Colour, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Spence, C. - \ 2014
Appetite 75 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 165 - 172.
sensory-specific satiety - subsequent food-intake - in-home consumption - stimulus specificity - variety - choice - flavor - cues - red - acceptance
It is often claimed that colour (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the colour itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the differently-coloured components in a meal influence consumers’ ratings of the pleasantness of a meal (across time) and, to a certain extent, might even affect their consumption behaviour as well. Typically, eating the same food constantly or repeatedly leads to a decrease in its perceived pleasantness, which, as a consequence, might lead to decreased intake of that food. However, variation within a meal (in one or several sensory attributes, or holistically) has been shown to slow down this process. In this review, we first briefly summarize the literature on how general variety in a meal influences these variables and the major theories that have been put forward by researchers to explain them. We then go on to evaluate the evidence of these effects based mainly on the colour of the food explaining the different processes that might affect colour-based sensory-specific satiety and, in more detail, consumption behaviour. In addition, we also discuss the overlap in the definitions of these terms and provide additional hypothesis as to why, in some cases, the opposite pattern of results has been observed.
Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses
Spetter, M.S. ; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
Physiology and Behavior 137 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 9 - 17.
cephalic phase responses - placebo-controlled trial - sensory-specific satiety - plasma ghrelin levels - food-intake - eating behavior - short-term - circulating ghrelin - energy-intake - c-peptide
The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6 ± 3.8y, BMI 22.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/0 kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30 min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (P <0.0001). Gastric infusion of a caloric load increased insulin and cholecystokinin-8 and decreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P <0.0001). No differences in active ghrelin response were observed between conditions. Ad libitum intake did not differ between oral and gastric administration of chocolate milk (P > 0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.
Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Luning, P.A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Gort, G. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
The British journal of nutrition 111 (2014)03. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 554 - 562.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - repeated consumption - flavor retention - release - size - orthonasal - perception - behavior - taste
The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m2) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9 % lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake
Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time
Ramaekers, M.G. ; Boesveldt, S. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2014
International Journal of Obesity 38 (2014). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 650 - 656.
sensory-specific satiety - cephalic phase responses - food-cue exposure - dietary restraint - chewing gum - perception - humans - stimuli - flavor - meal
Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor exposure on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA) over time. Design: In a cross-over study, 21 unrestrained women (age: 18–45 years; BMI: 18.5–25¿kg¿m-2) were exposed for 20¿min to eight different odor types: five food odors, two nonfood odors and no-odor. All odors were distributed in a test room at suprathreshold levels. General appetite, SSA and salivation were measured over time. Results: All food odors significantly increased general appetite and SSA, compared with the no-odor condition. The nonfood odors decreased general appetite. All effects did not change over time during odor exposure. Savory odors increased the appetite for savory foods, but decreased appetite for sweet foods, and vice versa after exposure to sweet odors. Neither food odors nor nonfood odors affected salivation. Conclusions: Palatable food odors were appetizing during and after odor exposure and did not become satiating over a 20-min period. Food odors had a large impact on SSA and a small impact on general appetite. Moreover, exposure to food odors increased the appetite for congruent foods, but decreased the appetite for incongruent foods. It may be hypothesized that, once the body is prepared for intake of a certain food with a particular macronutrient composition, it is unfavorable to consume foods that are very different from the cued food.
Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
Are meat substitutes liked better over time? A repeated in-home use test with meat substitutes or meat in meals
Hoek, A.C. ; Elzerman, J.E. ; Hageman, R. ; Kok, F.J. ; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 253 - 263.
disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - long-term acceptability - vs. wanting food - product development - repeated consumption - repeated exposure - unfamiliar foods - mere exposure - neophobia
The overall aim of this study was to explore long-term consumer acceptance of new environmentally sustainable alternatives to meat. We investigated whether meat substitutes, which are relatively new food products, would be better appreciated after repeated consumption. Eighty-nine non-vegetarian participants joined an in-home use test and consumed one type of product with their self-selected hot meal for 20 times during 10 weeks: Quorn (meat-like), tofu (not meat-like) or a meat reference (chicken filet). Initial liking (100-mm line scale) for chicken was higher (81 ± 19) than for Quorn (60 ± 28) and tofu (68 ± 21). On a product group level, boredom occurred with all three products and after 20 exposures there were no significant differences in product liking anymore. However, there were noticeably different individual responses within the three product groups, showing both ‘boredom’ and ‘mere exposure’ patterns. Mere exposure occurred significantly more frequent with tofu, with more than half of the participants showing an increased liking over time. We also found that meal patterns were related to boredom: bored persons used more different types of meals, probably to alleviate product boredom. This study demonstrates that liking of meat substitutes can be increased by repeated exposure for a segment of consumers. In addition, it indicates that the meal context should be considered in future in-home repeated exposure studies.
Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men
Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 795 - 802.
sensory-specific satiety - human orbitofrontal cortex - food-intake - brain activation - human amygdala - wanting food - humans - liking - reward - pleasure
After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for subsequent consumption has not been assessed. We aimed to determine the effects of consumption of sweet and savory foods on taste activation in the brain and to assess how far taste activation can predict subsequent ad libitum intake. Fifteen healthy men (age: 27 +/- 2 y, BMI: 22.0 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial. After a >3-h fast, participants were scanned with the use of functional MR( before and after consumption of a sweet or savory preload (0.35 L fruit or tomato juice) on two occasions. After the scans, the preload juice was consumed ad libitum. During scanning, participants tasted the juices and rated their pleasantness. Striatal taste activation decreased after juice consumption, independent of pleasantness. Sweet and savory taste activation were not differentially affected by consumption. Anterior cingulate taste activation predicted subsequent ad libitum intake of sweet (r = -0.78; P <0.001(uncorrected)) as well as savory juice (r = -0.70; P <0.001(uncorrected)) In conclusion, we showed how taste activation of brain reward areas changes following food consumption. These changes may be associated with the food's physiological relevance. Further, the results suggest that anterior cingulate taste activation reflects food-specific satiety. This extends our understanding of the representation of food specific-appetite in the brain and shows that neuroimaging may provide objective and more accurate measures of food motivation than self-report measures. J. Nutr. 142: 795-802, 2012.
Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Charbonnier, L. ; Meer, F. van der; Laan, L.N. van der; Spetter, M.S. - \ 2012
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 71 (2012)4. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 511 - 520.
body-mass index - human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - central-nervous-system - neural responses - individual-differences - selective attention - gastric distension - obese adolescents - taste stimuli
The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review the current state of the field of 'nutritional neuroscience' with a focus on the interplay between food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour and (2) highlight research needs and techniques that could be used to address these. The brain responses associated with sensory stimulation (sight, olfaction and taste), gastric distension, gut hormone administration and food consumption are the subject of increasing investigation. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined relations between brain responses and eating behaviour. However, the neural circuits underlying eating behaviour are to a large extent generic, including reward, self-control, learning and decision-making circuitry. These limbic and prefrontal circuits interact with the hypothalamus, a key homeostatic area. Target areas for further elucidating the regulation of food intake are: (eating) habit and food preference formation and modification, the neural correlates of self-control, nutrient sensing and dietary learning, and the regulation of body adiposity. Moreover, to foster significant progress, data from multiple studies need to be integrated. This requires standardisation of (neuroimaging) measures, data sharing and the application and development of existing advanced analysis and modelling techniques to nutritional neuroscience data. In the next 20 years, nutritional neuroscience will have to prove its potential for providing insights that can be used to tackle detrimental eating behaviour.
Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Finlayson, G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Appetite 59 (2012). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 1 - 8.
sensory-specific satiety - flavor preferences - protein - humans - appetite - liking - meal - consumption - ingestion - consumers
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects consumed diets that were predominantly sweet tasting, savory tasting, or a mixture. The diets were similar in energy content, macronutrient composition, and number of different products used. Following the intervention an ad libitum lunch buffet was offered the next day, consisting of food items differing in taste (sweet/savory) and protein content (low/high) and intake was measured. The results showed that the taste of the diet significantly altered preference for food according to their taste properties (p <0.0001); after the savory diet, intake of sweet foods was higher than of savory foods. After the sweet diet, savory foods tended to be preferred (p = 0.07). No interaction was seen between the taste of the diet and food preference according to their protein content (p = 0.67). No differences in total energy intake (kJ) at the ad libitum lunch buffet were observed (p = 0.58). It appears that in healthy subjects, taste of a 24-h diet largely affects subsequent food preferences in terms of sensory appetite, whereby savory taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. Taste of a 24-h diet has no effect on macronutrient appetite.
Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Appetite 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 48 - 55.
sensory-specific satiety - free-living humans - energy density - bite size - palatability - meal - satiation - consumption - viscosity - appetite
The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.
Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges
Kleef, E. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Zondervan, C. - \ 2012
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52 (2012)7. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 611 - 628.
sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - energy-intake - portion size - functional foods - dietary fiber - weight management - low-fat - consumption volume - metabolic syndrome
In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are (1) change food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, (2) anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at moment of purchase and consumption, and (3) improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving those routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing and communication are outlined
Why liquid energy results in overconsumption
Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 70 (2011)2. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 162 - 170.
sugar-sweetened beverages - sensory-specific satiety - human hypothalamic responses - libitum food-intake - high dietary-fat - body-weight - oral fat - young-children - appetite - taste
Liquids have been shown to have a low satiating efficiency. The may be related to the high rate of consumption for liquids which may be higher than 200 g/min. In a number of studies, we showed that the positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake is mediated by oro-sensory exposure time. Longer sensory exposure times are consistently associated with lower food intakes. This observation maybe linked to the role of cephalic phase responses to foods. Cephalic phase responses are a set of physiological responses, which are conceived to prepare the digestive system for the incoming flow of nutrients after ingestion, with the aim of maintaining homeostasis. Results from various studies suggest that cephalic phase responses are much smaller (absent) for liquids compared to solids. It is hypothesised that the absence of cephalic phase responses to liquid foods may be one of the causes why liquid energies enter the body undetected and lead to weak energy intake compensation. This idea fits with the concept of the taste system as a nutrient-sensing system that informs the brain and the gastro-intestinal system about what is coming into our body. With liquids, this system is bypassed. Slower eating may help the human body to associate the sensory signals from food with their metabolic consequences. Foods that are eaten quickly may impair this association, and may therefore lead to overconsumption of energy, and ultimately to weight gain.
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 1367 - 1374.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dorsal striatum - energy-balance - human amygdala - sweet taste - liquid food - bite size - reward
Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is expected to modulate taste activation in reward areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the amount of oro-sensory stimulation and energy content on consumption-induced changes in taste activation. Ten men participated in a 2 × 2 randomized crossover study. Subjects were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging: after fasting for at least 2 h and after treatment, on four occasions. Treatment consisted of the ingestion of 450 mL of orangeade (sweetened with 10% sucrose or non-caloric sweeteners) at 150 mL/min, with either small (5 mL) or large (20 mL) sips. During scanning, subjects alternately tasted orangeade, milk and tomato juice and rated its pleasantness. Before and after the scans, subjects rated pleasantness, prospective consumption, desire to eat and sweetness for all tastants. Main findings were that, before treatment, the amygdala was activated more by non-caloric than by caloric orangeade. Caloric orangeade activated part of the striatum before, but not after treatment. We observed no main effects of sip size on taste activation and no interaction between sip size and caloric content. In conclusion, the brain responds differentially to caloric and non-caloric versions of a sweet drink and consumption of calories can modulate taste activation in the striatum. Further research is needed to confirm that the observed differences are due to caloric content and not to (subliminal) differences in the sensory profile. In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established
Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake
Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Burgering, M.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)2. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 91 - 100.
sensory-specific satiety - stimulation - texture - release
Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product in the ad libitum eating setting. There was no effect on the amount of strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product consumed ad libitum. Apart from the differences in timing of the appetite-regulating effects, both experimental settings demonstrated that the multicomponent strawberry aroma, which was perceived as being more complex, yet of similar aroma quality, intensity, and pleasantness compared with the single-component strawberry aroma, was able to enhance perceived satiation. The methodology of the olfactometer-aided aroma stimulation proved to be representative of a real-life setting with regard to aroma exposure and satiation. Food products, which are perceived as being more complex, have been suggested to delay the development of sensory satiation as a result of implicitly cueing for variation. The present results may be explained by increased sensory stimulation, due to concurrent exposure to multiple aroma components cueing for sensorily similar strawberry perception
Cephalic phase responses and appetite
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Erkner, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Nutrition Reviews 68 (2010)11. - ISSN 0029-6643 - p. 643 - 655.
sensory-specific satiety - plasma ghrelin levels - pancreatic-polypeptide release - body-weight regulation - food-intake - sweet taste - insulin-secretion - nutritional implications - vagal-stimulation - glucose-tolerance
The current food supply in many parts of the world differs substantially from that which existed during most of human evolution. It is characterized by a high variety of palatable foods with high energy density and low fiber content. Many foods can be eaten very quickly, and there is not always congruency between the sensory properties of the food and the subsequent metabolic consequences of its ingestion, (e.g., as in the consumption of artificially sweetened foods). It is not presently known how the human body copes with this incongruent food environment in terms of short-term satiety responses and long(er)-term regulation of food intake. Cephalic phase responses (CPRs) are innate and learned physiological responses to sensory signals that prepare the gastrointestinal tract for the optimal processing of ingested foods. CPRs could be affected by inconsistencies in the associations between sensory signals and subsequent post-ingestive consequences. Reviewed here are the available data on how CPRs affect the control of food intake
Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 789 - 799.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dietary-sodium - bite size - ingestive behavior - energy density - liquid food - taste - satiation
Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption
Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods
Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de; Hulshof, T. ; Jebb, S.A. ; Livingstone, B. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Salah, S. ; Schuring, E. ; Knaap, H.C.M. van der; Westerterp, M. - \ 2010
Obesity Reviews 11 (2010)3. - ISSN 1467-7881 - p. 251 - 270.
sensory-specific satiety - high-fat diet - energy-intake - high-carbohydrate - ad-libitum - base-line - body-weight - individual variability - macronutrient intake - covert manipulation
This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety, detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand alone as a measure of appetite control and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Because research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed.
Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review
Ruijschop, R. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)21. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 9888 - 9894.
sensory-specific satiety - libitum food-intake - flavor release - swallowing process - feeding-behavior - energy-intake - perception - orthonasal - texture - humans
In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satiation. Using a novel approach of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APcl-MS) in combination with olfactometry, the relative importance of different aroma concepts for satiation was studied, from both consumer and food product points of view. The extent of retronasal aroma release appears to be a physiological feature that characterizes a person. Although the extent of retronasal aroma release appears to be subject specific, food product properties can be tailored in such a way that these can lead to a higher quality and/or quantity of retronasal aroma stimulation. This in turn provokes enhanced feelings of satiation and ultimately may contribute to a decrease in food intake.
Satiation Due to Equally Palatable Sweet and Savory Meals Does Not Differ in Normal Weight Young Adults 1–3
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Mars, M. ; Finlayson, G. ; Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
The Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009)11. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2093 - 2098.
sensory-specific satiety - short-term appetite - food-intake - energy-intake - expected satiety - low consumers - portion size - liking - humans - taste
Sensory properties are greatly involved in the process of satiation. Regarding the nature of sensory signals, an important distinction can be made between sweet and savory taste. It is unclear, however, whether sweet and savory differ in their influence on satiation. Our objective was to investigate the difference between a sweet and savory taste on satiation, independent of palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition. A crossover design was used, consisting of 3 test conditions in which 2 tastes (sweet and savory) were compared. Sixty-four healthy, nonsmoking, unrestrained participants (18 males and 46 females), with a mean age of 22.3 ± 2.4 y and a mean BMI of 21.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, enrolled. Rice was used as a test meal served in either a sweet or savory version. The meals were similar in palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition. Ad libitum intake, eating rate, and changes in pleasantness and appetite during the meals were measured. Ad libitum intake did not differ between the 2 meals; participants ate a mean of 314 ± 144 g of the sweet meal and 333 ± 159 g of the savory meal. Eating rate (sweet, 38 ± 14 g/min; savory, 37 ± 14 g/min) and changes in pleasantness and appetite during the meals were similar. Homogeneous meals with a sweet or savory taste, similar in palatability, texture, energy density, and macronutrient composition, do not differ in their influence on satiation in normal weight young adults
Children's hard-wired aversion to pure vegetable tastes: a 'failed' flavour-nutrient learning study
Zeinstra, G.G. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
Appetite 52 (2009)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 528 - 530.
sensory-specific satiety - high dietary-fat - young-children - preferences - acceptability - pleasantness - consumption - intensity - sweetness
Conditioning is an important mechanism for establishing food preferences. Although the basic principles for conditioning are well-known, less is known about the conditions under which this type of learning takes place. This paper aims to add to the knowledge of the essential conditions for flavour¿nutrient learning with vegetable flavours. We describe a study which aimed to investigate whether flavour¿nutrient learning is effective in increasing 7¿8-year-old children's preference for vegetables. Their preference for, and consumption of, two different vegetable drinks was measured before and after a 14-day-conditioning period, using a within-subject design. Flavour¿nutrient learning could not occur, due to insufficient consumption during the conditioning period: 2.4 g (S.D. = 5.6) for the high energy (HE) drink and 3.0 g (S.D. = 9.3) for the low energy (LE) drink. The high taste intensity may have caused the insufficient consumption. We hypothesize that the pure taste of vegetables in itself is not acceptable. Mixing vegetables with other foods may lead to gradual acceptance of vegetables through flavour¿flavour and flavour¿nutrient learning. Future flavour¿nutrient learning studies with children should use less intense vegetable flavours.