Passage kinetics of dry matter and neutral detergent fibre through the gastro-intestinal tract of growing beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet measured with internal ð13C and external markers
Daniel, J.B. ; Laar, H. van; Warner, D. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)9. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 1471 - 1475.
dairy-cows - in-vitro - short-communication - different forage - digesta - cattle - fermentation - lactation - ruminants - behavior
Fractional rumen passage rates (K1) are fundamental in feed evaluation systems for ruminants to predict the extent of nutrient degradation. Data on passage kinetics of growing beef cattle fed high-concentrate diets are scarce and mainly rely on external passage markers which do not provide nutrient-specific K1 estimates. The present study describes the use of carbon stable isotopes (d13C) as an internal marker to estimate K1 of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) fractions of a compound feed in a high-concentrate diet, and compares them to the external markers ytterbium (Yb)-actetate and chromium mordanted fibre (Cr-NDF). Four rumen-fistulated Holstein heifers received four times per day a basal diet consisting of barley straw and pelleted compound feed offered separately (ratio 10 : 90, DM basis). Compound feed in the basal diet was mainly based on wheat of low natural 13C enrichment (-28.4 d13C), which was exchanged with a single dose of a maize-based compound feed of higher natural 13C enrichment (-18.9 d13C). This difference in natural 13C abundance was used to determine K1 values from faecal 13C excretion patterns. At the same time Yb-Acetate and Cr-NDF were introduced into the rumen to determine K1 values from faecal excretions. Faeces were collected over 90 h after pulse dosing. The K1 of d13C-marked DM (0.062/h) did not differ (P = 0.745) from d13C-marked NDF (0.060/h). The d13C-based K1 values also did not differ from Cr-NDF (0.056/h; P = 0.315). These results indicate similar passage behaviour of these fractions in the rumen of beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.
International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources
Berry, D.P. ; Coffey, M.P. ; Pryce, J.E. ; Haas, Y. de; Lovendahl, P. ; Krattenmacher, N. ; Crowley, J. ; Wang, Z. ; Spurlock, D.M. ; Weigel, K. ; MacDonald, K. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3894 - 3905.
body condition score - dry-matter intake - random regression-models - daily energy-balance - milk-yield - short-communication - live weight - genomic information - research herds - grass intake
Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake data are available in different countries, mostly from research or nucleus herds. None of these data sets are sufficiently large enough on their own to generate accurate genetic evaluations. In the current study, we collate data from 10 populations in 9 countries and estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI). A total of 224,174 test-day records from 10,068 parity 1 to 5 records of 6,957 cows were available, as well as records from 1,784 growing heifers. Random regression models were fit to the lactating cow test-day records and predicted feed intake at 70 d postcalving was extracted from these fitted profiles. The random regression model included a fixed polynomial regression for each lactation separately, as well as herd-year-season of calving and experimental treatment as fixed effects; random effects fit in the model included individual animal deviation from the fixed regression for each parity as well as mean herd-specific deviations from the fixed regression. Predicted DMI at 70 d postcalving was used as the phenotype for the subsequent genetic analyses undertaken using an animal repeatability model. Heritability estimates of predicted cow feed intake 70 d postcalving was 0.34 across the entire data set and varied, within population, from 0.08 to 0.52. Repeatability of feed intake across lactations was 0.66. Heritability of feed intake in the growing heifers was 0.20 to 0.34 in the 2 populations with heifer data. The genetic correlation between feed intake in lactating cows and growing heifers was 0.67. A combined pedigree and genomic relationship matrix was used to improve linkages between populations for the estimation of genetic correlations of DMI in lactating cows; genotype information was available on 5,429 of the animals. Populations were categorized as North America, grazing, other low input, and high input European Union. Albeit associated with large standard errors, genetic correlation estimates for DMI between populations varied from 0.14 to 0.84 but were stronger (0.76 to 0.84) between the populations representative of high-input production systems. Genetic correlations with the grazing populations were weak to moderate, varying from 0.14 to 0.57. Genetic evaluations for DMI can be undertaken using data collated from international populations; however, genotype-by-environment interactions with grazing production systems need to be considered.
Differences in milk fat composition predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry among dairy cattle breeds in the Netherlands
Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Soyeurt, H. ; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)4. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2570 - 2582.
conjugated linoleic-acid - bovine-milk - genetic-parameters - production traits - short-communication - italian holsteins - desaturase gene - jersey cows - dgat1 gene - polymorphism
The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage and detailed FA contents in milk (14 individual FA and 14 groups of FA) predicted from mid-infrared spectra were used. Mid-infrared spectrometry profiles were collected during regular milk recording from a range of herds with different combinations of breeds, including both purebred and crossbred cows. The data set used for the analyses contained 41,404 records from a total of 24,445 cows. In total 7,626 cows were crossbreds belonging to the breeds HF, MRY, DF, GWH, and JER; 1,769 purebreds (=87.5%) belonging to the breeds MRY, DF, GWH, and JER; and the other 15,050 cows were HF. Breed effects were estimated using a single-trait animal model. The content in milk of short-chain FA C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0 was higher for JER and the content in milk of C16:0 was lower for GWH compared with the other breeds; when adjusting for breed differences in fat percentage, however, not all breed differences were significant. Breed differences were also found for cis-9 C14:1, cis-9 C16:1, C18:0, and a number of C18 unsaturated FA. In general, differences in fat composition in milk between HF, MRY, and DF were not significant. Jerseys tended to produce more saturated FA, whereas GWH tended to produce relatively less saturated FA. After adjusting for differences in fat percentage, breed differences in detailed fat composition disappeared or became smaller for several short- and medium-chain FA, whereas for several long-chain unsaturated FA, more significant breed differences were found. This indicates that short- and medium-chain FA are for all breeds more related to total fat percentage than long-chain FA. In conclusion, between breed differences were found in detailed FA composition and content of individual FA. Especially, for FA produced through de novo synthesis (short-chain FA, C12:0, C14:0, and partly C16:0) differences were found for JER and GWH, compared with the breeds HF, MRY, and DF
Suitability of cross-bred cows for organic farms based on cross-breeding effects on production and functional traits
Haas, Y. de; Smolders, E.A.A. ; Hoorneman, J.N. ; Nauta, W.J. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 655 - 665.
conventional dairy herds - somatic-cell counts - milk-production - reproductive-performance - genetic-parameters - clinical mastitis - udder health - short-communication - energy-balance - cattle
Data from 113 Dutch organic farms were analysed to determine the effect of cross-breeding on production and functional traits. In total, data on 33 788 lactations between January 2003 and February 2009 from 15 015 cows were available. Holstein–Friesian pure-bred cows produced most kg of milk in 305 days, but with the lowest percentages of fat and protein of all pure-bred cows in the data set. Cross-breeding Holstein dairy cows with other breeds (Brown Swiss, Dutch Friesian, Groningen White Headed, Jersey, Meuse Rhine Yssel, Montbéliarde or Fleckvieh) decreased milk production, but improved fertility and udder health in most cross-bred animals. In most breeds, heterosis had a significant effect (P <0.05) on milk (kg in 305 days), fat and protein-corrected milk production (kg in 305 days) and calving interval (CI) in the favourable direction (i.e. more milk, shorter CI), but unfavourably for somatic cell count (higher cell count). Recombination was unfavourable for the milk production traits, but favourable for the functional traits (fertility and udder health). Farm characteristics, like soil type or housing system, affected the regression coefficients on breed components significantly. The effect of the Holstein breed on milk yield was twice as large in cubicle housing as in other housing systems. Jerseys had a negative effect on fertility only on farms on sandy soils. Hence, breed effects differ across farming systems in the organic farming and farmers can use such information to dovetail their farming system with the type of cow they use.
Validation of fatty acid predictions in milk using mid-infrared spectrometry across cattle breeds
Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. ; Soyeurt, H. ; Dehareng, F. ; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)2. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 348 - 354.
gas-liquid chromatography - bovine-milk - short-communication - genetic-parameters - spectroscopy - protein
The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy to predict detailed fatty acid (FA) composition of bovine milk by mid-infrared spectrometry, for a cattle population that partly differed in terms of country, breed and methodology used to measure actual FA composition compared with the calibration data set. Calibration equations for predicting FA composition using mid-infrared spectrometry were developed in the European project RobustMilk and based on 1236 milk samples from multiple cattle breeds from Ireland, Scotland and the Walloon Region of Belgium. The validation data set contained 190 milk samples from cows in the Netherlands across four breeds: Dutch Friesian, Meuse-Rhine-Yssel, Groningen White Headed (GWH) and Jersey (JER). The FA measurements were performed using gas–liquid partition chromatography (GC) as the gold standard. Some FAs and groups of FAs were not considered because of differences in definition, as the capillary column of the GC was not the same as used to develop the calibration equations. Differences in performance of the calibration equations between breeds were mainly found by evaluating the standard error of validation and the average prediction error. In general, for the GWH breed the smallest differences were found between predicted and reference GC values and least variation in prediction errors, whereas for JER the largest differences were found between predicted and reference GC values and most variation in prediction errors. For the individual FAs 4:0, 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0 and the groups’ saturated FAs, short-chain FAs and medium-chain FAs, predictions assessed for all breeds together were highly accurate (validation R2 > 0.80) with limited bias. For the individual FAs cis-14:1, cis-16:1 and 18:0, the calibration equations were moderately accurate (R2 in the range of 0.60 to 0.80) and for the individual FA 17:0 predictions were less accurate (R2 <0.60) with considerable bias. FA concentrations in the validation data set of our study were generally higher than those in the calibration data. This difference in the range of FA concentrations, mainly due to breed differences in our study, can cause lower accuracy. In conclusion, the RobustMilk calibration equations can be used to predict most FAs in milk from the four breeds in the Netherlands with only a minor loss of accuracy.
Genome-wide association study to identify chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesians
Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Schopen, G.C.B. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Nielen, M. ; Koets, A.P. ; Schrooten, C. ; Heuven, H.C.M. - \ 2012
Journal of Dairy Science 95 (2012)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2740 - 2748.
single nucleotide polymorphisms - estimated breeding values - quantitative trait loci - genetic-variation - johnes-disease - linkage disequilibrium - short-communication - us holsteins - infection - cattle
Heritability of susceptibility to Johne's disease in cattle has been shown to vary from 0.041 to 0.159. Although the presence of genetic variation involved in susceptibility to Johne's disease has been demonstrated, the understanding of genes contributing to the genetic variance is far from complete. The objective of this study was to contribute to further understanding of genetic variation involved in susceptibility to Johne's disease by identifying associated chromosomal regions using a genome-wide association approach. Log-transformed ELISA test results of 265,290 individual Holstein-Friesian cows from 3,927 herds from the Netherlands were analyzed to obtain sire estimated breeding values for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific antibody response in milk using a sire-maternal grandsire model with fixed effects for parity, year of birth, lactation stage, and herd; a covariate for milk yield on test day; and random effects for sire, maternal grandsire, and error. For 192 sires with estimated breeding values with a minimum reliability of 70%, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing was conducted by a multiple SNP analysis with a random polygenic effect fitting 37,869 SNP simultaneously. Five SNP associated with MAP-specific antibody response in milk were identified distributed over 4 chromosomal regions (chromosome 4, 15, 18, and 28). Thirteen putative SNP associated with MAP-specific antibody response in milk were identified distributed over 10 chromosomes (chromosome 4, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, and 29). This knowledge contributes to the current understanding of genetic variation involved in Johne's disease susceptibility and facilitates control of Johne's disease and improvement of health status by breeding.
Effect of polymorphisms in the FASN, OLR1, PPARGC1A, PRL and STAT5A genes on bovine milk-fat composition
Schennink, A. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Visker, M.H.P.W. - \ 2009
Animal Genetics 40 (2009)6. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 909 - 916.
quantitative trait loci - genome-wide scan - acid-composition - adipocyte differentiation - short-communication - holstein cattle - dairy-cows - association - abcg2 - parameters
The aim of our study was to estimate effects of polymorphisms in the ATP-binding cassette G2 (ABCG2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-¿ coactivator-1a (PPARGC1A), prolactin (PRL) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) genes on milk production traits and detailed milk-fat composition. Milk-fat composition phenotypes were available for 1905 Dutch Holstein–Friesian cows. First, the presence of each SNP in the Dutch Holstein–Friesian population was evaluated by direct sequencing of the PCR product surrounding the SNP in 22 proven Dutch Holstein–Friesian bulls. The ABCG2 SNP did not segregate in the bull population. Second, we genotyped the cows for the FASNg.16024G>A, FASNg.17924A>G, OLR1g.8232C>A, PPARGC1Ac.1790+514G>A, PPARGC1Ac.1892+19G>A, PRLg.8398G>A and STAT5Ag.9501G>A polymorphisms, and estimated genotype effects on milk production traits and milk-fat composition. FASNg.17924A>G and OLRg.8232C>A had a significant effect (P <0.05) on milk-fat percentage. However, we were not able to confirm results reported in the literature that showed effects of all evaluated polymorphisms on milk-fat percentage or milk-fat yield. All polymorphisms showed significant effects (P <0.05) on milk-fat composition. The polymorphisms in FASN and STAT5A, which had an effect on C14:0 and were located on chromosome 19, could not fully explain the quantitative trait locus for C14:0 that was previously detected on chromosome 19 in a genome-wide scan using linkage analysis