Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen romoval by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water
Graaff, M.S. de; Vieno, N.M. ; Kujawa, K. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Water Research 45 (2011)1. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 375 - 383.
sewage-treatment plants - personal care products - waste-water - activated-sludge - aquatic environment - musk fragrances - surface waters - estrogens - antibiotics - behavior
Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (mu g/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 mu g/L for carbamazepine to >1000 mu g/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Changes in ventilation and locomotion of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in response to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals
Lange, H.J. de; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. - \ 2009
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 15 (2009)1. - ISSN 1080-7039 - p. 111 - 120.
sewage-treatment plants - fresh-water biomonitor - acid-mine drainage - behavioral-responses - impedance conversion - oncorhynchus-mykiss - surface waters - waste-water - toxicity - exposure
Exposure to contaminants below lethal concentrations may affect the performance of organisms, resulting in measurable differences in behavior. We measured the response of the benthic invertebrate Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to sublethal concentrations of three pharmaceuticals, fluoxetine, ibuprofen and carbamazepine, and the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Responses in behavior during exposure were analyzed using the multivariate method of Principal Response Curves (PRC). The PRC results show that exposure to low pharmaceutical concentrations (range 1-100 ng/l) resulted in increased ventilation, whereas exposure to control or to high concentrations (1 ¿ g/l-1 mg/L) resulted in increased locomotion. Exposure to CTAB resulted in decreased locomotion and increased ventilation at increasing concentrations. The results of our experiments indicate that increased ventilation can be used as a general sign of stress, but not necessarily an early warning signal for mortality.
Oestrogen removal from biological pre-treated wastewater within decentralised sanitation and re-use concepts
Mes, T.Z.D. de; Urmenyi, A.M. ; Poot, A.A. ; Wessling, M. ; Mulder, M.H.V. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2006
Water Science and Technology 53 (2006)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 141 - 150.
sewage-treatment plants - activated-sludge - stw effluent - chemicals - identification - vitellogenin - substances - membranes - biomarker - behavior
Two parallel researches were performed; one focused on the fate of oestrogens in the biological treatment systems within decentralised sanitation and re-use concepts (DESAR), the second related to the development of a suitable specific removal method. A new affinity membrane was developed using antibodies as specific binding sites for hormone removal. It was found that, especially in anaerobic treatment, the core technology in DESAR, the removal is insufficient and therefore an additional separation method is required. The affinity membrane with antibodies was found to be a suitable additional method, though in the current system it only removes one selected compound. Future research will focus on making this method more feasible in practise
Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals
Lange, H.J. de; Noordoven, W. ; Murk, A.J. ; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. - \ 2006
Aquatic Toxicology 78 (2006)3. - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 209 - 216.
gammarus pulex - aquatisch milieu - geneesmiddelen - waterorganismen - geneesmiddelenresiduen - gedrag - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - ecotoxicologie - biologische monitoring - gammarus pulex - aquatic environment - drugs - aquatic organisms - drug residues - behaviour - surface water - water pollution - ecotoxicology - biomonitoring - serotonin reuptake inhibitors - sewage-treatment plants - released chemical cues - waste-water - impedance conversion - clofibric acid - surface waters - daphnia-magna - toxicity
The continuous discharge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the environment results in a chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to these substances and their metabolites. As concentrations in surface waters are in the ng/L range, and sometimes in the low microg/L range, they are not likely to result in lethal toxicity. However, prolonged exposure to low concentrations of anthropogenic chemicals may lead to sublethal effects, including changes in behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three pharmaceuticals, the antidepressant fluoxetine, the analgesic ibuprofen and the anti-epileptic carbamazepine, and one cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the activity of the benthic invertebrate Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridae). We used the multispecies freshwater biomonitor to assess changes in activity of G. pulex in a quantitative manner. Exposure to low concentrations (10-100ng/L) of fluoxetine and ibuprofen resulted in a significant decrease in activity, whereas the activity of G. pulex at higher concentrations (1microg/L-1mg/L) was similar to the control. Response to carbamazepine showed a similar pattern, however, differences were not significant. The tested surfactant CTAB evoked a decrease in activity at increasing concentration. These behavioural effect concentrations were 10(4) to 10(7) times lower than previously reported LOECs and in the range of environmentally occurring concentrations. The potential consequences of this decreased activity for G. pulex population growth and benthic community structure and the exposure to mixtures of pharmaceuticals deserves further attention.
Life-history consequences for Daphnia pulex exposed to pharmaceutical carbamazepine
Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Sargant, E.M. ; Roessink, I. - \ 2006
Environmental Toxicology 21 (2006)2. - ISSN 1520-4081 - p. 172 - 180.
sewage-treatment plants - juvenile growth-rate - phenotypic plasticity - toxic cyanobacteria - magna straus - chaoborus - food - environment - kairomone - responses
The effects of the antiepileptic, analgesic drug carbamazepine on the growth, morphology, and life-history characteristics of Daphnia pulex were examined at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 200 mu g L-1. At 1 mu g carbamazepine L-1, Daphnia matured and reproduced slightly earlier than did controls, and at a given body length females produced more offspring than did controls or those receiving other treatments. In combination with a relatively high juvenile somatic growth rate and highest total number of progeny produced per female, carbamazepine at 1 mu g L-1 seemed to exert a stimulatory effect. The rates of population growth of the 100 and 200 mu g L-1 treatment groups was 9% and 32% lower, respectively, than the rates of growth of the controls and the Daphnia receiving treatments of up to 10 mu g carbamazepine L-1. At the highest dose, retardation of juvenile somatic growth resulted in delayed maturity and consequently in a lower rate of population growth. Adult somatic growth, spine length, reproductive output, and size of newborns were similar among treatments. Male offspring were only produced in the third broods, with broods that were 8% and 28% male at 1 and 10 mu g L-1, respectively. Neck teeth were never observed in Daphnia. Chronic adverse effects of carbamazepine on nontarget Daphnia were detected at 200 mu g carbamazepine L-1, but stimulatory effects might occur at environmentally realistic concentrations. However, additional studies of chronic toxicity investigating various combinations of pharmaceuticals and various environmental stresses, such as food condition, temperature, and kairomones, are needed to fully explore potential long-term adverse effects and to assess the environmental risk of common pharmaceuticals.
An integrated assessment of estrogenic contamination and biological effects in the aquatic environment of the Netherlands
Vethaak, A.D. ; Lahr, J. ; Schrap, S.M. ; Belfroid, A.C. ; Rijs, G.B.J. ; Gerritsen, A. ; Boer, J. de; Bulder, A.S. ; Grinwis, G.C.M. ; Kuiper, R.V. ; Legler, J. ; Murk, A.J. ; Peijnenburg, W. ; Verkaar, H.J.M. ; Voogt, P. de - \ 2005
Chemosphere 59 (2005)4. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 511 - 524.
waterverontreiniging - hormonen - aquatisch milieu - monitoring - nederland - aquatische ecosystemen - hormoonverstoorders - water pollution - hormones - aquatic environment - monitoring - netherlands - aquatic ecosystems - endocrine disruptors - sewage-treatment plants - flounder platichthys-flesus - reporter gene assays - e-screen assay - waste-water - surface-water - alkylphenol polyethoxylates - degradation-products - sexual disruption
An extensive study was carried out in the Netherlands on the occurrence of a number of estrogenic compounds in surface water, sediment, biota, wastewater, rainwater and on the associated effects in fish. Compounds investigated included natural and synthetic hormones, phthalates, alkylphenol(ethoxylate)s and bisphenol-A. The results showed that almost all selected (xeno-)estrogens were present at low concentrations in the aquatic environment. Locally, they were found at higher levels. Hormones and nonylphenol(ethoxylate)s were present in concentrations that are reportedly high enough to cause estrogenic effects in fish. Field surveys did not disclose significant estrogenic effects in male flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the open sea and in Dutch estuaries. Minor to moderate estrogenic effects were observed in bream (Abramis brama) in major inland surface waters such as lowland rivers and a harbor area. The prevalence of feminizing effects in male fish is largest in small regional surface waters that are strougly influenced by sources of potential hormone-disrupting compounds. High concentrations of plasma vitellogenin and an increased prevalence of ovotestes occurred in wild male bream in a small river receiving a considerable load of effluent from a large sewage treatment plant. After employing in vitro and in vivo bioassays, both in situ and in the laboratory, we conclude that in this case hormones (especially 17a-ethynylestradiol) and possibly also nonylphenol(ethoxylate)s are primarily responsible for these effects.