Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery
    Tervahauta, T.H. ; Weijden, R.D. van der; Flemming, R.L. ; Hernández, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
    Water Research 48 (2014)1. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 632 - 642.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalhergebruik - slibzuivering - calciumfosfaten - fosfor - terugwinning - spectroscopie - infraroodspectroscopie - anaërobe behandeling - biobased economy - waste water treatment - waste utilization - sludge treatment - calcium phosphates - phosphorus - recovery - spectroscopy - infrared spectroscopy - anaerobic treatment - biobased economy - waste-water - precipitation - hydroxyapatite - struvite
    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor at lab- and demonstration-scale were analyzed for chemical composition and mineralogy by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Electron microprobe (EMP), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The granules had a diameter of 1–2 mm, organic content of 33 wt%, and phosphorus content of 11–13 wt%. Three calcium phosphate phases were identified in the granules: hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate hydrate and carbonated hydroxyapatite. Without any addition of chemicals, 7 gP/person/year can be recovered with the calcium phosphate granules, representing 2% of the incoming phosphorus in the UASB reactor. As the heavy metal content was lower compared to other phosphorus recovery products, phosphate rock and phosphorus fertilizer, the calcium phosphate granules could be considered as a new phosphorus product.
    (Voor)droging van zuiveringsslib in kassen met en zonder restwarmte
    Meddeler, Barry ; Reitsma, Berend ; Zwart, Feije de - \ 2013
    Amersfoort : Stowa (Stowa rapport 2013-38) - ISBN 9789057736148 - 88
    slib - bio-energie - slibzuivering - warmte - biobrandstoffen - sludges - bioenergy - sludge treatment - heat - biofuels
    In deze STOWA rapportage zijn de kansen van slibdroging in kassen voor de Nederlandse situatie beschreven. Er wordt inzicht gegeven in de potenties van de techniek van kassendroging aan de hand van (voornamelijk Duitse) praktijkervaringen en literatuur. Daarnaast zijn met modelberekeningen vier praktijkcasussen doorgerekend om de haalbaarheid voor Nederland in te schatten.
    The effect of operational conditions on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the sludge bed in UASB reactors
    Leitao, R.C. ; Santaellla, S.T. ; Haandel, A.C. van; Zeeman, G. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2011
    Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1935 - 1941.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - geactiveerd slib - anaërobe behandeling - slibzuivering - hydrodynamische dispersie - zuiveringsinstallaties - expansie - retentie - volume - waste water treatment - activated sludge - anaerobic treatment - sludge treatment - hydrodynamic dispersion - purification plants - expansion - retention - volume - settling characteristics - expansion characteristics - granular sludge - volume index - velocity - sewage - settleability - design
    This work aims to evaluate the hydrodynamic properties of the sludge bed of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors based on its settleability and expansion characteristics. The methodologies used for the evaluation of the settleability of aerobic activated sludge, and for the expansibility of a sludge bed of Expanded Granular Sludge Bed reactors and Fluidised Bed Reactors were adapted and applied to the particular characteristics of the sludge of UASB reactors. An easy-to-build experimental set-up was developed to assess the parameters necessary for the equations of settleability and of expansibility. The results obtained from the sludges of seven differently operated reactors show that, for the treatment of low strength wastewater, settleability increased and expansibility decreased at decreased hydraulic retention time, from 6 to 1 h, and/or increased influent concentrations, from 136 to approximately 800 mg chemical oxygen demand/L. The results also show that it is useless to design an UASB reactor with a longer hydraulic retention time to cope with hydraulic shock loads, as a more expansible sludge will develop at such condition.
    Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale
    Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
    Water Research 45 (2011)16. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 4923 - 4929.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - huishoudens - rioolslib - geactiveerd slib - bioreactoren - ontwerp - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - oligochaeta - waste water treatment - households - sewage sludge - activated sludge - bioreactors - design - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - oligochaeta - eating waste sludge - activated-sludge
    Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus has been shown at small scale. For scaling up purposes, a new configuration of the reactor was designed, in which the worms were positioned horizontally in the carrier material. This was tested in a continuous experiment of 8 weeks where it treated all the waste sludge from a lab-scale activated sludge process. The results showed a higher worm growth rate compared to previous experiments with the old configuration, whilst nutrient release was similar. The new configuration has a low footprint and allows for easy aeration and faeces collection, thereby making it suitable for full scale application.
    Onderzoek naar schuimproblemen in slibvergisters
    Grolle, K.C.F. ; Wierenga, P.A. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2011
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 44 (2011)5. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 53 - 54.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - milieutechniek - slibzuivering - co-vergisting - schuimen - waste water treatment - environmental engineering - sludge treatment - co-fermentation - foaming
    Milieutechnisch onderzoek naar schuimproblemen heeft vaak als doel de schuimbepalende parameter te vinden om de ingrediënten te identifi ceren die de schuimproblemen veroorzaken. In de levensmiddelensector is uitgebreid fundamenteel onderzoek gedaan naar schuim en daar is die schuimbepalende parameter (nog) niet gevonden. In dit artikel worden suggesties gedaan voor milieutechisch onderzoek naar schuimproblemen in slibvergisters op basis van de kennis die opgedaan is in de levensmiddelentechnologie.
    Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor
    Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
    Water Research 44 (2010)3. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1017 - 1023.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - biologische behandeling - lumbricidae - zuurstofconsumptie - waterzuivering - ontwerp - zuiveringsinstallaties - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - biological treatment - lumbricidae - oxygen consumption - water treatment - design - purification plants - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - lumbriculus-variegatus muller - eating waste sludge - minimization
    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be determined by the sludge consumption rate per unit of surface area. This design parameter was determined in sequencing batch experiments using sludge from a municipal WWTP. Long-term experiments using carrier materials with 300 and 350 µm mesh sizes showed surface specific consumption rates of 45 and 58 g TSS/(m2 d), respectively. Using a 350 µm mesh will therefore result in a 29% smaller reactor compared to using a 300 µm mesh. Large differences in consumption rates were found between different sludge types, although it was not clear what caused these differences. Worm biomass growth and decay rate were determined in sequencing batch experiments. The decay rate of 0.023 d-1 for worms in a carrier material was considerably higher than the decay rate of 0.018 d-1 for free worms. As a result, the net worm biomass growth rate for free worms of 0.026 d-1 was much higher than the 0.009–0.011 d-1 for immobilised worms. Finally, the specific oxygen uptake rate of the worms was determined at 4.9 mg O2/(g ww d), which needs to be supplied to the worms by aeration of the water compartment in the worm reactor
    Slibverwerking met wormen: toepasbaar voor RWZI’s?
    Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
    Afvalwaterwetenschap 8 (2009)4. - ISSN 1568-3788 - p. 284 - 292.
    afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - biologische technieken - wormen - lumbricidae - economische haalbaarheid - economische analyse - zuiveringsinstallaties - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - biological techniques - helminths - economic viability - economic analysis - purification plants - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
    De verwerking van afvalslib uit biologische zuivering van industrieel en huishoudelijk afvalwater is kostbaar en de uiteindelijke verwerkingsmethode is veelal verbranding. Met behulp van aquatische wormen kan de hoeveelheid afvalslib worden gereduceerd, de ontwaterbaarheid ervan worden verbeterd en een gedeelte van de nutriënten worden teruggewonnen door de groei van wormenbiomassa. Een nieuw ontwerp voor een wormenreactor, geschikt voor opschaling, is succesvol getest in het lab. Bij relatief kleine RWZI's is het te verwachten voordeel het grootst, gezien de hoge transportkosten van ingedikt slib naar de centrale slibverwerkingsinstallaties en juist hierin kan veel voordeel behaald worden met een wormenreactor. Het economisch perspectief voor de toepassing van een wormenreactor bij een rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie (RWZI) van 35.000 i.e. wordt in dit artikel beschreven en is veelbelovend. Voor een gedetailleerde haalbaarheidsstudie zijn echter de ervaringen met een pilot reactor nodig, zoals optimalisatie van het indikken van wormenkeutels. Het economisch perspectief van een wormenreactor valt nog veel gunstiger uit wanneer de geproduceerde wormenbiomassa een hoogwaardige toepassing heeft, zoals visvoer voor consumptievis. Dit zou echter slechts een optie voor schone slibsoorten kunnen zijn, zoals die uit bepaalde voedingsindustrieën
    Selective recovery of nickel over iron from a nickel-iron solution using microbial sulfate reduction in a gas-lift bioreactor
    Bijmans, M.F.M. ; Helvoort, P.J. van; Dar, S. ; Dopson, M. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
    Water Research 43 (2009)3. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 853 - 861.
    mijnbouw - metallurgie - mijnafval - slib - waterstof - ijzer - nikkel - bioreactoren - elektroforese - sulfaatreductie - slibzuivering - verwijdering - mining - metallurgy - mine tailings - sludges - hydrogen - iron - nickel - bioreactors - electrophoresis - sulfate reduction - sludge treatment - removal - gradient gel-electrophoresis - sulfide precipitation - metal precipitation - heavy-metals - soils - water - ores
    Process streams with high concentrations of metals and sulfate are characteristic for the mining and metallurgical industries. This study aims to selectively recover nickel from a nickel-iron-containing solution at pH 5.0 using a single stage bioreactor that simultaneously combines low pH sulfate reduction and metal-sulfide formation. The results show that nickel was selectively precipitated in the bioreactor at pH 5.0 and the precipitates consisted of >or=83% of the nickel content. The nickel-iron precipitates were partly crystalline and had a metal/sulfur ratio of 1, suggesting these precipitates were NiS and FeS. Experiments focusing on nickel recovery at pH 5.0 and 5.5 reached a recovery of >99.9%, resulting in a nickel effluent concentration
    Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery
    Hendrickx, T.L.G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman; Hardy Temmink. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853688 - 167
    afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwijdering - slib - biologische behandeling - lumbricidae - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - waste disposal - sludges - biological treatment - lumbricidae - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower. Additionally it has a distinctive granular structure with improved dewaterability characteristics. If a useful application can be found for the worms that are produced in the predation process, then a valuable product would be obtained from a waste material. Aquatic worms can be used for improved processing of waste sludge and recovery of resources. The waste sludge is produced in biological waste water treatment. In the Netherlands, this sludge is mostly thickened, dried and incinerated. These are costly operations in which only some energy is recovered. Recently, an aquatic worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) was found, which consumes the sludge, grows on it and compacts the non-digested sludge into worm faeces. In a new reactor concept the worms are placed in a mesh, thereby retaining them in the reactor and allowing for separate collection of the compact worm faeces. The latter results in much more efficient processing of the remaining solids, i.e. the worm faeces. Additionally, worm biomass is produced that contains a high protein fraction, offering opportunities for re-use. The thesis describes the scale up of such a worm reactor and the impact it will have on sludge processing
    The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge
    Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, H. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
    Water Research 43 (2009)4. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 943 - 950.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - licht - temperatuur - opgelost zuurstof - ammoniak - lumbricidae - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - light - temperature - dissolved oxygen - ammonia - lumbricidae - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - lumbriculus-variegatus muller - benthic invertebrates - water treatment - toxicity - oligochaete - sediments - metabolism - reduction - exposure
    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a carrier material. For correct sizing and operation of such a worm reactor, the effect of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, ammonia concentration, temperature and light exposure were studied in sequencing batch experiments. DO concentration had an effect on both sludge consumption rate and sludge reduction efficiency. Sludge consumption rate was four times higher at DO concentrations above 8.1 mg/L, when compared to DO concentrations below 2.5 mg/L. Sludge reduction was 36 and 77% at these respective DO concentrations. The effect is most likely the result of a difference in gut residence time. An increase in unionised ammonia concentration drastically decreased the consumption rate. Ammonia is released by the worms at a rate of 0.02 mg N/mg TSS digested; therefore, replacing the effluent in the worm reactor is required to maintain a low ammonia concentration. The highest sludge consumption rates were measured at a temperature around 15 °C, whilst the highest TSS reduction was achieved at 10 °C. Not exposing the worms to light did not affect consumption or digestion rates. High temperatures (above 25 °C) as well as low DO concentrations (below 1 mg/L) in the worm reactor should be avoided as these lead to significant decreases in the number of worms. The main challenges for applying the worm reactor at a larger scale are the supply of oxygen to the worms and maintaining a low ammonia concentration in the worm reactor. Applying a worm reactor at a waste water treatment plant was estimated to increase the oxygen consumption and the ammonia load by 15¿20% and 5% respectively.
    Selenate removal in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors
    Lenz, M. ; Hullebusch, E.D. van; Hommes, G. ; Corvini, P.F.X. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2008
    Water Research 42 (2008)8-9. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2184 - 2194.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - bioreactoren - slib - selenium - verwijdering - efficiëntie - biologische filtratie - slibzuivering - sulfaatreductie - waste water treatment - bioreactors - sludges - selenium - removal - efficiency - biological filtration - sludge treatment - sulfate reduction - acid-mine drainage - granular sludge - elemental selenium - respiring bacteria - waste-water - se - reduction - sediments - coal - particulate
    This paper evaluates the use of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors (30 degrees C, pH = 7.0) to remove selenium oxyanions from contaminated waters (790 mu g Se L-1) under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions using lactate as electron donor. One UASB reactor received sulfate at different sulfate to selenate ratios, while another UASB was operated under methanogenic conditions for 132 days without sulfate in the influent. The selenate effluent concentrations in the sulfate-reducing and methanogenic reactor were 24 and 8 mu gSeL(-1), corresponding to removal efficiencies of 97% and 99%, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and sequential extractions showed that selenium was mainly retained as elemental selenium in the biomass. However, the total dissolved selenium effluent concentrations amounted to 73 and 80 mu gSeL(-1), respectively, suggesting that selenate was partly converted to another selenium compound, most likely colloidally dispersed Sea nanoparticles. Possible intermediates of selenium reduction (selenite, dimethylselenide, dimethyldiselenide, H2Se) could not be detected. Sulfate reducers removed selenate at molar excess of sulfate to selenate (up to a factor of 2600) and elevated dissolved sulfide concentrations (up to 168mgL(-1)), but selenium removal efficiencies were limited by the applied sulfate-loading rate. in the methanogenic bioreactor, selenate and dissolved selenium removal were independent of the sulfate load, but inhibited by sulfide (101 mg L-1). The selenium removal efficiency of the methanogenic UASB abruptly improved after 58 days of operation, suggesting that a specialized selenium-converting population developed in the reactor. This paper demonstrates that both sulfate-reducing and methanogenic UASB reactors can be applied to remove selenate from contaminated natural waters and anthropogenic waste streams, e.g. agricultural drainage waters, acid mine drainage and flue gas desulfurization bleeds.
    Haalbaarheidsonderzoek gecombineerde verwerking van zuiveringsslib en mestvergisting in Limburg : een verkennend onderzoek
    Elbersen, H.W. ; Hoeksma, P. ; Man, A. de - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group nr. 869) - 57
    afvalverwerking - slib - mest - rioolslib - biogasmest - intensieve veehouderij - haalbaarheidsstudies - mestverwerking - reconstructie - slibzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - noord-limburg - midden-limburg - waste treatment - sludges - manures - sewage sludge - biogas slurry - intensive livestock farming - feasibility studies - manure treatment - reconstruction - sludge treatment - purification plants - noord-limburg - midden-limburg
    De grote hoeveelheid intensieve veehouderij leidt tot een regionaal mest- en nutriëntenoverschot. Mest covergisting kan voor een aantal veehouderijbedrijven in het reconstructiegebied Noord- en Midden- Limburg een nieuwe economische activiteit worden. Hierbij is het belangrijk om direct het biogas of indirect de restwarmte op een efficiënte manier in te zetten. Het WBL (Waterschapsbedrijf Limburg) beheert 18 rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties. Op 3 plaatsen (Venlo, Hoensbroek en Susteren) wordt het geproduceerde slib gedroogd. De gedroogde slib wordt als brand- en bouwstof bij de ENCI afgezet. Het is onzeker of de ENCI na 2015 in bedrijf zal blijven. Het WBL voert momenteel een strategiestudie uit naar de mogelijkheden van slibverwerking in de toekomst. De studie wordt breed ingezet en gebruik van alternatieve brandstoffen of restwarmte krijgt de nodige aandacht. De Wageningen UR (Instituut AFSG i.s.m. ASG) heeft in opdracht van het WBL de mogelijkheden van gecombineerde verwerking zuiveringsslib en vergisting van mest en agro-residuen in kaart gebracht
    Sludge reduction by aquatic worms in wastewater treatment : with emphasis on the potential application of Lumbriculus variegatus
    Elissen, H.J.H. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): A. Klapwijk. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047773 - 189
    afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - sludge treatment - aquatic worms
    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), large amounts of biological waste sludge are produced. In the Netherlands, the application of this sludge in agriculture or disposal in landfills is no longer allowed, mainly because of its high heavy metal content. The sludge therefore generally is incinerated. Sludge processing costs are estimated to be half of the total wastewater treatment costs. This thesis focuses on the application of aquatic worms to reduce the amount and volume of the excess sludge. Several worm species, belonging to the Aeolosomatidae, Tubificidae (including Naidinae) or Lumbriculidae have specific characteristics that could make them suitable for such an application
    Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems
    Luostarinen, S. ; Sanders, W.T.M. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2007
    Bioresource Technology 98 (2007)5. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 980 - 986.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - slibzuivering - huishoudens - excreten - anaërobe verteerders - slibvergisting - temperatuur - vergelijkend onderzoek - haalbaarheidsstudies - omgevingstemperatuur - waste water treatment - sludge treatment - households - excreta - anaerobic digesters - sludge digestion - temperature - comparative research - feasibility studies - environmental temperature - waste-water - domestic sewage - reactors - digestion
    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The results indicated the feasibility of the UASB-septic tank for (pre)treatment of black water at low temperatures with respect to removal of suspended solids and dissolved organic material. Inoculum sludge had little effect on CODss removal, though in the start-up phase some poorly adapted inoculum disintegrated and washed out, thus requiring consideration when designing the process. Removal of CODdis was at first negative, but improved as the sludge adapted to low temperature. The UASB-septic tank alone did not comply with Finnish or Dutch treatment requirements and should therefore be considered mainly as a pre-treatment method. However, measuring the requirements as mgCOD l-1 may not always be the best method, as the volume of the effluent discharged is also an important factor in the final amount of COD entering the receiving water bodies
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