Evaluation of food and nutrient intake assessment using concentration biomarkers in European adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study
Vandevijvere, S. ; Geelen, A. ; Gonzalez-Gross, M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Dallongeville, J. ; Mouratidu, T. ; Dekkers, A. ; Börnhorst, C. ; Breidenassel, C. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 736 - 747.
serum cholesteryl esters - n-3 fatty-acids - dietary-intake - energy-intake - additional measurements - micronutrient intake - biochemical markers - adipose-tissue - vitamin-c - validation
Accurate food and nutrient intake assessment is essential for investigating diet–disease relationships. In the present study, food and nutrient intake assessment among European adolescents using 24 h recalls (mean of two recalls) and a FFQ (separately and the combination of both) were evaluated using concentration biomarkers. Biomarkers included were vitamin C, ß-carotene, DHA+EPA, vitamin B12 (cobalamin and holo-transcobalamin) and folate (erythrocyte folate and plasma folate). For the evaluation of the food intake assessment 390 adolescents were included, while 697 were included for the nutrient intake assessment evaluation. Spearman rank and Pearson correlations, and validity coefficients, which are correlations between intake estimated and habitual true intake, were calculated. Correlations were higher between frequency of food consumption (from the FFQ) and concentration biomarkers than between mean food intake (from the recalls) and concentration biomarkers, especially for DHA+EPA (r 0·35 v. r 0·27). Most correlations were higher among girls than boys. For boys, the highest validity coefficients were found for frequency of fruit consumption (0·88) and for DHA+EPA biomarker (0·71). In girls, the highest validity coefficients were found for fruit consumption frequency (0·76), vegetable consumption frequency (0·74), mean fruit intake (0·90) and DHA+EPA biomarker (0·69). After exclusion of underreporters, correlations slightly improved. Correlations between usual food intakes, adjusted for food consumption frequency, and concentration biomarkers were higher than correlations between mean food intakes and concentration biomarkers. In conclusion, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls in combination with a FFQ seem to be appropriate to rank subjects according to their usual food intake
Biomarker-based evaluation of two 24-h recalls for comparing usual fish, fruit and vegetable intakes across European centers in the EFCOVAL Study
Vries, J.H.M. de; Crispim, S.P. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Ruprich, J. ; Dofkova, M. ; Huybrechts, I. ; Keyzer, W. de; Lillegaard, I.T.L. ; Lafay, L. ; Rousseau, A.S. ; Ocke, M.C. ; Slimani, N. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2011
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (2011). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S38 - S47.
serum cholesteryl esters - life-style factors - n-3 fatty-acids - food-consumption - plasma carotenoids - alcohol-consumption - level correlations - adipose-tissue - lipid classes - dietary
Background/Objectives: A standardized methodology is important to enable consistent monitoring of dietary intake across European countries. For this reason, we evaluated the comparability of the assessment of usual food intake collected with two non-consecutive computerized 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and a food propensity questionnaire (FPQ) among five European centers. Subjects/Methods: Two 24-HDRs using EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) were performed to determine fish, fruit and vegetable (FV) consumed by 600 adults in Belgium (BE), the Czech Republic (CZ), France (FR), the Netherlands (NL) and Norway (NO) in a validation study. An FPQ was used to identify non-consumers. Information from the 24-HDRs and FPQ were used to estimate individual usual food intake by the Multiple Source Method (MSM). Blood samples were drawn to determine fatty acids in phospholipids and serum carotenoids as biomarkers of fish, and FV intake, respectively. Results: The pooled correlation between usual fish intake and eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid in phospholipids was 0.19 in men and 0.31 in women (P for heterogeneity >0.50) and center-specific correlations ranged between 0.08 (CZ) and 0.28 (BE and NO) in men, and between 0.19 (BE) and 0.55 (FR) in women. For usual FV intake, the pooled correlation with serum carotenoids was 0.31 in men and 0.40 in women (P for heterogeneity >0.10); the center-specific correlations varied between 0.07 (NO) and 0.52 (FR) in men, and between 0.25 (NL) and 0.45 (NO) in women. Conclusion: Two standardized 24-HDRs using EPIC-Soft and an FPQ appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals according to their fish and FV intake in a comparable way among five European centers.
Plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and age-related hearing loss in older adults
Dullemeijer, C. ; Verhoef, P. ; Brouwer, I.A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Brummer, R.J. ; Durga, J. - \ 2010
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 14 (2010)5. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 347 - 351.
serum cholesteryl esters - cardiovascular-disease - erythrocyte-membranes
Objectives: Age-related hearing loss is a common social and health problem in the older adult population. Up until now, very little scientific attention has been given to the potential role of fatty acids in agerelated hearing loss. In this study we investigated whether plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with age-related hearing loss over three years. Design: Cross-sectional and 3-year longitudinal analyses. Setting: Wageningen, the Netherlands. Participants: 720 men and postmenopausal women (50-70 years of age) without middle ear dysfunction or unilateral hearing loss. Measurements: Fatty acid proportions were measured in plasma cholesteryl esters. Hearing thresholds (in decibels, dB) at baseline and after three years were measured with pure-tone audiometry. Hearing loss was calculated as the increase in mean hearing thresholds in the low (0.5-kHz, 1-kHz, and 2-kHz) and high (4-kHz, 6-kHz, and 8-kHz) frequencies over three years. Results: Subjects in the highest quartile of plasma very long-chain n-3 PUFA had less hearing loss in the low frequencies over three years than subjects in the lowest quartile (p
Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: Design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial
Geleijnse, J.M. ; Giltay, E.J. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Goede, J. de; Oude Griep, L.M. ; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M. ; Katan, M.B. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2010
American Heart Journal 159 (2010). - ISSN 0002-8703 - p. 539 - 546.
coronary-heart-disease - serum cholesteryl esters - fish consumption - linolenic acid - eicosapentaenoic acid - myocardial-infarction - secondary-prevention - risk - metaanalysis - mortality
Background Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is at present unclear whether alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a n-3 fatty acid from vegetable origin, could also be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There is a need for food-based trials to establish the efficacy of low doses of n-3 fatty acids in CVD prevention. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an additional daily intake of 400 mg of EPA + DHA and 2 g of ALA on CVD morbidity and mortality in free-living subjects with a history of myocardial infarction. Design The multicenter Alpha Omega Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design. Between May 2002 and December 2006, we enrolled a total of 4,837 men and women aged 60 through 80 who experienced a myocardial infarction within 10 years before entering the study. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 margarine spreads that were enriched with EPA + DHA and/or ALA, or placebo. Compliance was monitored via tub counts and assessment of n-3 fatty acids in plasma. Subjects were observed for 40 months for the occurrence of fatal and nonfatal CVD. Results The cohort was on average 69 years old at the start of the study and comprised 22% women. Subjects had their (last) myocardial infarction approximately 4 years before enrolment. Mean body mass index was 27.7 kg/m(2), and 17% smoked. Average serum total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 4.7 and 1.3 mmol/L, respectively, and 85% used statins. Mean blood pressure was 142/80 mm Hg, and most subjects were on antihypertensive medication (88%). Diabetes mellitus was reported by 17% of the subjects, and 7% reported a history of stroke. The overall mortality rate during the trial period was 23 per 1,000 person-years, with approximately 40% due to CVD. Current status Follow-up of the patients was completed in November 2009, and findings will be reported in the second part of 2010. (Am Heart J 2010; 159: 539-546. e2.)
Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial
Rest, O. van de; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Dullemeijer, C. ; OldeRikkert, M.G.M. ; Beekman, A.T.F. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2008
Neurology 71 (2008)6. - ISSN 0028-3878 - p. 430 - 438.
fatty-acid-composition - serum cholesteryl esters - verbal-learning test - erythrocyte-membranes - docosahexaenoic acid - alzheimer-disease - normative data - dementia - risk - plasma
Background: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. Objective: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on cognitive performance. Methods: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 302 cognitively healthy (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 21) individuals aged 65 years or older. Participants were randomly assigned to 1,800 mg/d EPA¿DHA, 400 mg/d EPA¿DHA, or placebo capsules for 26 weeks. Cognitive performance was assessed using an extensive neuropsychological test battery that included the cognitive domains of attention, sensorimotor speed, memory, and executive function. Results: The mean age of the participants was 70 years, and 55% were male. Plasma concentrations of EPA¿DHA increased by 238% in the high-dose and 51% in the low-dose fish oil group compared with placebo, reflecting excellent compliance. Baseline scores on the cognitive tests were comparable in the three groups. Overall, there were no significant differential changes in any of the cognitive domains for either low-dose or high-dose fish oil supplementation compared with placebo. Conclusions: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we observed no overall effect of 26 weeks of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on cognitive performance
N-3 Fatty acid proportions in plasma and cognitive performance in older adults 1-3
Dullemeijer, C. ; Durga, J. ; Brouwer, I.A. ; Rest, O. van de; Kok, F.J. ; Brummer, R.J. ; Boxtel, M.P.J. van; Verhoef, P. - \ 2007
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2007)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1479 - 1485.
serum cholesteryl esters - participants aged 24-81 - normative data - erythrocyte-membranes - elderly population - alzheimers-disease - education - decline - sex - men
Background: Very-long-chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n¿3 PUFAs) are suggested to be related to cognitive performance in older adults. However, limited data exist on the association between n¿3 PUFAs and performance in specific cognitive domains. Objective: We evaluated the association between plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance in 5 cognitive domains and determined whether plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions predict cognitive change over 3 y. Design: We used data from the FACIT trial, in which participants received folic acid or placebo capsules for 3 y. Fatty acid proportions in plasma cholesteryl esters at baseline were measured in 807 men and women aged 50¿70 y. Cognitive performance for memory, sensorimotor speed, complex speed, information-processing speed, and word fluency was assessed at baseline and after 3 y. The cross-sectional analyses were based on all 807 participants; the longitudinal analyses were based only on 404 participants in the placebo group. Results: Higher plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions predicted less decline in sensorimotor speed (multiple linear regression coefficient, z score = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.57) and complex speed (0.40; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.70) over 3 y. Plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions did not predict 3-y changes in memory, information-processing speed, or word fluency. The cross-sectional analyses showed no association between plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions and performance in any of the 5 cognitive domains. Conclusions: In this population, plasma n¿3 PUFA proportions were associated with less decline in the speed-related cognitive domains over 3 y. These results need to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials.
Effect of Fish Oil on Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia and Death in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: The Study on Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Ventricular Arrhythmia (SOFA) Randomized Trial
Brouwer, I.A. ; Zock, P.L. ; Camm, A.J. ; Bocker, D. ; Hauer, R.N.W. ; Wever, E.F.D. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Ronden, J.E. ; Katan, M.B. ; Lubinski, A. ; Buschler, H. ; Schouten, E.G. - \ 2006
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 295 (2006)22. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 2613 - 2619.
polyunsaturated fatty-acids - sudden cardiac death - serum cholesteryl esters - coronary heart-disease - dietary-intake - n-3 - prevention - risk - fibrillation - supplementation
Context Very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) from fish are thought to reduce risk of sudden death, possibly by reducing susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. Objective To study the effect of supplemental fish oil vs placebo on ventricular tachyarrhythmia or death. Design, Setting, and Patients The Study on Omega-3 Fatty acids and ventricular Arrhythmia ( SOFA) was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at 26 cardiology clinics across Europe. A total of 546 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators ( ICDs) and prior documented malignant ventricular tachycardia ( VT) or ventricular fibrillation ( VF) were enrolled between October 2001 and August 2004. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 2 g/d of fish oil ( n= 273) or placebo ( n= 273) for a median period of 356 days ( range, 14-379 days). Main Outcome Measure Appropriate ICD intervention for VT or VF, or all-cause death. Results The primary end point occurred in 81 ( 30%) patients taking fish oil vs 90 ( 33%) patients taking placebo ( hazard ratio [ HR], 0.86;95% confidence interval [ CI], 0.64-1.16; P=. 33). In prespecified subgroup analyses, the HR was 0.91 ( 95% CI, 0.661.26) for fish oil vs placebo in the 411 patients who had experienced VT in the year before the study, and 0.76 ( 95% CI, 0.52-1.11) for 332 patients with prior myocardial infarctions. Conclusion Our findings do not indicate evidence of a strong protective effect of intake of omega-3 PUFAs from fish oil against ventricular arrhythmia in patients with ICDs.
Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations are higher in women than in men through estrogenic effects
Giltay, E.J. ; Gooren, L.J.G. ; Toorians, A.W.F.T. ; Katan, M.B. ; Zock, P.L. - \ 2004
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (2004)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1167 - 1174.
alpha-linolenic acid - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - serum cholesteryl esters - coronary-heart-disease - fish consumption - ethinyl estradiol - adipose-tissue - transdermal estradiol - delta-5 desaturase - lipid fractions
Background: During pregnancy there is a high demand for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is needed for formation of the fetal brain. Women who do not consume marine foods must synthesize DHA from fatty acid precursors in vegetable foods. Objective: We studied sex differences in DHA status and the role of sex hormones. Design: First, DHA status was compared between 72 male and 103 female healthy volunteers who ate the same rigidly controlled diets. Second. the effects of sex hormones were Studied in 56 male-to-female transsexual subjects, who were treated with cyproterone acetate alone or randomly assigned to receive oral ethinyl estradiol or transdermal 17beta-estradiol combined with cyproterone acetate, and in 61 female-to-male transsexual subjects, who were treated with testosterone esters or randomly assigned for treatment with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole or placebo in addition to the testosterone regimen. Results: The proportion of DHA was 15 +/- 4% ((x) over bar +/- SEM; P <0.0005) higher in the women than in the men. Among the women, those taking oral contraceptives had 10 +/- 4% (P = 0.08) higher DHA concentrations than did those not taking oral contraceptives. Administration of oral ethinyl estradiol, but not transdermal 17beta-estradiol, increased DHA by 42 +/- 8% (P <0.0005), whereas the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate did not affect DHA. Parenteral testosterone decreased DHA by 22 +/- 4% (P <0.0005) in femaleto-niale transsexual subjects. Anastrozole decreased estradiol concentrations significantly and DHA concentrations nonsignificantly (9 +/- 6%: P = 0.09). Conclusion: Estrogens cause higher DHA concentrations in women than in men. probably by upregulating synthesis of DHA from vegetable precursors.
Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic levels in postmenopausal women
Giltay, E.J. ; Duschek, E.J.J. ; Katan, M.B. ; Neele, S.J. ; Netelenbos, J.C. ; Zock, P.L. - \ 2004
Journal of Endocrinology 182 (2004)3. - ISSN 0022-0795 - p. 399 - 408.
alpha-linolenic acid - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - coronary-heart-disease - serum cholesteryl esters - ethinyl estradiol - fish consumption - myocardial-infarction - oophorectomized women - delta-5 desaturase - controlled-trial
Estrogens may affect the essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3). Therefore, we investigated the long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In study 1, 95 healthy, non-hysterectomized, early postmenopausal women (age range 47-59 years) received one of the following treatments: daily raloxifene 60 mg (n = 24), daily raloxitene 150 mg (n = 23), 0,625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n=24), or placebo (n=24). In study 11, 30 men (age range 60-69 years) received daily 120 mg raloxifene (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). In study 1, plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acids were measured at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months in 83 (drop out rate 13%), 73 (23%), and 70 (25%) women respectively. In study 11, fatty acids were measured at baseline and after months in 29 men (drop out rate 3%). In postmenopausal women, administration of 150 mg raloxifene increased AA by a mean of +6.1% (P = 0.055, not significant). Administration of CEE plus MPA increased AA by +14.1% (P <0.0005). Mean changes in DHA were +22.1% (P = 0.003) and +14.9% (P = 0.047) respectively, as compared with placebo. In men, 120 mg raloxifene for 3 months did not significantly affect AA (-5.2%; P = 0.342) or DHA (+4.0%; P = 0.755), but it increased testosterone levels by +19.8% (P = 0.006). Administration of raloxifene 150 mg/day as well as CEE plus MPA to postmenopausal women increases the proportion of AA and DHA in plasma cholesteryl esters during a follow-up of 2 years. Short term administration of raloxifene in elderly men did not affect AA or DHA. The synthesis of AA and DHA from precursors may be enhanced through an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway.
Effect of n-3 fatty acids on heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in middle-aged subjects
Geelen, A. ; Zock, P.L. ; Swenne, C.A. ; Brouwer, I.A. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2003
American Heart Journal 146 (2003)2. - ISSN 0002-8703 - p. 344 - 344.
acute myocardial-infarction - serum cholesteryl esters - signal-averaged electrocardiogram - physical-activity scale - sudden cardiac death - fish consumption - erythrocyte-membranes - controlled trial - cell-membranes - dietary-intake
Background - N-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of sudden death by preventing life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) reflect cardiac autonomic regulation; reduced values predict arrhythmic events and mortality. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on these risk indicators of arrhythmia have not been widely studied. We investigated the effect of supplemental intake of n-3 fatty acids on HRV and BRS in apparently healthy subjects aged 50 to 70 years. Methods - After a run-in period of 4 weeks, 84 subjects were randomized to receive capsules with either 3.5 g of fish oil or placebo oil daily for 12 weeks. Before and after intervention, electrocardiograms and blood pressure were recorded for 10 minutes with standardized respiration of 15 breaths/min. The SD of the duration of all normal RR intervals (SDNN10) and the root mean square successive differences (RMSSD10) were calculated from the 10-minute recordings. We also computed low frequency power (LF) and high frequency power (HF). BRS was computed by integrating the spectral systolic blood pressure to interbeat-interval transfer function in the 0.05- to 0.15-Hz band. Results - The different measures of HRV and BRS did not significantly improve with the intake of n-3 fatty acids. SDNN10 decreased by 3.05 ms or 7.7% (95% CI, -8.91-2.82 ms), and BRS decreased by 0.92 ms/mm Hg or 0.1% (95% CI, -2.66-0.81 ms/mm Hg) in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group. Conclusions - N-3 fatty acids have no effect on HRV from short-term recordings and BRS in apparently healthy subjects.
Rationale and design of a randomised controlled clinical trial on supplemental intake of n-3 fatty acids and incidence of cardiac arrhythmia: SOFA
Brouwer, I.A. ; Zock, P.L. ; Katan, M.B. ; Hauer, R.N.W. ; Camm, A. ; Bocker, D.I. ; Terlouw, P. ; Schouten, E.G. - \ 2003
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57 (2003). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1323 - 1330.
serum cholesteryl esters - coronary heart-disease - sudden-death - ventricular-fibrillation - myocardial-infarction - dietary-intake - fish consumption - prevention - risk - angioplasty
Background: Evidence from earlier studies indicates that intake of very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, also named omega-3 fatty acids) as present in fish oil reduces the risk of sudden death. Sudden death forms a major part of mortality from cardiovascular disease and is in most cases a direct consequence of cardiac arrhythmia. n-3 PUFA may exert their protective effect through reducing the susceptibility for cardiac arrhythmia. Objective: To investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA on the incidence of recurrent ventricular arrhythmia. This paper presents the rationale, design and methods of the Study on Omega-3 Fatty acids and ventricular Arrhythmia (SOFA) and discusses problems encountered in conducting a multicentre clinical trial on food. Design: A randomised, parallel, placebo-controlled, double blind intervention study, which obeys the guidelines for Good Clinical Practice. Setting: Multiple cardiology centres in Europe. Subjects: A total of 500 patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). An ICD detects, treats and stores cardiac arrhythmic events in its memory chip. Interventions: Patients receive either 2 g/day of fish oil, containing approximately 450 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 350 mg docosahexaenoic acid, or placebo for 12 months. Primary outcome: Spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias as recorded by the ICD or all-cause mortality. Conclusion: SOFA is designed to answer the question whether intake of n-3 PUFA from fish-a regular food ingredient-can reduce the incidence of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. If this proves to be true, increasing the intake of n-3 PUFA could be an easy, effective and safe measure to prevent fatal arrhythmia in the general population.