Communicating eating-related rules. Suggestions are more effective than restrictions
Stok, F.M. ; Vet, E. de; Wit, J.B.F. ; Renner, B. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2015
Appetite 86 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 45 - 53.
psychological reactance - self-determination - ego depletion - food - consumption - behavior - obesity - fruit - temptation - overweight
Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. ‘you should not eat unhealthy food’). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the current studies, we aimed to investigate if a milder form of social influence, a suggested rule, is more successful in curbing intake of unhealthy food. We also investigated how both types of rules affected psychological reactance. Method: Students (N¿=¿88 in Study 1, N¿=¿51 in Study 2) completed a creativity task while a bowl of M&M's was within reach. Consumption was either explicitly forbidden (restrictive rule) or mildly discouraged (suggested rule). In the control condition, consumption was either explicitly allowed (Study 1) or M&M's were not provided (Study 2). Measures of reactance were assessed after the creativity task. Subsequently, a taste test was administered where all participants were allowed to consume M&M's. Results: Across both studies, consumption during the creativity task did not differ between the restrictive- and suggested-rule-conditions, indicating that both are equally successful in preventing initial consumption. Restrictive-rule-condition participants reported higher reactance and consumed more in the free-eating taste-test phase than suggested-rule-condition participants and control-group participants, indicating a negative after-effect of restriction. Discussion: Results show that there are more and less effective ways to communicate eating-related rules. A restrictive rule, as compared to a suggested rule, induced psychological reactance and led to greater unhealthy consumption when participants were allowed to eat freely. It is important to pay attention to the way in which eating-related rules are communicated.
Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial
Simons, M. ; Chinapaw, M.J.M. ; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Brug, J. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 13 p.
promote physical-activity - sedentary screen time - body-mass index - intrinsic motivation - self-determination - economic burden - obesity - children - overweight - youth
Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS =¿adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.
Written nutrition communication in midwifery practice: What purpose does it serve?
Szwajcer, E.M. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2009
Midwifery 25 (2009)5. - ISSN 0266-6138 - p. 509 - 517.
self-determination - media-richness - information - pregnancy - education - intervention - motherhood - transition - knowledge - autonomy
Objective to obtain an in-depth understanding of verbal and written nutrition communication in Dutch midwifery practice. Design, setting and participants data were collected by recording 12 initial antenatal consultations (12 weeks into the pregnancy) with primiparous women from four Dutch midwifery practices spread over The Netherlands, followed by two semi-structured qualitative interviews with the women. The interviews were undertaken on the day after the consultation and two weeks later.Findings analysis of the recordings revealed that a nutrition brochure was offered in an information pack, but it was not used or referred to by the midwives. Verbally, clients were informed about healthy nutrition in general terms. Specific, personally relevant nutrition-related questions and motivators of nutrition behaviour were rarely clarified and addressed. Midwives tried to create a good relationship with their clients by being friendly, complimentary, confirmative and supportive. Women appreciated talking about nutrition with the midwife because of her expertise. The subsequent interviews with the women revealed, however, that nutrition communication took place relatively late in pregnancy at a point when women were more interested in 'hearing the baby's heart beat'. Furthermore, clients seldom looked through the nutrition brochure at home.