“Everything tastes different” : The impact of changes in chemosensory perception on food preferences, food intake and quality of life during chemotherapy in cancer patients
Vries, Yfke Carlijn de - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; H.W.M. van Laarhoven, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; Sanne Boesveldt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436090 - 169
perception - sensory evaluation - food intake - quality of life - food preferences - neoplasms - taste - macronutrients - drug therapy - breast cancer - perceptie - sensorische evaluatie - voedselopname - kwaliteit van het leven - voedselvoorkeuren - neoplasma - smaak - macronutriënten - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker
Taste and smell changes are common side effects during chemotherapy in cancer patient and may have an impact on food preferences, food intake and quality of life. However, these relations have hardly been studied systematically in specific cancer populations. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess how the sense of taste and smell change upon treatment with chemotherapy in breast cancer and oesophagogastric cancer patients, and to investigate their consequences in terms of food preferences, food intake and quality of life.
To measure food preferences for both macronutrients and tastes, the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) was developed. in chapter 2, it was shown that by inducing sensory specific satiety for a standardized sweet and savoury meal, it is possible to detect shifts in preferences for both tastes and macronutrients with the MTPRT, and that these results are reproducible.
In Chapter 3 we studied objective and subjective taste and smell perception and food preferences in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. The result showed that only objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy, but other chemosensory measures were unchanged. A lower subjective taste perception was related to a lower preference for high-protein products. Therefore it is important to consider patients’ taste perception, when providing dietary advice to OGC patients
Chapter 4 describes a study with similar outcome measures as chapter 3, but in breast cancer patients at several time points during and after chemotherapy, and compared to a healthy control group. The study showed that breast cancer patients like high-protein, high-fat, sweet and savoury products less during chemotherapy, thus showing altered preferences for macronutrients, but not for tastes. Furthermore, results showed a temporary decrease in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. These findings show that patients should be informed prior to treatment on chemosensory changes, and that these changes should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life
In chapter 5 we assessed the dietary intake of breast cancer patients before and during chemotherapy compared to a healthy control group, and associations with experienced symptoms during chemotherapy. It was shown that symptoms induced by chemotherapy were associated with lower total energy, protein and fat intake, which was manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. Therefore, to ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
To better understand the impact of chemosensory changes during chemotherapy on daily life, 13 advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients were interviewed (see chapter 6). Patients described a substantial impact of chemosensory and food-related changes on daily life (by changing daily routines), social life (eating being less sociable) and roles in the household (changing roles in cooking and grocery shopping).
Finally, in chapter 7, we assessed the association between self-reported taste and smell perception and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A worse taste and smell perception was associated with a worse global quality of life, role, social and emotional functioning shortly after chemotherapy. In patients treated with trastuzumab, a worse taste and smell perception was still associated with quality of life, social and role functioning half a year after chemotherapy had ended.
From the studies in this thesis we can conclude that chemotherapy mainly affects the sense of taste. The subjective perception of taste was associated with a lower preference for food products and lower energy intake. This indicates that it is not necessarily an actual change in the sense of taste or smell that has an impact on patients, but flavour perception as a whole and potentially a lower enjoyment of food. Moreover, these perceived changes in taste and smell can have a substantial impact on cancer patients’ lives, in a practical way by changing daily patterns of eating, but also socially and in roles in the household. A changed chemosensory perception during chemotherapy may lead to a worsened nutritional status, and could thereby negatively impact the response to chemotherapy. Therefore chemosensory perception should be monitored during chemotherapy. Future studies should further investigate the mechanisms behind chemosensory changes, factors that contribute to subjective taste perception and possible interventions to alleviate chemosensory changes during chemotherapy.
Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices
Granato, Daniel - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Saskia van Ruth; Vincenzo Fogliano. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579071 - 151
grape juice - fruit juices - phenolic compounds - antioxidant properties - taste - provenance - chemometrics - mass spectrometry - druivensap - vruchtensappen - fenolverbindingen - antioxidatieve eigenschappen - smaak - herkomst - chemometrie - massaspectrometrie
Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices have been the target of a high number of studies, it is still not fully known how geographical origin and production management system, affect the chemical profile, quality traits related to flavor, and in vitro antioxidant of grape juices. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to elucidate the reflectance of origin (botanical, geographical, production system) in the unique compositional traits of juices from different botanical origins, with emphasis on purple grape juices. Subsequently, chemometric methods were used to try to authenticate the origin of grape juice based on the grape juice’s quality traits. Results showed that it was possible to note that the instrumental taste profile, chemical composition related to phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of juices from distinct botanical origins differ considerably. More specifically, pomegranate and elderberry juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, implying that the botanical origin of juices affected remarkably their unique instrumental taste profile and physicochemical parameters, phenolic composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity. The production managements systems, (organic/biodynamic, ORG/BIO, versus conventional, CONV) is influencing the volatile organic composition (VOC) profiles, some phenolic compounds and copper chelating activity. It is not affecting the instrumental taste profile nor the in vitro antioxidant activity results. ORG and BIO purple grape juices can be differentiated by their VOC profiles but not by the other characteristics studied. More specifically, CONV juices had higher mean levels for all ions compared to ORG and BIO juices. More specifically, in fact, BIO juices presented the lowest mean values for almost all ions measured. When European grape juices were studied, no significant difference (p>0.05) between ORG, BIO, and CONV juices was observed for instrumental richness, umami, saltiness, sourness, astringency, bitterness, total phenolic content, total soluble solids, pH, ortho-diphenols, copper chelating activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant activity. For the Brazilian samples, the contents of chlorogenic acid and myricetin were statistically higher in ORG juices, while the in vitro antioxidant activity measured by three assays (DPPH, CUPRAC, and iron chelating ability) were not different between production management systems. For the European juices, some differences were observed: BIO and ORG juices presented higher contents of (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, (+)-catechin, and myricetin compared to the CONV juices. The VOC profile, instrumental taste parameters, phenolic composition, and in vitro antioxidant activity is highly affected between regions, in which Brazilian juices presented higher ion intensities as compared to the European juices. Brazilian juices, regardless of the production management system adopted, presented higher total phenolic content and flavonoids, total anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavanols, except for trans-resveratrol, malvidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. From this work, we can conclude that the geographical and botanical origins affect significantly the VOC profiles, instrumental taste profile, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of grape juices.
Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
He, W. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149
stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit
Background and aim
Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.
Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.
Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.
Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.
Metabolites contributing to taste in Agaricus bisporus
Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Mumm, R. ; Stijger, I. ; Wehrens, H.R.M.J. - \ 2016
Plant Research International (PPO/PRI-report 2016-1) - 19
mushrooms - edible fungi - metabolites - taste - agaricus bisporus - taste panels - postharvest quality - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - metabolieten - smaak - agaricus bisporus - smaakpanels - kwaliteit na de oogst
During the last 35 years, hardly any breeding has been done in the button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The fact that no new varieties are generated directed to trends in the food market has caused a slowly decrease in mushroom consumption in the Netherlands and in Europe. The hurdles for generating new varieties are difficulties in breeding and protection of new varieties. These hurdles are now nearly tackled and it is time to generate new varieties. One issue that has never been addressed is taste. The collection of Plant Breeding Wageningen UR contains a large number of strains of the button mushroom with a large genetic variation. In previous research this collection has been genotyped and a small selection of genetically different strains has been made. In 2014 these strains were cultivated along two different methods that were likely to cause differences in taste. Atempts were made to link the results from the taste panel to the metabolite concentrations. Even though it is a relatively small dataset, some correlations can be found for the taste attributes Firmness, Gummi and Boiled Egg and for the metabolites Alanine, Arginine and Proline.
Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools
Fries, M.C.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576537 - 169
schools - elementary schools - primary education - dietetic education - taste - education - vegetables - psychosocial aspects - food consumption - scholen - basisscholen - primair onderwijs - voedingsonderwijs - smaak - onderwijs - groenten - psychosociale aspecten - voedselconsumptie
“Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”
School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it is hard to identify what intervention components and implementation conditions are most effective. Furthermore, as nutrition education is not mandatory in the Netherlands, it is not clear what effects can be achieved with nutrition education in Dutch primary schools. In this thesis therefore two versions of Taste Lessons were evaluated. Taste Lessons is a practice-driven school-based nutrition education programme on taste development, healthy nutrition, and food quality. The programme was evaluated on its aims to increase children’s interest in food, and their knowledge and skills regarding healthy and conscious eating behaviour. Furthermore, the influence of adding experiential learning activities and implementation factors on effectiveness are addressed.
The first evaluation showed that partial implementation of the 10-12 lessons of Taste Lessons (first version) by the teachers during one school year resulted in small increases in psychosocial determinants of healthy eating behaviour. The highest increase was observed in children’s knowledge, which still persisted six months after the programme.
A second evaluation was conducted with the aim to compare effectiveness of the revised and shorter version of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on change in (psychosocial determinants of) vegetable consumption and willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Results from this second study showed that, with almost complete implementation of the five lessons of Taste Lessons by the teachers during a couple of weeks, similar results as the first effect evaluation. Again with knowledge as the strongest intervention effect. Additional experiential learning activities, such as an extended cooking lesson with a dietician and the parents, an excursion to a grower and a supermarket assignment with the parents, showed more and stronger increases in several psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption than Taste Lessons without these additional activities. No significant intervention effects were found on children’s willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables during a taste test, and also not on their daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia.
Analyses on process indicators in both studies revealed that teachers and children highly liked Taste Lessons and that children most liked the experiential learning activities. Furthermore, children’s programme appreciation and interpersonal communication about the programme activities after the lessons were found to be positively associated with their change in psychosocial determinants.
In conclusion, evaluation of Taste Lessons showed an increase in children’s knowledge and several other psychosocial determinants of eating behaviour. Implementation of (additional) experiential learning methods in school-based nutrition education is likely to enhance the intervention’s effectiveness, as children mostly liked these activities and children’s enthusiasm was the strongest predictor of effectiveness. No effects were found on children’s vegetable consumption. To achieve behavioural change, school-based nutrition education should be complemented with a consistent set of changes in children’s environment.
De consument wil smaak...maar welke smaak?
Verkerke, W. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2016
Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2016 (2016)01. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 20 - 22.
tuinbouw - tomaten - paprika's - meloenen - aardbeien - smaak - consumentenpanels - smaakonderzoek - marketing - modellen - horticulture - tomatoes - sweet peppers - melons - strawberries - taste - consumer panels - taste research - marketing - models
Marktgericht produceren begint bij de smaak. Maar van welke smaak houdt de consument? Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw ontwikkelde een meetmodel voor de smaak van tomaten, paprika's en meloenen en werkt nu aan de aardbei. Bovendien brengt het de smaak van consumententypen in kaart. "Als je de smaakvoorkeur van consumenten kent, dan kun je pas écht produceren voor de markt."
Alleen sterkere smaak verhoogt eetlust niet
Doets, E.L. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
ondervoeding - eiwitdepletie - ouderen - voedselvoorkeuren - voedselkwaliteit - productontwikkeling - smaak - voedselverpakking - voeding - voedingsonderzoek - ouderenvoeding - undernutrition - protein depletion - elderly - food preferences - food quality - product development - taste - food packaging - nutrition - nutrition research - elderly nutrition
Vijf tot tien procent zelfstandige ouderen is ondervoed. Ouderen waarderen voeding waarschijnlijk beter als verschillende aspecten zoals textuur, smaak en uiterlijk tegelijkertijd worden verbeterd. Dit schrijven Esmée Doets en Stefanie Kramer, onderzoekers bij Food & Biobased Research, in een overzichtsstudie in het tijdschrift Food Quality and Preference.
Microben maken mede de wijn : regionale verschillen in gistpopulaties beïnvloeden het aromaprofiel van wijn
Maanen, G. van; Vermeulen, T. - \ 2015
Bionieuws 2015 (2015)15. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 1 - 1.
wijnen - smaak - gisten - microbiologie - fermentatie - wijnbouw - wijngaarden - wines - taste - yeasts - microbiology - fermentation - viticulture - vineyards
Wijn dankt zijn karakter niet alleen aan lokale omstandigheden in klimaat, bodem en teelt, maar ook aan aanwezige gisten, claimen Nieuw-Zeelandse microbiologen.
Zoektocht naar fermentatieprocessen voor producten met minder zout
Smid, E.J. - \ 2015
voedselmicrobiologie - fermentatie - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedseltechnologie - zout - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food microbiology - fermentation - keeping quality - food technology - salt - taste - nutrition and health
De fermentatie van verse plantaardige of dierlijke producten geeft extra smaak aan voedsel en verlengt de houdbaarheid. Het proces vergt echter vaak veel zout en daarvan krijgt de westerling al veel te veel binnen. In zijn inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van het persoonlijk hoogleraarschap Levensmiddelenmicrobiologie aan Wageningen University gaat prof. Eddy Smid op zoek naar alternatieve, ‘natriumarme’ fermentatieprocessen die de gezondheid ten goede komen.
Geen extra chips na zoutarm eten
Janssen, A.M. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 6 - 6.
voedingsmiddelen - zoutgehalte - smaak - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - reductie - gezondheidsgevaren - gezondheidsbevordering - behoeftenbevrediging - foods - salinity - taste - human nutrition research - reduction - health hazards - health promotion - need gratification
Minder zout in etenswaren zorgt ervoor dat mensen daadwerkelijk minder zout eten; ze zoeken geen zoutcompensatie op andere momenten van de dag.
Aromameter onthult smaakverlies groente en fruit
Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 5 - 5.
groenten - fruit - smaak - bemonsteren - meting - apparatuur - innovaties - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - reductie - aroma - verandering - vegetables - fruit - taste - sampling - measurement - apparatus - innovations - keeping quality - reduction - aroma - change
Een tomaat in de koelkast verliest al snel onomkeerbaar zijn smaak. Dat blijkt uit metingen met een nieuw apparaat, ontwikkeld door Wageningen UR. Dat kan snel en nauwkeurig veranderingen in het aroma vaststellen.
Extra smaak door extra led-belichting
Reinders, U. ; Janse, J. ; Hanenberg, M. - \ 2015
Kas techniek (2015)1. - p. 30 - 33.
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - belichting - led lampen - smaak - landbouwkundig onderzoek - teeltsystemen - rassen (planten) - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - strawberries - illumination - led lamps - taste - agricultural research - cropping systems - varieties
Extra led-belichting maakt aardbeien smaakvoller. Dat blijkt uit een demonstratie bij het Informatie en Demonstratie Centrum (IDC) Smaak in Bleiswijk. Ook bevatten de vruchten meer vitamine C en is de productie hoger. Naast antwoorden roept de demonstratie ook vragen op, zoals welke processen precies aan de goede werking ten grondslag liggen.
Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)
Baars, J.J.P. ; Stijger, I. ; Kersten, M. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Plant Breeding (Report / Plant Breeding Wageningen UR 2015-3) - 17
mushrooms - edible fungi - taste - agaricus bisporus - agaricus - taste research - taste panels - postharvest quality - dry matter - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - smaak - agaricus bisporus - agaricus - smaakonderzoek - smaakpanels - kwaliteit na de oogst - droge stof
This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to increase osmotic value. The intension was to increase the dry matter content of the mushrooms that might affect the “bite” sensation of mushrooms.
Een kwestie van smaak - interview met Gerben Messelink en Wouter Verkerke
Messelink, G.J. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2014
Buitenstebinnen : halfjaarlijkse uitgave van Naktuinbouw December (2014)3. - p. 18 - 19.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - groenten - fruit - consumentenpanels - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - spaanse pepers - testen - smaakpanels - smaak - smaakonderzoek - voedingsmiddelen - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - fruit - consumer panels - new crops - chillies - testing - taste panels - taste - taste research - foods
Naast dat consumenten voor groente en fruit kiezen op basis van het uiterlijk, bijvoorbeeld de vorm en de kleur, wordt de smaak van het product steeds belangrijker. Wageningen UR onderzoekt dan ook steeds meer producten (vooral nieuwe rassen) op smaak.
Smediger kaas door juiste voer
Hettinga, K.A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
De zelfkazer 66 (2014)6. - ISSN 0166-4549 - p. 10 - 11.
kazen - smaak - eiwitgehalte - vetgehalte - voersamenstelling - onverzadigde vetten - vetzuren - melk - melkvet - cheeses - taste - protein content - fat content - feed formulation - unsaturated fats - fatty acids - milk - milk fat
Veel kaasmakers willen smedige (zachte, smeuïge) kaas maken, want de gemiddelde consument vindt die kaas het lekkerst. Kasper Hettinga en Jan Dijkstra van Wageningen Universiteit vertellen hoe de smedigheid van kaas kan worden beïnvloed door de samenstelling van het veevoer.
Vetarm en toch lekker romig
Wolkers, H. ; Quataert, M.C.J. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 33.
kazen - smaak - vetgehalte - voeding en gezondheid - smakelijkheid - vetarme producten - productontwikkeling - kaasrijping - cheeses - taste - fat content - nutrition and health - palatability - low fat products - product development - cheese ripening
Kaasspecialist Zijerveld wilde een smaakvolle geitenkaas met slechts 30 procent vet in het assortiment. Met ambachtelijke technieken lukte dat niet. Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research vond een nieuwe receptuur voor het kaasje. Gezonder en net zo lekker.
Laat de varkens los : nieuw perspectief voor boer en landschapsbeheer in Overijssel
Holster, H.C. ; Mul, M.F. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Livestock Research Wageningen UR - 20
varkens - landschapsbeheer - scharrelhouderij - slachtdieren - overijssel - nederland - dierhouderij - rassen (dieren) - smaak - natuurlandschap - gezondheid - pigs - landscape management - free range husbandry - meat animals - overijssel - netherlands - animal husbandry - breeds - taste - natural landscape - health
Wat zijn precies de functies die een varken in het landschap kunnen vervullen? Kan dat zomaar, varkens in het wild; waar moet je dan rekening mee houden? Is het wel rendabel om varkens te houden? Dit e-book geeft antwoorden, beelden en richting op deze vragen, specifiek voor de provincie Overijssel.
Prei: teeltsystemen uit de grond: Onderzoek 2012
Os, E.A. van; Bruins, M.A. ; Wilms, J.A.M. ; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Weel, P.A. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinouw 1247) - 48
teeltsystemen - hydrocultuur - preien - bladgroenten - vollegrondsgroenten - plantmateriaal - rassenproeven - smaak - proeven op proefstations - landbouwkundig onderzoek - cropping systems - hydroponics - leeks - leafy vegetables - field vegetables - planting stock - variety trials - taste - station tests - agricultural research
Het 2012 onderzoek van prei op water, binnen het programma Teelt de Grond Uit, richtte zich op virusverspreiding, sorteren van plantmateriaal, plantleeftijden en rassenvergelijking, de smaak van de geoogste prei en wat te doen met het jaarlijks neerslagoverschot. Water en meststofverbruik per teelt over de afgelopen jaren is geanalyseerd om de besparing te berekenen (50% minder NO3 nodig). Plantdichtheid, buislengte en buisdiameter waren een voortzetting van eerder onderzoek en gaven geen andere uitkomsten. Binnen de rassen zijn grote verschillen, terwijl een oudere plant een hogere opbrengst geeft. Sorteren is een noodzaak voor een uniforme oogst. Het jaarlijks neerslagoverschot moet in eerste instantie via een aangepast systeemontwerp worden afgevoerd, andere opties kosten meer geld.
Met elkaar in gesprek over voedseltechnologie
Molder, H.F.M. te; Swierstra, T. ; Sneijder, P.W.J. ; Haen, D. - \ 2013
[S.l.] : YouTube
voedseltechnologie - innovaties - consumenten - houding van consumenten - voedselconsumptie - smaak - voeding en gezondheid - food technology - innovations - consumers - consumer attitudes - food consumption - taste - nutrition and health
Het publieke vertrouwen in voedseltechnologie is fragiel. De maatschappelijke dialoog over voedsel en voedseltechnologie zou een stuk beter kunnen; technologen en consumenten praten nogal vaak langs elkaar heen. In deze video, gebaseerd op onderzoek van de Universiteit Maastricht en Wageningen Universiteit, wordt uitgelegd hoe dat komt.
A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor
Eggink, P.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; Chris Maliepaard; J.P.W. Haanstra. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737243 - 159
capsicum annuum - paprika's - wilde verwanten - genotypen - chemische samenstelling - smaak - geur en smaak - capsicum baccatum - introgressie - plantenveredeling - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - wild relatives - genotypes - chemical composition - taste - flavour - capsicum baccatum - introgression - plant breeding
This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in mature fruits of all genotypes throughout the growing season. In addition, from three harvests the non-pungent genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory panel.
The biochemical profiling with use of SPME-GC-MS allowed visualization of between- and within-species volatile compound variation. Principal components analysis (PCA) on the intensity patterns of 391 putative volatile compounds revealed individual grouping of C. chinense, C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. annuum, indicating potentially interesting volatile variation present in the former two groups. A large group of saturated and unsaturated esters were mainly responsible for the individual grouping of the C. chinense accessions. Due to the elevated acid concentrations and aberrant volatile profiles of the C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions PEN45 and PEN79, the two BIL populations derived from these accessions were identified as interesting candidates for further study. Compared to e.g. Mazurka the citrate concentration of the C. baccatum accessions was 2.5-3 times higher and the malate concentrations were even up to 12 times higher (Chapter 2).
Based on the non-pungent genotypes, we found highly correlated clusters of volatiles and non-volatiles, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors (Chapter 3). Contrasts between genotypes were caused by both qualitative and quantitative differences in these metabolic clusters, with the phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles forming the major determinants. For the description of the non-pungent genotypes the panelists used fourteen attributes to describe the flavor sensation in the mouth/throat, which were the texture attributes crunchiness, stickiness of the skin, toughness and juiciness, the basic taste attributes sweetness and sourness and the retronasal flavor attributes aroma intensity, grassiness, green bean, carrot, fruity/apple, perfume, petrochemical and musty. The variation in flavor could be reduced into two major sensory contrasts, which were a texture related contrast and the basic sweet-sour contrast. The structure of the PCA plots resulting from the analysis with one harvest (Chapter 3) and the analysis with the combined three harvests (Chapter 4) remained almost identical, indicating the stability of these contrasts. To relate the sensory attributes to the metabolite data and to determine the importance of the individual compounds we used Random Forest regression on the individual harvests and on the three harvests together. Several predictors for the attributes aroma, fruity/apple, sourness and sweetness were found in common between harvests, which we proposed as key-metabolites involved in flavor determination of sweet pepper (Chapter 4). This list contains compounds with known relations to attributes, like sweetness and sugars, but also several compounds with new relations. In this respect we have demonstrated for the first time, that the metabolites p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, and 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene are related to fruity/apple taste and/or sweetness of pepper. For sourness the only compound with a consistent significant contribution was an unknown C6H8O2 compound. We postulated therefore the hypothesis that in pepper the effect of sourness related metabolites is masked by other volatile and non-volatile compounds or texture differences (Chapter 3). Subsequently in Chapter 4 we described a clear sweetness-sourness interaction and demonstrated that the masking effect of fructose and other sugars explained why we did not find organic acids contributing to the prediction of sourness. The major sensory attributes were also predicted between harvests. The Random Forest predictions of the texture related attributes (juiciness, toughness, crunchiness and stickiness of the skin) and sweetness were very good. The predictions of the attributes aroma intensity, sourness and fruity/apple were somewhat lower and more variable between harvests, especially in the second harvest. In general, we concluded that prediction of attributes with higher heritabilities works better and is more consistent over harvests (Chapter 4).
Based on the results of the initial experiments (Chapter 2) the species C. baccatum was chosen for further study. To exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum PEN45 we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population, that was characterized for sensory and biochemical variation (Chapter 5). We developed a population specific genetic linkage map for QTL mapping of characterized traits. Because of the complex structure of our BC2S1 mapping population we encountered several limitations, such as accidental co-segregation, underrepresentation of color linked markers and pre-selection leading to skewness, which might have resulted in false positive or missed QTLs. Despite these limitations, we were still fairly well able to map several biochemical, physical and sensory traits, as demonstrated at first for the (monogenic) control traits red color and pungency in the BC2S1 mapping population and in second instance by validation of genetic effects via an experiment with near-isogenic lines (NILs).This two-step approach turned out to be very powerful, since it led to the identification of the main results from this thesis: (i) Asmall C. baccatum LG3 introgression causing an extraordinary effect on flavor, which resulted in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected, including the well-known pepper compound 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (down) and 6-methyl-4-oxo-5-heptenal (up); (ii) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least fifteen different monoterpenes; (iii) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix (total soluble solids) without negative effects on fruit size (Chapter 5).
In Chapter 6 some extra sensory results of the pungent genotypes are given and a comparison between the two C. baccatum pendulum BILs (PEN45 and PEN79 derived) is made in light of the overall results. Finally the perspectives for breeding are discussed and presented in the form of a flowchart for flavor improvement.