition between lianas and trees in a tropical forest
    Schnitzer, S.A. ; Kuzee, M.E. ; Bongers, F.J.J.M. - \ 2005
    Journal of Ecology 93 (2005)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1115 - 1125.
    host liquidambar-styraciflua - fine root biomass - rain-forest - canopy gaps - wet forest - species-diversity - amazonian forests - vine competition - eastern amazonia - seedling growth
    1 Light is thought to be the most limiting resource in tropical forests, and thus aboveground competition is commonly accepted as the mechanism that structures these communities. In many tropical forests, trees compete not only with other trees, but also with lianas, which compete aggressively for below-ground resources and thus may limit tree growth and regeneration. 2 Using a replicated experiment, we tested the relative strengths of above- and belowground competition from lianas on tree saplings in a disturbed forest in Côte d¿Ivoire with a heterogeneous canopy and relatively high light penetration. We planted seedlings of three tree species and subjected them to below-ground competition with lianas (BGC), above- and below-ground competition with lianas (ABGC), or a liana-free control treatment. After 2 years, we harvested the saplings and compared the amount of above-ground biomass and its relative allocation among the three experimental treatments and different tree species. 3 Lianas competed intensely with saplings in this tropical forest, substantially limiting sapling growth. Saplings grown in the ABGC and BGC treatments had only 18.5% and 16.8% of the above-ground dry biomass of those grown in the liana-free control treatment. 4 Sapling biomass did not differ significantly among the ABGC and BGC treatments, suggesting that below-ground competition was the driving force behind liana vs. tree competition in this forest. Above-ground competition with lianas, however, did affect the allocation of biomass in saplings, resulting in shorter, thicker stems and a poorly developed crown. 5 Collectively, our findings suggest that below-ground competition with lianas plays a substantial role in limiting the growth of saplings in disturbed and secondary tropical forests, and above-ground effects may be due to a combination of above-ground competition and mechanical stress. 6 Disentangling above- and below-ground competition between lianas and trees is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of naturally regenerating tropical forests, as well as formulating successful management plans for sustainable timber harvest. Key-words: above-ground, below-ground, competition, Côte d¿Ivoire, forest regeneration, lianas, trees, tropical forest
    Internationaal herkomstonderzoek beuk in Nederland
    Kranenborg, K.G. ; Vries, S.M.G. de - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 286) - 37
    fagus sylvatica - zaden - beplanten - groei van zaailingen - rassen (taxonomisch) - zaadbronnen - nederland - fagus sylvatica - seeds - planting - seedling growth - races - seed sources - netherlands
    Beuk is een belangrijke loofboomsoort voor het Nederlandse bos. Uitbreiding van het areaal vindt voornamelijk plaats door aanplant. In Nederland zijn onvoldoende zaadopstanden van beuk voor de levering van uitgangsmateriaal, daardoor wordt ook beukenzaad uit het buitenland gebruikt. In een van de eerste proeven in het Horsterwold in Flevoland worden 4 Nederlandse, 23 Duitse, 2 Deense, 1 Franse en 6 Turkse herkomsten getoetst. Uit dit onderzoek komt naar voren, dat vier Nederlandse herkomsten en zeven Duitse herkomsten over de gewenste goede eigenschappen beschikken: een goede groei, laat uitlopen in het voorjaar, een goede stamvorm en een hoog slagingspercentage. Deze herkomsten worden derhalve aanbevolen voor aanplant in Nederland.
    Opkomst Amelanchier lamarckii-zaad kan veel beter
    Derkx, R. - \ 1999
    De Boomkwekerij 12 (1999)49. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 16 - 17.
    amelanchier - groei van zaailingen - zaadkieming - bosbouw - zaden - stratificatie (zaden) - soortenproeven - proefvelden - amelanchier - seedling growth - seed germination - forestry - seeds - stratification - species trials - experimental plots
    Het Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek in Boskoop onderzoekt of beheersing van de omstandigheden tijdens de warme en koude stratificatie de kieming kan verbeteren
    Can tree seedlings survive increased flood levels of rivers?
    Siebel, H.N. ; Wijk, M. van; Blom, C.W.P.M. - \ 1998
    Acta botanica neerlandica 47 (1998). - ISSN 0044-5983 - p. 219 - 230.
    bosbouw - bebossing - natuurlijke verjonging - plantensuccessie - groei van zaailingen - zaadkieming - oppervlakkige afvoer - overstromingen - forestry - afforestation - natural regeneration - plant succession - seedling growth - seed germination - runoff - floods
    Opheffen kiemrust van zaad van gewone esdoorn zonder stratificatiemedium : goede en gelijkmatige kieming na uitzaai mogelijk
    Derkx, M. - \ 1995
    De Boomkwekerij 8 (1995)50. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 20 - 21.
    droogte - bosbouw - kieming - vochtigheid - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - voorbehandeling - kiemrust - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - zaden - stratificatie (zaden) - vernalisatie - water - acer pseudoplatanus - drought - forestry - germination - humidity - ornamental woody plants - pretreatment - seed dormancy - seed germination - seedling growth - seeds - stratification - vernalization - water - acer pseudoplatanus
    Gecontroleerde 'stratificatie' en een optimale luchtvochtigheid van het zaad geven een regelmatige veldopkomst
    Gecontroleerde 'stratificatie' beukezaad slaat aan in de praktijk : goede opkomst en gelijkmatig gewas
    Derkx, M. - \ 1995
    De Boomkwekerij 8 (1995)49. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 28 - 29.
    droogte - bosbouw - kieming - vochtigheid - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - voorbehandeling - kiemrust - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - zaden - stratificatie (zaden) - vernalisatie - water - fagus - drought - forestry - germination - humidity - ornamental woody plants - pretreatment - seed dormancy - seed germination - seedling growth - seeds - stratification - vernalization - water - fagus
    Naast een gecontroleerde 'stratificatie' is het vochtgehalte van het zaad van invloed op een goede kieming
    Natuurlijke verjonging van grove den in de boswachterij Ommen
    Oosterbaan, A. ; Tempel, J. - \ 1995
    Bosbouwvoorlichting 34 (1995)6. - ISSN 0166-8986 - p. 63 - 64.
    bosbouw - natuurlijke verjonging - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - geslachtelijke voortplanting - bomen - pinus sylvestris - forestry - natural regeneration - seed germination - seedling growth - sexual reproduction - trees
    Onderzoek naar verjonging door natuurlijk bezaaiing. In de tabellen gegevens over het gemiddelde aantal zaden per vierkante meter en het gemiddelde gewicht, aantal, kieming en kiemingspercentage van het opgevangen grove dennenzaad
    Effects of aluminium and mineral nutrition on growth and chemical composition of hydroponically grown seedlings of five different forest tree species.
    Keltjens, W.G. ; Loenen, E. van - \ 1989
    Plant and Soil 119 (1989). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 39 - 50.
    aluminium - bosbouw - hydrocultuur - voedingsfilmsysteem - voedingsstoffen - plantenvoeding - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - aluminium - forestry - hydroponics - nutrient film techniques - nutrients - plant nutrition - seed germination - seedling growth
    The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne
    Kaplan, Y. - \ 1984
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): M.F. Moerzer Bruyns, co-promotor(en): G. Orshan. - S.l. : S.n. - 339
    biocenose - biogeochemie - kringlopen - ecosystemen - fagaceae - bosbouw - bossen - israël - nationale parken - natuurbescherming - natuurreservaten - plantenecologie - planten - savannebossen - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - bomen - vegetatie - quercus ithaburensis - biocoenosis - biogeochemistry - cycling - ecosystems - fagaceae - forestry - forests - israel - national parks - nature conservation - nature reserves - plant ecology - plants - savanna woodlands - seed germination - seedling growth - trees - vegetation - quercus ithaburensis
    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, with emphasis on phenology, germination, establishment and survival, and have also described and researched fires and cattle grazing in the Reserve.

    The Yahudia Forest is a nature reserve situated in the central part of the Golan, north-east of Lake Tiberias. The reserve, which extends over some 6600 ha, is located mostly 0-300 m above sea level. Level in its greater part, the reserve is cleft by deep canyons of perennial streams. Its soil, mostly basaltic-montmorilonitic, overlies mother rock of cover basalt which erupted in the Upper Pliocene and the Pleistocene epochs. A few limestone exposures from the Neogene can be found in the southern part. The climate is mediterranean, with annual precipitation of about 500 m.

    In our survey of vertebrates we found 172 species. A more detailed survey was made of rodents and birds. As for mammals, our main interest was centred on wild boar, gazelles and rodents in context with their impact on vegetation in general and on Quercus ithaburensis in particular.

    The vegetation survey was analysed by the nodal ordination method, and vegetation units were established accordingly. The central vegetation unit is the Quercus ithaburensis formation whose principal alliance of associations is that of a Quercus ithaburensis park forest, with grasslands of Avena sterilis and Hordeum bulbosum occupying the greater part of the plane areas. The higher areas of the Quercus ithaburensis Park Forest contain a unit of Ziziphus lotus savannoid vegetation, which appears to be a secondary vegetation following deforestation. In the low-lying regions of the forest park we have a unit of Ziziphus spinachristii savannoid vegetation. On the steep declivities grows an alliance of Styrax officinalis and Ferula tingitana associations which creates a denser forest. The aquatic vegetation is represented by the Salix acmophylla-Nerium oleander formation, and on the limestone exposures we have the Salsola vermiculata - Salvia dominica formation.

    The phenology of Quercus ithaburensis has been researched and described, and the formation of cambial rings examined. It was found that normally me annual ring is formed, and that a direct connection exists between the quantity of annual precipitation and ring-width. On the basis of this connection and correlation between surface of sections and ages of trees, we drew up a diagram of distribution of tree ages which shows a high frequency of 40-60 years old trees and a low frequency of trees over 100 years old. On the basis of this diagram and historical evidence, we cam to the conclusion that most fellings of trees in the forest occurred in the periods of Circassian settlement during the latter half of the 19th Century and during the period of the First World War. The relatively high frequency of seedlings and mature trees, and the low frequency of middle-aged trees, led us to a deeper research of the subject of seedling germination, establishement and survival.

    We examined the fertility of Quercus ithaburensis trees and the extent of acorn consumption by animals, and found great variability in acorn production, though the average yield per tree was 800 acorns. The greater part of the acorns are consumed by wild boar, and the smaller part by cattle and rodents. Acorns have a high germination potential, but lose it within a few days of having been exposed to dry weather conditions.

    Over a period of 5 years observations were made of natural, hand-sown and transplanted seedlings under different grazing regimes (without wild boar or cattle; with wild boar and without cattle; with wild boar and cattle), and in different habitats connected with cairns on which grow most of the trees in the forest (top of cairn; slope of cairn; slope of cairn within tree's shade zone; bottom of cairn; open space outside cairn).

    We found that there was more germination in open habitats, though only in the absence of wild boar. Where wild boar are present cairns have the advantage because not only are they more difficult of access to wild boar but desiccation of acorns is avoided there.

    The positive reactions to irrigation and weeding have proved that water and competition are limiting factors in seedling establishment. It was found that acorns survive better in cairns where they are shielded from desiccation, competition with grasses, and to a relative extent also from fires. Satisfactory establishment was found under cattle-grazing regimes, where seedlings have less competition with herbaceous vegetation and fact lower fire frequency and intensity.

    An analysis was made of the fire incidents in the Yahudia Forest - all of which man-made. In the southern part of the reserve which contains military training areas, a high frequency of fires was recorded in May. Here, a small number of fires consume large areas. In the northern part, which is under grazing, more fires occur although they are of lower intensity and consume smaller areas, and frequency is highest in June-July. A fire-frequency map was drawn up, enabling forecasts to be made of fire-prone areas, and accordingly a policy of fire-break spraying and control was recommended. It was found that notwithstanding the relative fire resistance of the adult tree, the impact of fire on seedlings and acorns is of tremendous significance for the forest's existence.

    Cattle-grazing in the reserve has been examined with regard to its effects on herbaceous vegetation and on Quercus ithaburensis. A quantitative analysis of forage composition and cattle behaviour m pasture was made. It was found that only heavy grazing affects the composition of herbaceous vegetation and causes a relative rise in the growth of ruderal species. Quercus ithaburensis was found to form an important component of the cattle's diet, with leaves being consumed in summer, and acorns in winter. The quantity and nutritional value of acorns consumed made them a factor that should be taken into account in pasture planning.

    A theoretical model describing the processes of germination, establishment and survival of Quercus ithaburensis has been brought, as have the various factors affecting the two main inhibition periods in the life of the seedling The main factors were found to be fire, water regime, and competition with grasses and adult trees, whereas rodents and wild boar have positive as well as negative effects, particularly during the germination period.

    We have recommended that reserve management be based on programmed cattlegrazing of about 1200 mother cows in the northern part of the reserve, and on a fire-prevention regime with emphasis on the self-same area.

    We have worked out a policy of regulating visitor intensity in accordance with the vulnerabilities of the various reserve areas, based on strict zones in the cental part of the reserve; zones for walking tours, and intensive development zones. Recommendation has been made to concentrate wildlife and reintroduce wild animal species that existed in the region in the past into the central area of the reserve's southern part, and to afford the public limited access to this area.

    As far as vegetation is concerned, no intervention appears to be necessary, with the exception of afforestation of Quercus ithaburensis and Pistacia atlantica in the high-lying, unforested parts, and to extend such afforestation also to regions outside the reserve that were covered with forest in the past. A technique for planting Quercus ithaburensis trees has been recommended.

    In this paper, we have dealt with the processes and main problems of the reserve, with a view to gaining tools for its management and with the intention that it my also serve as a model for researches in other nature reserves in Israel and comparable areas elsewhere. We are aware that there is still much room for research and accomplishment in spheres which have not found expression in this paper.

    Een vergelijkend onderzoek naar de kieming en vestiging van twee oecotypen van zwarte els (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)
    Verweij, J.A. - \ 1983
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 354) - 76
    bosbouw - bomen - groei van zaailingen - zaadkieming - nitrificatie - denitrificatie - bacteriën - alnus glutinosa - forestry - trees - seedling growth - seed germination - nitrification - denitrification - bacteria
    Kiemoecologie houtige gewassen uit drooglandbos en kapoeweri
    Lambermont, E. - \ 1973
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Celos rapporten no. 85)
    bosbouw - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - suriname - forestry - seed germination - seedling growth - suriname
    Groei en mortaliteit der waardehoutsoorten in geexploiteerd en natuurlijk verjongd drooglandbos; Successie in ontbost terrein; Kiemoecologie der houtige gewassen in drooglandbos en Kapoeweri
    Gieteling, C.J. - \ 1970
    Paramaribo : [s.n.] (Celos rapporten no. 38) - 48
    milieufactoren - bosbouw - bosbouwkundige handelingen - groei - periodiciteit - plantensuccessie - secundaire bossen - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - houtteelt - suriname - vegetatie - environmental factors - forestry - forestry practices - growth - periodicity - plant succession - secondary forests - seed germination - seedling growth - silviculture - suriname - vegetation
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