Sexually dimorphic characteristics of the small intestine and colon of prepubescent C57BL/6 mice
Steegenga, W.T. ; Mischke, M. ; Lute, C. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Pruis, M.G.M. ; Lendvai, A. ; Verkade, H.J. ; Boekhorst, J. ; Timmerman, H.M. ; Plösch, T. ; Müller, M.R. - \ 2014
Biology of Sex Differences 5 (2014). - ISSN 2042-6410 - 17 p.
liver gene-expression - inflammatory-bowel-disease - inactive x-chromosome - genome-wide analysis - sex-differences - mouse-liver - gut microbiota - pancreatic-secretion - microarray analysis - epithelial-cells
Background There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epigenetic differences in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent male and female mice. In addition, the microbiota composition of the colonic luminal content has been examined. Methods At postnatal day 14, male and female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed and the small intestine, colon and content of luminal colon were isolated. Gene expression of both segments of the intestine was analysed by microarray analysis. DNA methylation of the promoter regions of selected sexually dimorphic genes was examined by pyrosequencing. Composition of the microbiota was explored by deep sequencing. Results Sexually dimorphic genes were observed in both segments of the intestine of 2-week-old mouse pups, with a stronger effect in the small intestine. Amongst the total of 349 genes displaying a sexually dimorphic effect in the small intestine and/or colon, several candidates exhibited a previously established function in the intestine (i.e. Nts, Nucb2, Alox5ap and Retnl¿). In addition, differential expression of genes linked to intestinal bowel disease (i.e. Ccr3, Ccl11 and Tnfr) and colorectal cancer development (i.e. Wt1 and Mmp25) was observed between males and females. Amongst the genes displaying significant sexually dimorphic expression, nine genes were histone-modifying enzymes, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms might be a potential underlying regulatory mechanism. However, our results reveal no significant changes in DNA methylation of analysed CpGs within the selected differentially expressed genes. With respect to the bacterial community composition in the colon, a dominant effect of litter origin was found but no significant sex effect was detected. However, a sex effect on the dominance of specific taxa was observed. Conclusions This study reveals molecular dissimilarities between males and females in the small intestine and colon of prepubescent mice, which might underlie differences in physiological functioning and in disease predisposition in the two sexes.
Reference intervals for common carotid intima-media thickness measured with echotracking: relation with risk factors
Engelen, L. ; Ferreira, I. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Franco, O.H. ; Grobbee, D.E. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Twisk, J.W.R. ; Dekker, J.J.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2013
European Heart Journal 34 (2013)30. - ISSN 0195-668X - p. 2368 - 2380.
coronary-heart-disease - cardiovascular-disease - atherosclerosis risk - prospective cohort - vascular-disease - sex-differences - task-force - metaanalysis - artery - ultrasound
Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCIMT) is widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, given its predictive association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The interpretation of CCIMT values has been hampered by the absence of reference values, however. We therefore aimed to establish reference intervals of CCIMT, obtained using the probably most accurate method at present (i.e. echotracking), to help interpretation of these measures. Methods and results We combined CCIMT data obtained by echotracking on 24 871 individuals (53% men; age range 15–101 years) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD, cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs), and BP-, lipid-, and/or glucose-lowering medication constituted a healthy sub-population (n ¼ 4234) used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of CCIMT across age.With these equations, we generated CCIMT Z-scores in different reference subpopulations, thereby allowing for a standardized comparison between observed and predicted (‘normal’) values from individuals of the same age and sex. In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n ¼ 14 609), and in men and women, respectively, CCIMT Z-scores were independently associated with systolic blood pressure [standardized bs 0.19 (95% CI: 0.16–0.22) and 0.18 (0.15–0.21)], smoking [0.25 (0.19–0.31) and 0.11 (0.04–0.18)], diabetes [0.19 (0.05–0.33) and 0.19 (0.02–0.36)], total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio [0.07 (0.04–0.10) and 0.05 (0.02–0.09)], and body mass index [0.14 (0.12–0.17) and 0.07 (0.04–0.10)]. Conclusion We estimated age- and sex-specific percentiles of CCIMT in a healthy population and assessed the association of CVRFs with CCIMT Z-scores, which enables comparison of IMT values for (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures obtained both in research and clinical settings.
Object recognition testing: Rodent species, strains, housing conditions, and estrous cycle
Goethem, N.P. van; Rutten, K. ; Staay, F.J. van der; Jans, L.A.W. ; Akkerman, S. ; Steinbusch, H.W.M. ; Blokland, A. ; Klooster, J.W. ; Prickaerts, J. - \ 2012
Behavioural Brain Research 232 (2012)2. - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 323 - 334.
acute tryptophan depletion - one-trial test - sex-differences - wistar rats - memory performance - spatial memory - mouse strains - maze tests - mice - task
The object recognition task (ORT) allows assessing learning and memory processes in rodents. In this study, two areas in which knowledge about the ORT could be extended were addressed; i.e. generality to species and strains, and intervening variables including housing and estrous cycle. Regarding generality to species and strains, the ORT performance of golden hamsters was assessed. The hamsters showed sufficient exploration times, object recognition performance, and a retention-interval dependent decline similar to rats and mice. Subsequently, we tested three mouse strains which have not been described before in the ORT; i.e. OF1, NMRI, and SJL mice. OF1 and NMRI strains performed equally well, whereas the SJL strain showed low exploration times and no memory retention. Therefore, the SJL strain is unsuited for ORT experiments using a 1 h retention interval and a fixed (3 min) trial duration. Furthermore, the sensitivity to a pharmacological memory deficit model (scopolamine) was tested in three rat strains. Each strain showed a dose dependent relationship, but the least effective dose of scopolamine differed among the three strains, the effect being greater in the order of Wistar, Long-Evans, Hooded Lister rats. Finally, to investigate potential intervening variables in the ORT, the effects of housing conditions and estrous cycle were investigated with rats. Single housing resulted in absolute higher performance than social housing. Furthermore, females in pro-estrus/estrus showed better performance compared to females in metestrus/di-estrus. Taken together, object recognition appears to be a common ability of rodent species, but different strains have different memory capacities and sensitivities to scopolamine, individual housing leads to higher performance, and performance of females is dependent on the estrous cycle phase. Thus, rodent species, strain, housing, and estrous cycle should be taken into consideration in ORT studies.
Effect of diet on plasma tryptophan and serotonin in trained mares and geldings
Alberghina, D. ; Giannetto, C. ; Visser, E.K. ; Ellis, A.D. - \ 2010
Veterinary Record 166 (2010)5. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 133 - 136.
serum tryptophan - sex-differences - horses - exercise - behavior - brain - blood - availability - depletion - glucose
Concentrations of tryptophan (TRP) and serotonin (5-HT) in plasma were measured in 36 moderately trained Dutch warmblood horses after eight weeks on a high fibre (n=18) or high starch (n=18) diet. Samples were taken three hours after feeding, when the horse was at rest, either at 11.00 or 14.00 hours. Plasma 5-HT and pH were significantly higher in horses fed a high fibre diet than those fed a high starch diet (P
Interleukin-9 polymorphism in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection: a opposite effect in boys and girls.
Schuurhof, A. ; Bont, L. ; Siezan, C.L.E. ; Hodemaekers, H.M. ; van houwelingen, H.C. van; Kimman, T.G. ; Hoebee, B. ; Kimpen, J.L.L. ; Janssen, R. - \ 2010
Pediatric Pulmonology 45 (2010)6. - ISSN 8755-6863 - p. 608 - 613.
bronchial hyperresponsiveness - sex-differences - bronchiolitis - expression - airways - gender - asthma - genes - association - hormones
The predominance of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in boys compared to girls is well known, but its mechanism is not yet understood. This is the first study focusing on gender-specific genetic factors affecting the risk of severe RSV infection using a previously described cohort. We determined 347 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 470 children hospitalized for RSV infection, their parents, and 1,008 random population controls. We tested if these SNPs exerted a different effect in boys and girls by performing statistical interaction tests. Only one SNP (rs2069885) had a gender-specific significant association with RSV infection, severe enough to require hospitalization (P-value 0.00057). The major allele of this structural polymorphism in the interleukin (IL)-9 gene is associated with an increased susceptibility to severe RSV infection in boys, while there is a decreased susceptibility in girls. Haplotype analysis of two SNPs in the IL-9 gene (rs2069885 and rs1799962) showed overrepresentation of the TT haplotype in girls with severe RSV bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization indicating that this is the haplotype conferring the highest risk in girls. In conclusion, the IL-9 genetic polymorphism (rs2069885) has an opposite effect on the risk of severe RSV bronchiolitis in boys and girls. Although so far a difference in IL-9 production in boys and girls has not been reported, this study may help in explaining the different risks of severe RSV bronchiolitis in boys and girls
Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A. ; Osch, M.J.P. ; Nievelstein, R.A.J. ; Grond, J. van der - \ 2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1297 - 1305.
human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - gender-differences - liquid food - eating behavior - sex-differences - stimuli - appetite - humans - fmri
Background:The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Design:Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. Results:In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P <0.005). Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.
Hierarchy levels, sum score, and worsening of disabitity are related to depressive symptoms in elderly men from three European countries
Brink, C.L. van den; Bos, G.A.M. van den; Tijhuis, M.A.R. ; Aijanseppa, S. ; Nissinen, A. ; Giampaoli, S. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2006
Journal of Aging and Health 18 (2006)1. - ISSN 0898-2643 - p. 125 - 141.
gospel oak project - quality-of-life - physical health - older-adults - functional impairment - geriatric depression - sex-differences - risk-factors - association - population
The objectives were to investigate the predictive value of hierarchy levels and sum score of disability and change in disability on depressive symptoms. Method: Longitudinal data of 723 men age 70 and older from the Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands Elderly Study were collected in 1990 and 1995. Self-reported disability was based on three disability domains (instrumental activities, mobility, and basic activities) and depressive symptoms on the Zung questionnaire. Results: Severity levels of disability were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Men with no disability scored 5 to 17 points lower (p <.01) on depressive symptoms than did those with disability in all domains. Among men with mild disability, those who had worsening of disability status in the preceding 5 years scored 5 points higher (p = .004) on depressive symptoms than did men who improved. Discussion: Hierarchic severity levels, sum score of disability, and preceding changes in disability status are risk factors for depressive symptoms
Incorporating a gender dimension in food allergy research: a review
DunnGalvin, A. ; Hourihane, J.O.B. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Knibb, R.C. ; Oude Elberink, J.N.G. ; Klinge, I. - \ 2006
Allergy 61 (2006)11. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 1336 - 1343.
quality-of-life - sex-differences - asthma - health - childhood - prevalence - atopy - adolescents - severity - children
Sex and gender are the major determinants of health and disease in both men and women. The aim of this review paper was to examine differences in gender and sex in relation to the prevalence and effects of food allergy. There are still major gaps in our knowledge about the kinds of processes which shape men's and women's perceptions and experiences of food allergy. The expression and experience of health and illness may be moderated by variables such as biological vulnerability, exposure to health risks, perception of symptoms, evaluation of risk, information processing and role expectations. This review highlights the complex links between biological sex, gender, and health in general and offers a synthesis of how these may interact to produce sex and gender differences in biopsychosocial manifestations of food allergy. Implications for research and public health practice are discussed.