Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Human nutrition : a crunchy bite
    Kok, F.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573703 - 28
    obesity - malnutrition - infant nutrition - nutrition and health - nutrition research - human nutrition research - vitamins - aging - pregnancy - abdominal fat - body fat - obesitas - slechte voeding - zuigelingenvoeding - voeding en gezondheid - voedingsonderzoek - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - vitaminen - verouderen - zwangerschap - buikvet - lichaamsvet
    Farewell address upon retiring as Professor of Nutrition and Health
    at Wageningen University on 15 October 2015
    Inequalities in Food Security and Nutrition. A Life Course Perspective
    Bras, H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571891 - 36
    voedselzekerheid - voeding - slechte voeding - gezondheidsongelijkheden - honger - levensloop - wereld - food security - nutrition - malnutrition - health inequalities - hunger - life course - world
    The double burden of malnutrition: obesity and iron deficiency
    Cepeda López, A.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; I. Herter Aeberli; S. Osendarp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574465 - 158
    obesitas - overgewicht - ijzergebrekanemie - gebreksziekten - slechte voeding - ontsteking - ijzerabsorptie - ascorbinezuren - ascorbinezuur - vrouwen - kinderen - kindervoeding - bloedvolume - mens - obesity - overweight - iron deficiency anaemia - deficiency diseases - malnutrition - inflammation - iron absorption - ascorbic acids - ascorbic acid - women - children - child nutrition - blood volume - man

    Background: The world faces a “double burden” of malnutrition; this is true especially in transition countries like Mexico. The co-existence of obesity and iron deficiency (ID) within a person has been clearly demonstrated in several studies but the mechanisms linking them remain largely unknown.

    Objectives: To investigate possible mechanisms that link obesity and iron status through the following specific objectives: a) reviewing the existing literature; b) investigating the coexistence of obesity and iron deficiency at the national level in Mexico; c) assessing and comparing iron absorption and blood volume (BV) in healthy, non-anemic women from different body mass index (BMI) categories, and evaluating if ascorbic acid improves iron absorption in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) women; d) evaluating if differences in BV explains reduced iron status in OW/OB women; and e) evaluating whether fat loss in obese subjects decreases inflammation and serum hepcidin and thereby improves iron absorption.

    Methods: a) A literature review was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines; b) data from the 1999 Mexican Nutrition Survey, which included 1174 children (aged 5–12 y) and 621 nonpregnant women (aged 18–50 y), was used to assess the relationship between BMI, dietary iron, and dietary factors affecting iron bioavailability, iron status, and inflammation; c & d) healthy, non-anemic Swiss women (n=62) (BMI 18.5-39.9 kg/m2) consumed a stable-isotope labelled wheat-based test meal, without (-AA) and with (+AA) 31.4 mg ascorbic acid. We measured iron absorption, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), blood volume by carbon monoxide (CO)-rebreathing method, iron status, inflammation and serum hepcidin; e) We performed a 6-month, prospective study in OB (BMI, ≥35<45 kg/m2) adults from Mexico (n=..), who had recently undergone laparoscopic sleeve-gastrectomy (LSG). At 2 months and 8 months post-LSG, subjects consumed a test drink with 6mg 57Fe as ferrous sulfate and were intravenously infused with 100 μg 58Fe as iron citrate and we measured body composition by DXA, iron status, hepcidin and inflammation.

    Results: a) Obesity-related subclinical inflammation and its effects on hepcidin levels seem to be the most plausible explanation for the link between ID and obesity; b) the risk of iron deficiency in OB women and children was 2-4 times that of normal-weight individuals at similar dietary iron intakes. In addition, we found that C-reactive protein but not iron intake was a strong negative predictor of iron status, independently of BMI (P < 0.05); c) dietary iron absorption was lower in OW/OB versus normal weight subjects (Geometric mean (95%CI): 12.9 (9.7, 16.9)%) vs 19.0 (15.2, 23.5)%, P=0.049). Moreover, the enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption in overweight/obese (28%) was only half that in normal weight women (56%); d) OW/OB women presented higher absolute blood volume and lower serum iron compared to the normal weight group. BV (r2=0.22, β=-0.29, P=0.02) was a negative predictor for serum iron when adjusted for body iron stores. We developed an equation to calculate BV in OW and OB women considering weight, height and lean body mass; e) Fat loss lead to a reduction of inflammation (Interleukin-6) and hepcidin concentrations. In iron-deficient subjects (n=17), iron absorption significantly increased after fat loss (Geometric mean (95%CI): 9.7% (6.5-14.6) to 12.4% (7.7-20.1) (P=0.03), while in iron sufficient subjects (n=21), it did not change (Geometric mean (95%CI): 5.9% (4.0-8.6) and 5.6% (3.9-8.2)) (P=0.81)).

    Conclusion: Increased hepcidin concentrations, along with subclinical inflammation, limits dietary iron absorption in subjects with excessive body fat, especially in iron deficient individuals. Due to a dilutional effect of blood volume, ‘true’ hypoferremia might be overestimated in populations with a high prevalence of obesity when using serum iron as an indicator. OW/OB individuals may require: higher dietary iron intake combined with iron absorption enhancers to keep their iron status in balance; and a reduction of the obesity-related inflammatory process in order to ensure adequate iron absorption.

    Integrated Food and Nutrition Security Programming to Address Undernutrition : The Plan Approach
    Boer, F.A. de; Verdonk, I. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation (Report / Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation CDI-12-014) - 34
    voedselzekerheid - slechte voeding - honger - ondervoeding - food security - malnutrition - hunger - undernutrition
    From a technical point of view, it is widely recognised that an integrated approach to food and nutrition security is an effective way to promote child nutritional well-being. In this desk review, based on project documents of the countries which took part in the PLAN NL supported Food and Nutrition Security Support Programme (FNSSP), what kind of interventions were undertaken and their strengths and weaknesses are compared with the lessons learned from the World Bank. Report number CDI-12-014.
    Global control of micronutrient deficiencies: divided they stand, united they fall
    Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - 27
    slechte voeding - gebreksziekten - sporenelementtekorten - vitaminetekorten - voedselzekerheid - ontwikkelingslanden - malnutrition - deficiency diseases - trace element deficiencies - vitamin deficiencies - food security - developing countries
    Dr. Zimmermann is appointed as honorary professor Micronutrients and International Health at Wageningen University.
    Optimizing the ambiance during mealtimes in Dutch nursing homes
    Nijs, K.A.N.D. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wija van Staveren; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Kees de Graaf. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085043942 - 150
    maaltijden - verpleeghuizen - slechte voeding - ouderenvoeding - oudere patiënten - voedingstoestand - kwaliteit van het leven - eten - meals - nursing homes - malnutrition - elderly nutrition - elderly patients - nutritional state - quality of life - eating
    Als bewoners van verpleeghuizen gezellig samen aan tafel de maaltijd gebruiken, voelen ze zich aantoonbaar gezonder. Bovendien blijft hun lichaamsgewicht beter op peil en verslechtert hun mogelijkheid om nog redelijk te bewegen minder snel.
    Nutritional care in old age: the effect of supplementation on nutritional status and performance
    Manders, M. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wija van Staveren; W.H.L. Hoefnagels, co-promotor(en): Lisette de Groot. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085043959 - 134
    ouderenvoeding - voedselsupplementen - bijvoeding - voedingstoestand - slechte voeding - ouderen - ouderdom - elderly nutrition - food supplements - supplementary feeding - nutritional state - malnutrition - elderly - old age
    Malnutrition is frequently observed in elderly people living in nursing homes and homes for the elderly. Anorexia resulting in inadequate dietary intake is often a cause of malnutrition. Malnutrition in old age affects several aspects of functioning. Earlier research has shown that a complete supplement improves nutritional status. These studies were however not sufficiently powerful to investigate an effect of such a supplement on functioning. Yet, positive results of a pilot study pointed in that direction. In this thesis we assumed that improving nutritional status by nutritional supplementation could lead to improvement in functioning, following improved total dietary intake, without affecting habitual intakes.

    In the current study residents of nursing homes and homes for the elderly were participating in a 24-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial (n=176). They randomly received either a nutrient dense drink or a placebo drink twice a day in addition to their usual diet. Two packages of the nutrient dense drink contained 250 kcal and vitamins, minerals and trace elements at the level of 25 to 175% of the Dutch RDA. The placebo drink contained no energy and no vitamins and minerals.

    Using the complete supplement appeared to have a beneficial effect on dietary intake. The change in total energy intake was some 0.8 MJ/day higher in the supplement group than that in the control group (p=0.166). Moreover, a significantly favourable effect (p<0.001) was observed for the intake of vitamins and minerals. Hereby the supplement group did not appear to compensate their regular intakes for the energy content of the provided supplements. The positive effect on dietary intake was supported by changes in nutritional status, because markers of nutritional status of the intervention group compared favourably with those of the placebo group. These changes showed amongst others a positive effect of the intervention drink on body weight (1.6 kg difference in change; p=0.035), calf circumference (0.9 cm difference in change; p=0.048), and blood values (e.g. Hcy decreased from 16.8 to 11.2 μmol/L in the supplement group). In the study population no significant effect was found on functionality outcomes, including cognitive function, mood, physical performance and the ability to perform activities of daily living. However, a subgroup of participants with BMI at baseline below 24.4 kg/m 2 performed better on the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (p=0.09), and its language sub score (p=0.01) after 24 weeks of intervention.

    To prevent serious malnutrition it is advocated to regularly weigh institutionalised elderly and use a short questionnaire for decreased appetite. With these instruments the development of malnutrition can be detected early and if indicated preventive action can be taken. Future research should be focused on efficient implementation of the used food supplement in every day practice. Nutrition policy should be focused on improvement of usual diet as well as temporarily providing nutritional supplements if indicated. From the findings of our intervention trial we conclude that the applied supplement is effective for counteracting the development of malnutrition in this population. Furthermore, the results of this trial suggest that it is effective as treatment for decreasing function in a subgroup of institutionalized elderly people with low BMI.
    The linkages between food and nutrition security in lowland and coastal villages in the Philippines
    Balatibat, E.M. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): J.A. Kusin. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089823 - 236
    voeding - kindervoeding - kinderen - slechte voeding - platteland - kusten - dorpen - Filippijnen - huishoudens - individuen - voedingstoestand - voedselzekerheid - nutrition - child nutrition - children - malnutrition - rural areas - coasts - villages - Philippines - households - individuals - nutritional state - food security
    Philippinesis endowed with many natural resources but it is also confronted with a climate that annually poses threats to livelihood, food and nutrition security of its populace. High incidence of poverty and a great variation in agro-ecological setting influence food production as well as economic conditions continue to affect the country's food and nutrition security. The seasonal pattern of rainfall causes fluctuations in aspects of life, such as seasonal labor needs in agriculture and fishery, fluctuations in food security and variations in nutritional status. The present study was carried out in two different ecological settings: a lowland area inCentral Luzonand a coastal area on theislandofLeyte(Visayas).

    This study was aimed at examining the factors influencing food and nutrition security at the household and individual level and establish the magnitude of food and nutrition insecurity. In this study, child malnutrition was placed in the context of the food security situation and livelihood performance of households with pre-school children. While putting the child malnutrition issues in the wider context of food and livelihood security, a number of research questions were raised and answered in the different chapters.

    The first research question dealt with the factors influencing household food security and child malnutrition. Food insecurity and child malnutrition are quite common in both areas but the relationship between the two differs according to ecological setting, which in turn is differentiated by sources of income, living conditions, ownership of assets, and habitual diet. This study reveals that in wage-earning households in the lowland area, child malnutrition is less related to income and food availability than among households in the coastal area, where food and nutrition security more or less coincide. Above the food security threshold, care and morbidity are the limiting factors to nutrition security of households. This implies that while livelihood security is a pre-condition to food security, the presence of both does not always lead to better quality diets of children. Livelihood security may coincide with food security but the two do not automatically result in nutrition security in the population studied. The absence of an association of food security indicators with malnutrition suggests that different processes operate for food security and nutrition security. The relation between income and food security is context- and location-specific, with livelihood strategies as intervening variables.

    In this study, there appeared to be a clear difference in the evolution and type of malnutrition between the lowland and coastal area. Biological adjustments in the growth of children were noted. In the lowland area, children are short but have adequate weight-for-height, while in the coastal areas, aside from being stunted, preschool children are also wasted. These findings suggest that in the lowland area, the direct determinants of child malnutrition, which include breastfeeding, complementary food, morbidity and care, are more important than household food security. In the coastal area, high prevalence of wasting points to more prominence of food insecurity as an important determinant of child malnutrition.

    The second research question focused on people's ideas about food security. There are gender differences in men and women's ideas of food security. Because of their traditional role as breadwinner, men view food security in terms of stable income (livelihood) and food supply. They consider food security as being part and parcel of livelihood security. Women have broader perspective of food security. Traditionally, women are the homemakers. Their ideas of food security hinge on food sufficiency through proper management of the household's scarce resources.

    The third research question dealt with the qualitative changes in dietary pattern and sources of food as indicators of seasonal changes in household food security. Rice is the only staple food throughout the year in the lowland villages, while - in different proportions by season - rice and corn are eaten in the coastal area. The period of relative abundance in the lowland area as well as in the coastal area falls in the dry season. This is reflected in the lowest prevalence of food shortage in both areas during this period. However, coastal villages experience a longer period of scarcity (five months) than lowland villages (three months). While only fifty percent of households reported periodical food shortages, in general, the habitual diets were of poor quality, irrespective of the season.

    Research question four focused on the coping behavior of households in the two study areas. In both areas, households use a number of strategies and coping mechanisms to prevent seasonal food stress and meet actual food needs. Actions intended to solve the problem of food security in the long-term include income diversification and mobilization of assets to prevent an impending food crisis. However, my study revealed that diversifying economic activities and/or seeking new ways of livelihood generation have potential only when skills as well as jobs and other resources are available and accessible to the households.

    Aside from preventive strategies, several adaptive or coping mechanisms were observed. These include: mortgaging, inter-household transfers, barter, altering food preparation, cutting down on the number of meals, gathering wild foods, and - to some extent - postponing expenditures on health. Apparently, there are differences in coping strategies used by men and women, which can be attributed to their culturally determined different roles in the household. Women are highly visible in activities to meet actual food needs, while men generally dominate in income diversification and resource mobilization activities. The research shows that in both areas type, timing and sequence of actions and strategies of men and women vary according to the conditions and the degree of vulnerability that characterize the household at the start of the food crisis.

    Research question five dealt with gender issues. Power relations in decision-making on resource allocation and in productive and reproductive activities of men and women were examined. In both areas, men make more decisions than women. Men, being the head of the household, decide on matters related to investments and livelihood. As part of their repro­ductive role, women decide on matters concerning care and management and allocation of resources related to food procurement, preparation, distribution, and consumption. The study notes that in times of economic hardship and food crisis, women carry out specific coping activities. However, there appears to be a shift in the division of tasks between men and women, when the workload is high and women have to combine reproductive activities and working for the market. Then, men sometimes take over part of the reproductive workload of their wife. Nevertheless, findings suggest that indeed there are unequal distribution of roles and unequal division of labor between the male and female.

    The sixth research question focused on the role of the BIDANI program in improving livelihood, food and nutrition security. BIDANI is the acronym of Barangay Integrated Development Approach for Nutrition Improvement. It is a nation-wide extension program working through a network of state universities and colleges. As a program and a strategy BIDANI can serve as a catalyst to enhance the capability and capacity of the different stakeholders to address food problems. The comprehensive and "bottom-up" approach of BIDANI is important for enhancing local livelihood, food and nutrition security. This study shows, however, that the linkages between the three types of security cannot be taken for granted; that the one does not automatically lead to the other.

    BIDANI can contribute to decreasing malnutrition prevalence in real life situations. Its various intervention and development projects, including micro-credit, can produce synergistic impacts that improve nutrition. The women's income-generation activities can serve as useful vehicle for the diversification of the livelihood portfolio of the target households, which can have favorable effects on the coping ability of household. However, there are structural factors underlying the lack of livelihood security, as is apparent from the differences between the situation in the lowland and coastal villages, that for BIDANI are difficult to address. Looking at alternatives, integrated development based on the primary sector (agriculture and fishery) must be complemented by employment opportunities in other sectors to reduce poverty. Off-farm employment and the generation of jobs are a challenge for local governments and BIDANI. Being a dynamic program, BIDANI can adjust its focus to incorporate more systematically issues concerning employment and income, family size, and women's reproductive rights and health.


    Gewichtsverlies van biggen tijdens vasten en daaropvolgend transport
    Swinkels, H. ; Huiskes, J. ; Heetkamp, M. ; Schrama, J. - \ 1995
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 9 (1995)1. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 4 - 4.
    diervoedering - vasten - slechte voeding - massa - biggen - veevervoer - gewicht - vermageringsdiëten - jonge dieren - animal feeding - fasting - malnutrition - mass - piglets - transport of animals - weight - weight loss diets - young animals
    In een samenwerkingsproject tussen het Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij en de Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen hebben vijf transporten (60 km) met elk 40 biggen plaatsgevonden. Voor aanvang van het transport kregen de biggen gedurende een periode van 16 uur geen voer verstrekt
    Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya : a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households
    Kigutha, H.N. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; W.A. van Staveren. - S.l. : Kigutha - ISBN 9789054852940 - 161
    voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - slechte voeding - vasten - vermageringsdiëten - voedingsfysiologie - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - hulpbronnen - seizoenen - kenya - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - malnutrition - fasting - weight loss diets - nutrition physiology - households - household income - resources - seasons - kenya

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food availability of smallholder rural households, with special emphasis on households with limited landholdings and low cash incomes. Further investigations involved looking at the effect of fluctuating levels of food availability on dietary intakes and the nutritional status of three vulnerable groups namely: preschool children, lactating women and the elderly. The study was carried out in Nakuru district within the Rift Valley province in Kenya between April 1992 and June 1993. Foods coming into the household from own production, purchases, and gifts were recorded on monthly basis from recalls. Body weight of all the subjects was measured once every month. Height was measured once at baseline for the adults, while length for preschool children was measured three times. Food consumption was determined by 24-hour recall method on monthly basis, and by 3-day weighed records at three points during the lean and the harvest seasons. A unimodal climatic pattern was found to influence food production and hence household food availability during most months within the production cycle. This subsequently influenced food consumption and the nutritional status of the vulnerable groups in the study. Lactating women lost up to 9 percent, elderly men 7 percent, and elderly women 3 percent of their body weight. While no weight losses were observed in the children, weight gains were minimal during the lean season but improved slightly during the postharvest period. It was observed that the energy and nutrient intakes of the children depended more on diet quality rather than on household food availability per se.

    Micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia and their inter-relationships
    Wolde - Gebriel, Z. - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast, co-promotor(en): C.E. West. - S.l. : Wolde-Gebriel - ISBN 9789054850038 - 168
    voedingsstoornissen - voedselbereiding - eten koken - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - maaltijden - borden - slechte voeding - vasten - vermageringsdiëten - ethiopië - nutritional disorders - food preparation - cooking - food - foods - meals - dishes - malnutrition - fasting - weight loss diets - ethiopia

    A nationwide study on the prevalence of xerophthalmia was carried out in 6,636 children aged 6 months to 6 years in all the Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai which were excluded for security reasons. Bitot's spots were observed in 1.0% of all children with higher prevalence in the pastoral (1.6%) and cropping (1.1%) agro-ecological zones than in the cash- crop (0.4%) and ensete ('false banana', Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) (0.0%) zones. Conjunctival xerosis and Bitot's spots were twice as common in boys than in girls and this was seen in all age groups. One case of corneal xerosis and two cases of corneal scar (0.03%) were also found. Serum retinol levels were deficient (<0.35 μmol/l) in 16% and low (0.35-0.69 μmol/l) in 44% of children. Results of the present survey indicate that the problem is, according to WHO criteria, of public health significance. More stunting than wasting was observed, with peak prevalence of these signs of malnutrition being observed in the second year of life.

    It is estimated that there are three quarters of a million blind persons in Ethiopia. Results of a study of the 721 pupils in the six schools for the blind showed that 70% of the blindness was due to corneal opacity or shrinkage of the eye ball. Measles was implicated as a cause of blindness in 40% of the children while a further 13% regarded "mitch" as the predisposing factor. Mitch is an Amharic term used to describe a wide range of vague illness with fever and measles possibly comprising a large proportion of these cases.

    A nationwide study on 35,635 school children and 19,158 household members showed that the prevalence of gross goitre was 30.6% and 18.7% respectively while that of visible goitre was 1.6% and 3.2% respectively. Prevalence was significantly higher in females than in males and increased with age more in females than in males. Prevalence increased with increasing altitude. Based on an epidemiological model, the numbers of people suffering from various iodine deficiency disorders have been estimated.

    In Melkaye village of Hararge Region, a high prevalence of symptoms of vitamin A deficiency were found in 240 children examined: night blindness, 28.7%; Bitot's spots 6.7%; corneal xerosis 0.83%; corneal ulceration/keratornalacia 6.3%; and corneal scars 5.8%. Of the children studied, 30.2% had deficient serum retinol levels (< 0.35 μmol/l) while 58.0% had low levels (0.35-0.69 μmol/l). Thus both the clinical and biochemical parameters indicate that the problem of vitamin A deficiency was probably the most severe ever reported. The reason for the very severe deficiency of vitamin A in this area was the total dependence of the inhabitants for six years on supplies of relief foods which were devoid of vitamin A. About 55% of the children were malnourished with more wasting than stunting. Seventy children were reported to have died two years prior to the survey.

    In a study of 14,740 children in Shoa Region of Central Ethiopia, goitre, xerophthalmia (Bitot's spots) and clinical anaemia were observed in 34.2%, 0.91% and 18.6% respectively of the children. Based on a sample of 344 children, the median of most biochemical parameters was within the normal range except for haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and urinary iodine excretion where the median was lower, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and immunoglobulins G and M where it was higher. Many significant correlations were observed and these were used as the basis for the formulation of hypothethes. The anaemia found was not nutritional in origin but due to the effect of infestation with intestinal parasites and malaria.

    The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the treatment of goitre with iodized oil was assessed in a series of studies in Shoa Region. Iodized oil supplementation significantly reduced goitre size in those who had grade IB goitre (observable when neck extended). After 4 and 7/8 weeks post-treatment, concentrations of thyroxin and that of urinary iodine excretion increased significantly, while those of total triiodothyronine and thyrotropin decreased significantly. Vitamin A supplementation increased serum levels of retinol and retinol-binding protein at weeks 4 and 7/8 but had no effect on goitre size or parameters of iodine metabolism.

    In a similar study on anaemia, supplementation with iron and folic acid significantly increased levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell count, serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and significantly decreased levels of total iron binding capacity and transferrin at 4 and 7/8 weeks posttreatment. Only the increase in red blood cell count and decrease in mean corpuscular volume were significantly greater in those supplemented with vitamin A than those who were not supplemented.

    In the Gurage area in Central Ethiopia, cultivation, harvesting, yield and processing of ensete were studied in 60 households in six villages. Ensete was propagated vegetatively and has a six-year growing cycle in which it was transplanted three or four times. The yield of ensete food ("ko'cho") was 9.5 tons/yr/ha (6.1 MJ/m 2/yr). Except for cassava, the energy yield of ensete was higher than that from all other crops grown in Ethiopia while the protein yield (11.4 g/m 2/yr) was higher than that of all crops except banana and Irish potato although the protein density is very low (12 g/kg). The pseudostem and corm provide a starchy pulp which is fermented and can be stored for up to 5-7 years in an earthen pit. It can then be prepared for consumption in a variety of ways which have been studied in detail. The mean intake of ensete was 0.55 kg/day and provided 68% of total energy intake, 20% of protein, 28% of iron but no vitamin A. Energy intake from all food consumed was extremely low in Gurage, being only 60% of requirements.

    Energy metabolism of overweight women before, during and after weight reduction, assessed by indirect calorimetry
    Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 1988
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.J.H. van Es; J.G.A.J. Hautvast. - S.l. : De Groot - 122
    energetische waarde - slechte voeding - vasten - vermageringsdiëten - overvoeding - obesitas - voedingsfysiologie - vrouwen - energy value - malnutrition - fasting - weight loss diets - overfeeding - obesity - nutrition physiology - women
    Previous studies had suggested that periods of low energy intake evoke compensatory adaptations in energy metabolism, which retard weight loss, and promote weight regain when energy intake returns to normal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether a slimming (low-energy) diet based on alternating energy intake could counteract this decrease in energy requirement. The persistance of the reduction of energy metabolism was studied 1 month and approximately 1 year after weight reduction.

    The effects of three slimming diets were compared pairwise in three separate studies. To this end, a cross-over design was used (fig. 2). Two alternating diets (diet AB/100: one day solely bread, water. coffee and tea, the other day providing 100 % (normal diet) the daily energy need and diet A50/100: one day providing 50 % of the daily energy need, the other day 100 %) and one continuous diet (C50: providing 50 % of daily energy need every day) were prescribed or supplied. Ten women participated in each study. First each subject lived on a weight-maintenance diet (S100) for 8 days, then two periods of low energy intake, of 4 weeks each, followed immediately afterwards. Energy balances were determined during the final 8 days of each diet period. The 24 hour energy expenditure was measured in a respiration chamber for 2 or 3 successive days. The activity pattern in the respiration chamber was standardized. Dopplermeters and actometers were used to record physical activity.

    Follow-up measurements of energy balance were made on ten subjects 1 month after slimming and on eight subjects energy balance was determined approximately 1 year after slimming. Weight-maintenance diets, adjusted for weight loss, were supplied during the follow-up measurement periods.

    Over the first 4 weeks of slimming body weights decreased by averages of 5.8 kg (C50), 4.5 kg (AB/100) and 3.9 kg (A50/100). The average weight losses over 8 weeks were 6.9 to 9.0 kg. After 8 weeks at a low energy intake 24 hour energy expenditure had declined by 12 - 15 %. This decline was partly (50 %) accounted for by the reductions in body weight and partly (30 %) by reduced dietary induced thermogenesis. The remaining part (20 %) of the decline was probably due to the reduced cost and amount of physical activity which was indicated by Dopplermeter counts and actometer counts.
    Sleeping energy expenditure also decreased during slimming by 6 - 13 %, but this was no more than could be expected from weight loss.
    Weight reduction by alternating (low with normal) low energy intakes resulted in a reduction of energy expenditure which, when weight loss and energy intake were taken into account, was similar to the reduction by continuous low energy intake, thus alternating low energy intake did not prevent energy expenditure rates from declining.
    Subjects participating in the follow-up studies maintained their reduced body weights successfully. Their 24 hour energy expenditure rates in the follow-up studies were still below the rates measured before slimming. When body weight and energy intake were taken into account, both the 24 hour energy expenditure values and the sleeping energy expenditure values were the same before slimming, and 1 month or 1 year after slimming.
    The changes of energy metabolism were determined by alterations in body weight and energy intake and probably in physical activity as well. It remains to be investigated whether other adaptive mechanisms are evoked when energy intake is restricted more severely or for longer periods.

    European collaborative study on the role of diet and other factors in the aetiology of atrophic gastritis: a pre-cancerous lesion of gastric cancer
    West, C.E. - \ 1984
    Wageningen : Stichting Nederlands Instituut voor de Voeding - ISBN 9789070840082 - 118
    vasten - slechte voeding - maagziekten - vermageringsdiëten - fasting - malnutrition - stomach diseases - weight loss diets
    Rationalisering van de dietetiek
    Swieringa, J. - \ 1980
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast, co-promotor(en): W.C. Veeger. - S.l. : S.n. - 190
    kookkunst - dieet - dieetvoedsel - diëtetiek - diëten - vasten - voedselbereiding - slechte voeding - vermageringsdiëten - cookery - diet - dietetic foods - dietetics - diets - fasting - food preparation - malnutrition - weight loss diets
    Until recently the majority of therapeutic diets prescribed were based almost exclusively on empirism and aimed at symptomatic treatment of certain diseases. This situation has been changing radically in the last few decades. Under the influence of increased knowledge in the field of nutrition on the one hand, the greater insight into the patho- physiology of digestion and the rapid extension of the knowledge of metabolic disorders on the other hand, diet therapy is rapidly developing into a scientifically valid and often causal method of treating diseases.

    In spite of these developments little attention has so far been paid to definition of terms. The terminology used in the naming and prescribing of diets is extremely confusing and there is no adeauate classification of therapeutic diets. Sometimes the diets are named according to their purpose (cholesterol lowering diet, etc.); in other cases the diet carries the names of the disease (diabetes diet, hepatitis diet, etc.) or of the diseased organ (gastric diet, kidney diet, etc.); in still other cases the (deviating) composition determines the designation (low-protein diet, salt- free diet, fruit diet, etc.) or the diet is named after its "inventor" (Sippy-cure, Meulengracht diet, etc.). Quantity specifications too, are often extremely vague (moderate, limited, low, strict, ascending) and in some cases completely incorrect (e.g. salt-free). Even the definition of the term (therapeutic) diet as such is still a subject of wide-spread disagreement.

    In practice this confusing nomenclature causes every physician and dietitian to form his own idea of a particular therapeutic diet, based on his personal insight and experience. The contents af a therapeutic diet can therefore vary according to the physician or dietitian and hospital concerned.

    Whether or to what extent these differences actually rest on medical grounds remains unclear. Directly consequent on this an often unnecessarily large diversity of therapeutic diet meals is prepared, notably in hospitals. Lack of clearity and discrepancies with regard to the procedure and the delimination of physicians' and dietitians' duties can also be traced back to this. The confusing terminology prevents the realization of satisfactory regulations on labelling of foodstuffs (esp. diet products) and compensation for the costs of a therapeutic diet.

    The original occasion for the research was an experiment carried out in 1972-1973 in two hospitals, in which the production of meals was entirely contracted out to an industry of foodstuffs. This experiment concerned the industrial production of separate, individual mealcomponents, from which the hospital patients, including the dietpatients, could compose their meals as they choose. This necessitated a clear and unambiguous formulation of the medical requirements these therapeutic diet meals had to fulifii. Soon, however, the investigation began to lead a life of its own and was therefore entirely dissociated from the afore mentioned experiment.

    The research was primarily directed at logical analysing and ordening of therapeutic diets and the procedure followed by physicians and dietitians in prescribing a diet. The main issue was: What is a therapeutic diet? In this way a clearly consistent and coherent stock of concepts was developed (Chapter 2 and 3) on the basis of which rules regarding the prescription and composition of therapeutic diets were drawn up.

    Besides the respective duties and responsibilities of physicians and dietitians were delimited and a sound model for paramedical delegation was developed (Chapter 4).

    It is essential that physicians and dietitians employ uniform units and specifications of foodstuffs in prescribing and composing therapeutic diets. National agreements have been reached on this head, which can also constitute the basis of a simple system of labelling and declaration of nutritional values (Chapter 5).

    About half of all hospital patients are prescribed a therapeutic diet. In Chapter 6 an organization model has been developed for catering in hospitals, applying the results of the preceding chapters. A model according to which diet patients, too, can compose a meal as they choose from the supply of foodstuffs and dishes.

    By rationalization - the title of the research - we mean the formalization (Chapter 4), normalization (Chapter 5) and organization (Chapter 6) of the prescribing and composing of therapeutic diets, both intramurally and extramurally, by way of logical analysis, definition and ordening (Chapter 2 and 3).

    The investigation is a composition of basic scientific research (analysis, ordening and definition) and applied scientific research (formalization, normalization and organization). It was carried out in close co-operation with those concerned, notably physicians and dietitians. As regards set-up the investigation can best be described as an action-research. Twenty-eight hospitals took part in the last phase of the research: the diffusion and adoption.

    We have defined a therapeutic diet as a diet which deviates from a normal diet for medical reasons. By a normal diet we understand an optimal diet; a diet which under physiological conditions contributes towards the best health to be achieved. A normal diet is synonymous with a healthy diet. In this definition Met is the genus proximum. A therapeutic diet differs from a normal diet in two respects (differentiae specificae):
    - it is a deviating diet
    - the deviation rests on medical (patho-physioiogical) grounds.

    Only if both conditions have simultaneously been complied with we can speak of a therapeutic diet or modified diet.

    (There is no completely correct English equivalent for the Dutch word "dieet". Instead of therapeutic diet a better translation would be modified diet).

    As in theoretical nutrition we define a diet as a set of nutrients. A therapeutic or modified diet is a diet in which the amount of one more nutrients deviates - for medical reasons - from what would be a normal quantity for the patient in question under physiological conditions.

    Proceeding from this definition the therapeutic (modified) diets have been divided into four categories:
    1. nutrient-limited diets: diets in which the quantity of one or more nu trients is less than normal
    2. nutrient-enriched diets: diets in which the quantity of one or more nutrients is more than normal
    3. nutrient-eliminated (or-free) diets: diets in which one or more nutrients do not occur at all
    4. nutrient-substituted diets: diets in which one or more macro-nutrients are replaced by an equivalent set of micro-nutrients. Substitution is always a combination of limitation or elimination and enrichment.

    If the quantity of only one nutrient diverges from the normal amount we speak of single modified diets. If the quantity of two or more nutrients deviates from the normal we speak of multiple modified diets or combina tion-diets. A multiple modified Met is a combination of two or more single modified diets.

    This classification constitutes the basis of a clear, unambiguous and consistent method of naming and prescribing therapeutic diets. In order to keep classification and terminology as simple as possible a distinction has been made between the main characteristics of a modified diet and the derived characteristics. By a main characteristic we mean a modification directly proceeding from the clinial picture of the patient in question. A derived characteristic is a characteristic which is a consequence of a main characteristic and as such is related only indirectly to the patient's disease.

    A therapeutic diet is named - exclusively - after its main characteristic(s).

    A diet-prescription is correct and complete if it states:
    a. the main characteristic(s) of a diet; i.e. the name;
    b. the degree in which the quantity ties of nutrients should deviate from the normal: i.e. the quantities of nutrients permitted or required per 24 hours. (Energy and proteins are indicated preferably in quantities per kg body weight and fats and carbohydrates in per cent of energy).

    Drawing up such a diet-prescription is part of the duties and responsibili ties of the physician. To promote uniformity and clarity in the method of prescribing (not: the contents) we have developed a modelform on which physicians can, in a simple manner, record the diet-prescription. This diet-prescriptionform at the same time serves as a means of delegation, when patients are referred to a dietitian by the physician.

    Theoretical nutrition and dietetics are concerned with diet as a set of nutrients. Applied nutrition and dietetics concern diet as a set of foodstuffs. Foodstuffs are (consumable) products containing one or more nutrients. The diet prescription specifies the limiting conditions with which the diet as a set of foodstuffs should comply. Theoretically the problem of composing a therapeutic diet can be completely solved if the nutritional values of all foodstuffs are known, in particular the content of nutrients relevant to that therapeutic diet. In that respect there is no essential difference between composing normal and therapeutic (modified) diets. In both cases the foodstuffs should be selected in such a way that the daily diet complies with the required content of nutrients, on the understanding that in the case of therapeutic diets the quantity of one or more nutrients should be more or less than the normal quantity. Most modified diets too leave a lot of room for combination and variation.

    But in practice dietitians follow another procedure, taking into account the eating habits (the meal- and menu-pattern) of the patient in question. The patient's customary diet is correced and adapted to the diet prescription by
    a. prohibiting (in nutrient-limited and -eliminated diets) or requiring (in nutrient-enriched and -substituted diets) the use of particular kinds of foodstuffs per component of the menu:
    and/or by
    b. prescribing the use of a maximum quantity (in nutrient-limited diets) or minumum quantity (in nutrient-enriched diets) of particular kinds of foodstuffs per component of the menu.

    By quantities we understand the number of consumption-units, i.e. the number of slices, spoonfuls, cups, etc. The determining factor with respect to the kind of foodstuff is the quantity of one ore more nutrient(s) the food stuff contains per consumption unit. Similar foodstuffs are foodstuffs containing approximately, i.e. within certain limits, the same amount of a particular, relevant nutrient.

    The instructions drawn up by a dietitian in this way for a specific patient are called: dietetic-advice. Dietetic-advice is the translation in terms of foodstuffs of the diet- prescription, expressed in terms of nutrients.

    Dietetic-advice is also the nature of a prescription with regard to the patient, but it is attuned to the requirements and eating habits of the individual patient. Dietetic-advice can be continually adapted even when the prescription remains the same, and its contents can be entirely different for two different patients, even though the diet prescription is identical in both cases.

    To promote uniformity and clarity with respect to the dietetic advice the foodstuffs are divided into 14 menu groups, on the basis of the meal- and menu-pattern customary in the Netherlands. Each group corresponds with a fixed component of a meal. All foodstuffs belonging to a particular menu group have the same function in the composing of a meal or daily diet. In addition all foodstuffs have been divided into (at most) five kinds per nutrient: nutrient-free, nutrient-limited, nutrient-average, high-nutrient and nutrient-extreme.

    The classification-matrix, obtained in this way, serves as the basis for drawing up by far the greater proportion of all dietetic advices. With the dietitians and catering managers of the 28 hospitals taking part in our investigation agreements were made about:
    a. the size of the composition units of the most frequently occurring food stuffs (i.e. the number of grams),
    b. the limits (i.e. the amount of nutrients per consumption unit) within which foodstuffs are of the same kind (e.g. low-, high-, etc.)
    That is what we called: normalization.

    All practical problems, with respect to the prescribing, advising and composing of therapeutic diets, are all indirectly caused wholly or to a considerable extent by the fact that so far little attention has been paid to definition and terminology. Problems accordingly, which have all become wholly solvable thanks to the research.

    Nevertheless the investigation is first and foremost a basic scientific research. Definition is the basis of every science. The terminology and classification, of therapeutic diets which we have developed serve as a paradigm; a terminological model, for structuring a professional language by means of which implicit skill can be transformed into explicit - and thus verifiable and transmissible - knowledge. A paradigm which, at the same time, serves as a hypothesis for discerning gaps in existing scientific dietetic knowledge.

    The definition of a therapeutic modified diets constitutes the foundation of the entire research. A definition by wich modified diets have been restricted to the field of medicine in the pure sense of the word. This is not merely a question of definition, but is theoretically fundamental. Dietetics concerns itself with the relation disease -->diet; a relation which is of an entirely different nature and order from the relation diet --->health, with which nutrition concerns itself.

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