Marine assessment guideline for BOPEC and Nustar operations
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Becking, L.E. - \ 2016
IMARES (Report / IMARES C056/16) - 26
environmental monitoring - bonaire - sint eustatius - oil spills - bleaching - saba - milieumonitoring - bonaire - sint eustatius - olieverontreinigingen - bleking - saba
As part of the permit, Rijkswaterstaat requested an ecological monitoring and evaluation framework guideline to accompany the permit-application for the activities of BOPEC (Bonaire) and Nustar (St. Eustatius), related to the activities of the loading and unloading of oil and oil-related-products. IMARES has been asked to develop a tailored guideline to assist in the design of a monitoring plan by BOPEC and Nustar. The current document is the requested guideline. A complete monitoring proposal by the license holder must subsequently be developed on the basis of this guideline. The generic framework developed by Becking and Slijkerman (2012) was applied and made more specific for this guideline. The basic steps undertaken were: 1. Establishing the context in which the project will take place. 2. Scoping of the project activities, their pressures and the environmental descriptors relevant to the potential impact area. 3. Assessment and evaluation of the anticipated pressures on the selected biological and environmental descriptors. The guidance thus contains an overview of relevant activities and their pressures. In addition, biological descriptors were selected based on the most important relationships to the planned activities and anticipated pressures. The scope of monitoring is based on the major linkages between activities, -pressures and -ecosystem descriptors. A distinction is made between baseline and accident monitoring. Baseline monitoring is necessary to guarantee that background levels and patterns of change over time are known. This should be done also at control sites to make sure that a natural pattern (e.g. bleaching) is not confused as an effect of pollution on the impact sites. Both control sites and impact sites to perform baseline monitoring are recommended in this report. Accident monitoring is the assessment of the environmental status following accidents. Polluted sites should be identified and monitored. In parallel, all baseline monitoring should be continued. Due to wind and currents, there is a high likelihood that oil spilled at Nustar will float to the coast of Saba. Therefor it is necessary to check the coast of Saba as well after an oil spill. The baseline monitoring should be a continuous process with and regular effort, while accident related monitoring is incidental, only but directly after a spill or accident. Each type of monitoring requires different frequencies (Chapter 6).
Status and trends of St. Eustatius Coral reef ecosystem and fisheries: 2015 report card
Graaf, M. de; Piontek, S. ; Miller, D.C.M. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C167/15) - 41
coral reefs - ecosystems - fisheries - algae - fishery management - pollution - habitat degradation - nature conservation - sint eustatius - koraalriffen - ecosystemen - visserij - algen - visserijbeheer - verontreiniging - habitatdegradatie - natuurbescherming - sint eustatius
Baseline assessment of the coral reef fish assemblages of St. Eustatius
Kuijk, T. van; Graaf, M. de; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Boman, E. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C058/15) - 49
vissen - koraalriffen - aquatische gemeenschappen - aquatische ecologie - mariene parken - sint eustatius - fishes - coral reefs - aquatic communities - aquatic ecology - marine parks - sint eustatius
In this study we present a fishery independent survey of the finfish populations at depths ranging from 5-30 m in the shallow reef habitats around the island of St. Eustatius.
Roaming livestock distribution, densities and population estimates for St. Eustatius, 2013
Debrot, A.O. ; Hazenbosch, J.C.J. ; Piontek, S. ; Kraft, C. ; Belle, J. van; Strijkstra, A. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C088/15) - 27
sint eustatius - vee - wilde dieren - populatiedichtheid - herkauwers - erosie - caribische eilanden - milieuafbraak - sint eustatius - livestock - wild animals - population density - ruminants - erosion - caribbean islands - environmental degradation
The problem of roaming livestock is a major impediment to agricultural development and nature conservation on St. Eustatius, as it also typically is on other islands in the region. In support of a government-led culling program, we here conducted a baseline study of livestock abundance and distribution on the island in the final quarter of 2013.
Non-Detriment Finding Regarding the Export of Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) from St Eustatius (Caribbean Netherlands)
Graaf, M. de; Meijer zu Schlochteren, M. ; Boman, E. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C173/14) - 37
sint eustatius - caribisch gebied - nederlandse antillen - schaaldieren - mollusca - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - export - bedreigde soorten - sint eustatius - caribbean - netherlands antilles - shellfish - mollusca - shellfish fisheries - exports - endangered species
Queen conch (Lobatus gigas (Strombidae; Gastropoda) is a large, long-lived marine gastropod that is widely distributed throughout the coastal zones of the Wider Caribbean region. Because of concern for its future the species was listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 1992. This non-detriment finding was written following the most recent checklist for CITES non-detriment findings. The suggested annual (export) quota for the small scale, artisanal queen conch fishery on St Eustatius is based on recent scientific data on the status of the wild population and follows the recommendations of the first CMFC/OSPESCA/WECAFC/CRFM/CITES Working Group on Queen Conch (QCWG) to ensure a sustainable harvest and trade.
Habitat diversity and biodiversity of the benthic seascapes of St. Eustatius
Debrot, A.O. ; Houtepen, E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Beek, I.J.M. van; Timmer, T. ; Boman, E. ; Graaf, M. de; Dijkman, E.M. ; Hunting, E.R. ; Ballantine, D.L. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C078/14) - 43
mariene gebieden - habitats - monitoring - koralen - zostera - inventarisaties - sint eustatius - marine areas - habitats - monitoring - corals - zostera - inventories - sint eustatius
Quantitative habitat mapping and description form the basis for understanding the provisioning of ecosystem services and habitat connectivity, and hence provide an essential underpinning for marine spatial planning, management and conservation. Including patch reef habitats, total hard coral-scape habitat for the St. Eustatius Marine Park amounted to about 19% of the area surveyed and about 475 ha of habitat. Sargassum reef habitat typically occurred at the seaward edge of communities dominated by hard coral growth.
Landscape ecological vegetation map of Sint Eustatius (Lesser Antilles)
Freitas, J.A. de; Rojer, A.C. ; Nijhof, B.S.J. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
Amsterdam : Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen - ISBN 9789069846798 - 66
vegetatiekartering - landschapsecologie - flora - vegetatietypen - sint eustatius - vegetation mapping - landscape ecology - flora - vegetation types - sint eustatius
Classifying benthic habitats and deriving bathymetry at the Caribbean Netherlands using multispectral Imagery. Case study of St. Eustatius
Nieto, P. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : IMARES (Alterra report 2467) - 96
benthos - habitats - coral reefs - remote sensing - sint eustatius - caribbean islands - benthos - habitats - koraalriffen - remote sensing - sint eustatius - caribische eilanden
A landscape ecological vegetation map of Sint Eustatius (Lesser Antilles)
Freitas, J.A. de; Rojer, A.C. ; Nijhof, B.S.J. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C053/12) - 61
flora - plantengeografie - spermatophyta - nederlandse antillen - sint eustatius - vegetatietypen - geomorfologie - vegetatiekartering - flora - phytogeography - spermatophyta - netherlands antilles - sint eustatius - vegetation types - geomorphology - vegetation mapping
A semi-detailed landscape-based vegetation map (scale: 1: 37,500) based on field data from 1999 has been available as an update of Stoffers’ 1956 map of the Lesser Antillean island of St. Eustatius, Netherlands Caribbean, but up to now was never finalized or published. In this report we complete the documentation of that map to provide new insights into vegetation change over a period of more than 40 years, and a quantitative reference point for future studies on landscape-level vegetation development for the island.
Cruise report seabird and cetacean survey Saba bank expedition October 2011
Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Verdaat, J.P. - \ 2012
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C062/12) - 13
zeezoogdieren - zeevogels - mariene ecologie - saba - sint-maarten (eiland) - sint eustatius - marine mammals - sea birds - marine ecology - saba - saint martin (island) - sint eustatius
In October 2011 an expedition took place to the Saba Bank, on board of the ship the Caribbean Explorer II. Main aim of the expedition was collecting data on underwater fauna and coral reefs. Apart from that data were collected on nutrients, water flow, sponges and seabirds and marine mammals. Data on the last group were collected by deploying acoustic data loggers, and by means of visual surveys. These visual surveys were conducted whenever the other activities permitted it. This cruise report presents an brief overview of the results obtained during the October 2011 survey. It contains a short day to day report, a full list of all birds, mammals and particular pieces of floating matter seen, and a brief presentation of the results. Furthermore the report contains a brief account of observed birds on Sint Maarten, since published accounts on the birdlife of the island are scarce.
Second opinion NuStar terminal expansion
Klok, T.C. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Stapel, J. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C148/11) - 30
milieueffectrapportage - terminalfaciliteiten - mariene ecologie - olie- en gasindustrie - ecologische risicoschatting - zeetransport - sint eustatius - nederlandse antillen - environmental impact reporting - terminal facilities - marine ecology - oil and gas industry - ecological risk assessment - sea transport - sint eustatius - netherlands antilles
In this report a second opinion is developed for the Environmental Impact Assessment NuStar terminal expansion (at St. Eustatius). Only the marine ecology part of the EIA report is evaluated focusing on the impacts reported for marine reserves, reef- and sea-grass habitat, conchs, turtles, marine mammal and fish. The criteria used are: completeness, consistence, transparency, ecological soundness, and relevance of the foreseen impacts resulting from the terminal expansion. When applying these criteria we have found that most of the impact assessments were incomplete (missing information and data, missing expected impacts). Reference base line data has been incompletely collected. Furthermore, many of the assessments were not transparent (based on the information given in the EIA we could not come to the same conclusion). Also we found that the reasoning to come to a conclusion in the EIA was not ecologically sound in many cases (e.g. mobile species are not affected by habitat loss because they can move out the area instead of describing an effect on the distribution area and thus on the abundance or density of the species). In a few cases assessments scored not relevant or were not assessed in a consistent way. Furthermore, we found that not all expected (potential) impacts were assessed and that those assessed were mainly qualitatively assessed only. Data on pressures was incomplete as was data on ecological receptors, and some publically available data was not used. At the end of this report we list these data needs and missing impact assessments.
A status report of nature policy development and implementation in the Dutch Caribbean over the last 10 years and recommendations towards the Nature Policy Plan 2012 - 2017
Debrot, A.O. ; Graaf, M. de; Henkens, R. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2011
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C064/11) - 41
natuurbeleid - natuurbeheer - caribische eilanden - bonaire - saba - sint eustatius - nature conservation policy - nature management - caribbean islands - bonaire - saba - sint eustatius
Biodiversiteit voor de BES-eilanden: Bonaire, St. Eustatius en Saba : onderzoeksvragen en verplichtingen
Jongman, R.H.G. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2080) - 65
biodiversiteit - mariene gebieden - natuurbescherming - bonaire - sint eustatius - saba - terrestrische ecosystemen - biodiversity - marine areas - nature conservation - bonaire - sint eustatius - saba - terrestrial ecosystems
Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de biodiversiteit op en rond de eilanden Bonaire, St. Eustatius en Saba (BES) en de verplichtingen die voortkomen uit verdragen waar op dit moment de Nederlandse Antillen aan gebonden is. Het rapport geeft verder de belangrijkste onderzoeksprioriteiten, gerelateerd aan deze internationale verplichtingen voor zowel de mariene als de terrestrische biodiversiteit.