A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium-fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice
Rusli, F. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Zubia, A.A. ; Lute, C. ; Müller, M.R. ; Steegenga, W.T. - \ 2015
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 59 (2015)3. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 533 - 543.
metabolic syndrome - insulin-resistance - small-intestine - induced obesity - adipose-tissue - life-span - disease - prevalence - population - expression
Scope : We aimed to investigate whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie restricted diet could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat diet. Methods and results : Nine week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a 1) control (C), 2) 30E% calorie restricted (CR), 3) medium-fat (MF; 25E% fat) or 4) intermittent (INT) diet, a diet alternating weekly between 40E% CR and an ad libitum MF diet until sacrifice at the age of 12 months. The metabolic, morphological, and molecular features of NAFLD were examined. The INT diet resulted in healthy metabolic and morphological features as displayed by the continuous CR diet: glucose tolerant, low hepatic triglyceride content, low plasma alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, the C- and MF-exposed mice with high body weight developed signs of NAFLD. However, the gene expression profiles of INT-exposed mice differed to those of CR-exposed mice and showed to be more similar with those of C- and MF-exposed mice with a comparable body weight. Conclusions : Our study reveals that the INT diet maintains metabolic health and reverses the adverse effects of the MF diet, thus effectively prevent the development of NAFLD in 12-month-old male C57BL/6J mice.
Effects of moment of hatch and feed access on chicken development
Lamot, D.M. ; Linde, I.B. van der; Molenaar, R. ; Pol, C.W. van der; Wijtten, P.J.A. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2014
Poultry Science 93 (2014)10. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2604 - 2614.
posthatch development - delayed access - eggshell temperature - oxygen concentration - broiler physiology - small-intestine - goblet cells - growth - performance - poultry
The current study evaluated effects of hatch moment and immediate feed and water access within a 24-h hatch window on chicken growth and development. Five hundred four male chickens obtained from a 49-wk-old Ross 308 breeder flock were assigned to 72 cages based on hatching moment (early, midterm, or late; selected during periods of 475 to 481, 483 to 487, and 489 to 493 h after onset of incubation). At the end of each hatching period, chickens were moved to the grow-out facility and one-half of the chickens received feed and water ad libitum immediately. Remaining chickens received feed and water from 504 h after onset of incubation (d 0). Body weight gain and feed intake for each cage were recorded at d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, and 18. Chickens were sampled at d 4 and 18 for organ and carcass development. Early hatchers had lower BW at placement compared with midterm and late hatchers but compensated for this afterward, resulting in a higher BW at d 4 (112.8, 107.1, and 103.3 g, respectively). From d 0 to 18, early hatchers tended to have higher BW gain than both other groups. Relative breast meat yield at d 18, expressed as percentage of carcass weight, was higher for early (30.4%) than midterm (28.5%) and late hatchers (27.8%). Up to d 7, direct feed access resulted in higher BW gain (6.1%) and feed intake (4.2%) compared with delayed feed access. No effect of moment of feed access on feed efficiency or organ weights was found. Direct feed access resulted in a higher weight:length ratio of the jejunum (12.5%) and ileum (7.5%) at d 4 compared with delayed feed access. These results suggest that early hatchers have a different developmental and growth pattern than midterm or late hatchers within a 24-h hatch window. A mild delay in feed access after hatch affects growth and development during the first week after hatch.
Facilitating ‘learning from mom how to eat like a pig’ to improve welfare of piglets around weaning
Oostindjer, M. ; Kemp, B. ; Brand, H. van den; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2014
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 160 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 19 - 30.
creep feed-intake - prenatal flavor exposure - different coping characteristics - newly weaned piglets - environmental enrichment - growing pigs - lactating sows - small-intestine - barrier function - mothers diet
Piglets in commercial husbandry are weaned abruptly and at a rather young age. Many weanling piglets are poorly adapted to ingest solid food, often resulting in a period of underfeeding. The underfeeding generally leads to a poor growth, diarrhoea occurrence and the development of damaging behaviours such as belly nosing, indicating reduced welfare, in the immediate postweaning period. Weaning problems are multifactorial, but an early intake of solid food and reduced stress around weaning are major determinants of a quick adaptation of piglets to the new postweaning situation. In this paper we focus on improving welfare of piglets around weaning by allowing piglets to interact more with the sow during lactation, as would occur under more natural conditions. Besides providing piglets with more opportunity to learn from the sow about what, how and where to eat, we also discuss information transfer already before birth, perinatal flavor learning, and the merits of learning in an enriched environment. Being able to interact more with the sow is important to reduce the reluctance of piglets to eat novel foods, to increase preweaning solid food intake, and to reduce the development of damaging behaviours and increase play behaviour after weaning. Perinatal flavour learning reduced stress around weaning and increased postweaning performance and welfare. Preweaning enrichment of the environment, by providing substrates and a larger pen, can increase preweaning growth and development of feeding-related behaviours before weaning as well as food intake after weaning. Postweaning enrichment increased growth and play behaviour, and reduced the occurrence of diarrhoea and damaging behaviours. When enrichment is provided before weaning it is important to also provide enrichment after weaning. Learning from the sow and environmental enrichment are important for piglets to more easily adapt to being weaned. We conclude with recommendations for application of these results in current and future pig husbandry systems to improve welfare of newly weaned piglets.
Adenosine 5 '-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans
Arts, I.C.W. ; Coolen, E.J.C.M. ; Bours, M.J.L. ; Huyghebaert, N. ; Cohen Stuart, M.A. ; Bast, A. ; Dagnelie, P.C. - \ 2012
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 9 (2012). - ISSN 1550-2783
low-back-pain - uric-acid - nucleoside transporters - cancer-patients - small-intestine - crohns-disease - nucleotide - triphosphate - transit - urate
Background: Nutritional supplements designed to increase adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations are commonly used by athletes as ergogenic aids. ATP is the primary source of energy for the cells, and supplementation may enhance the ability to maintain high ATP turnover during high-intensity exercise. Oral ATP supplements have beneficial effects in some but not all studies examining physical performance. One of the remaining questions is whether orally administered ATP is bioavailable. We investigated whether acute supplementation with oral ATP administered as enteric-coated pellets led to increased concentrations of ATP or its metabolites in the circulation. Methods: Eight healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over study. Participants were given in random order single doses of 5000 mg ATP or placebo. To prevent degradation of ATP in the acidic environment of the stomach, the supplement was administered via two types of pH-sensitive, enteric-coated pellets (targeted at release in the proximal or distal small intestine), or via a naso-duodenal tube. Blood ATP and metabolite concentrations were monitored by HPLC for 4.5 h (naso-duodenal tube) or 7 h (pellets) post-administration. Areas under the concentration vs. time curve were calculated and compared by paired-samples t-tests. Results: ATP concentrations in blood did not increase after ATP supplementation via enteric-coated pellets or naso-duodenal tube. In contrast, concentrations of the final catabolic product of ATP, uric acid, were significantly increased compared to placebo by similar to 50% after administration via proximal-release pellets (P = 0.003) and naso-duodenal tube (P = 0.001), but not after administration via distal-release pellets. Conclusions: A single dose of orally administered ATP is not bioavailable, and this may explain why several studies did not find ergogenic effects of oral ATP supplementation. On the other hand, increases in uric acid after release of ATP in the proximal part of the small intestine suggest that ATP or one of its metabolites is absorbed and metabolized. Uric acid itself may have ergogenic effects, but this needs further study. Also, more studies are needed to determine whether chronic administration of ATP will enhance its oral bioavailability.
Postruminal degradation of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and starch of maize and grass silages in dairy cows
Ali, M. ; Weisbjerg, M.R. ; Cone, J.W. ; Duinkerken, G. van; Blok, M.C. ; Bruinenberg, M. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2012
Animal Feed Science and Technology 177 (2012)3-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 172 - 179.
post-ruminal digestibility - mobile nylon bag - small-intestine - in-situ - digestion - nutrition - maturity - system - extent
The Dutch feed evaluation system for ruminants uses assumptions and regression equations to estimate the intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and starch. These assumptions and equations are based on many different studies, obtained over a very long period. The objective of this study was to develop a unique dataset on the ruminal degradability and the postruminal digestibility of CP, NDF (aNDFom, amylase neutral detergent fibre organic matter basis) and starch in maize and grass silages, using the mobile nylon bag technique. Twenty samples of maize silage and 20 samples of grass silage were used. The samples were selected to represent a broad range in digestibility and chemical composition. Prior to the intestinal incubations, samples were incubated in the rumen for 6 h (starch), 12 h (CP) or 24 h (aNDFom) using the rumen nylon bag technique. Residues from the rumen incubations were transferred to mobile nylon bags and inserted in the duodenum through a cannula. Half of the bags for CP and starch were collected from the ileal cannula and the remaining half of the bags from the faeces. For aNDFom, all the bags were collected from faeces. There was a large variation in the rumen degradability and the intestinal digestibility (small and/or large intestine) of CP, aNDFom and starch. The rumen degradable fractions, the intestinal digestible fractions and the total tract undigested fractions of CP, aNDFom and starch were influenced by their proportions in the maize and grass silages. The results proved the assumption of the Dutch feed evaluation system that the rumen undegraded starch is completely digested in the small intestine of dairy cows. Regression showed that the rumen degradability, the intestinal digestibility and the total tract undigested contents were influenced by the chemical composition of the maize and grass silages.
Oit/Fam3D, a gut secreted protein displaying nutritional status-dependent regulation
Wit, N.J.W. de; IJssenagger, N. ; Oosterink, E. ; Keshtkar, S. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Mensink, R.P. ; Hammer, S. ; Smit, J.W.A. ; Muller, M.R. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2012
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 23 (2012)11. - ISSN 0955-2863 - p. 1425 - 1433.
small-intestine - gene-expression - hormones
Oncoprotein-induced transcript 1 (Oit1) was previously identified as a dietary fat-induced gene in the small intestine of C57Bl/6J mice. In this study, we further characterized Oit1 and its human ortholog family with sequence similarity 3, member D (Fam3D), on the messenger RNA as well as the protein level. Oit1 and Fam3D were found to be predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and humans, respectively. Dietary fat induced a clear and acute up-regulation of Oit1, especially in the jejunum, whereas fasting led to a reduced gene expression in the small intestine. Regarding protein expression, we found a remarkable pattern of Oit1 along the longitudinal axis of the intestine, a predominant villus-restricted expression in the proximal small intestine and a more pronounced crypt expression in the distal parts of the intestine. Using transfection experiments, we confirmed secretion of the Oit1 protein, as was predicted by a signal peptide sequence. Detection of Oit1 and Fam3D in plasma samples indicated that both proteins are secreted to the basolateral site of enterocytes. Moreover, in human plasma samples, we also found an effect of nutritional status on Fam3D levels, with a postprandial elevation and a reduction after fasting. In conclusion, Oit1 and Fam3D are gut-derived proteins that are expressed and secreted in a nutritional status-dependent manner.
Coeliac-safe wheat. A novelwheat to decrease the prevalence and symptoms of coeliac disease
Broeck, H.C. van den; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2011
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 22 (2011)3. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 18 - 21.
turgidum ssp dicoccum - gluten-free diet - triticum-monococcum - storage proteins - small-intestine - bread - epitopes - association - varieties - toxicity
A significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) during the last decades. Increased consumption of wheat and in particular gluten is considered one of the major causes. CD is a food-related disease caused by certain gluten peptides from wheat, rye, and barley containing T-cell stimulating epitopes. The use of screening protocols in wheat breeding detecting the absence of CD-epitopes (e.g. Glia-a9 and Glia-a20) can result in the reduction of CD-epitopes in commercial wheat and wheat based products. This approach will lead to decreased exposure, especially in many CD-patients with silent or latent CD that have not yet been diagnosed. In the long-term, this may lead to a large-scale reduction of the incidence of CD and a significant improvement of the quality of life of CD-patients.
Modelling Animal Systems Paper: Update of the Dutch protein evaluation system for ruminants: the DVE/OEB2010 system
Duinkerken, G. van; Blok, M.C. ; Bannink, A. ; Cone, J.W. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Vuuren, A.M. van; Tamminga, S. - \ 2011
The Journal of Agricultural Science 149 (2011)03. - ISSN 0021-8596 - p. 351 - 367.
lactating dairy-cows - cornell net carbohydrate - limiting amino-acids - milk urea nitrogen - small-intestine - grass-silage - microbial nitrogen - maintenance energy - rumen function - crude protein
In the current Dutch protein evaluation system (the DVE/OEB1991 system), two characteristics are calculated for each feed: true protein digested in the intestine (DVE) and the rumen degradable protein balance (OEB). Of these, DVE represents the protein value of a feed, while OEB is the difference between the potential microbial protein synthesis (MPS) on the basis of available rumen degradable protein and that on the basis of available rumen degradable energy. DVE can be separated into three components: (i) feed crude protein undegraded in the rumen but digested in the small intestine, (ii) microbial true protein synthesized in the rumen and digested in the small intestine, and (iii) endogenous protein lost in the digestive processes. Based on new research findings, the DVE/OEB1991 system has recently been updated to the DVE/OEB2010 system. More detail and differentiation is included concerning the representation of chemical components in feed, the rumen degradation characteristics of these components, the efficiency of MPS and the fractional passage rates. For each chemical component, the soluble, washout, potentially degradable and truly non-degradable fractions are defined with separate fractional degradation rates. Similarly, fractional passage rates for each of these fractions were identified and partly expressed as a function of fractional degradation rate. Efficiency of MPS is related to the various fractions of the chemical components and their associated fractional passage rates. Only minor changes were made with respect to the amount of DVE required for maintenance and production purposes of the animal. Differences from other current protein evaluation systems, viz. the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein system and the Feed into Milk system, are discussed.
Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates
Inman, C.F. ; Haverson, K. ; Konstantinov, S.R. ; Jones, P.H. ; Harris, C. ; Smidt, H. ; Miller, B. ; Bailey, M. ; Stokes, C. - \ 2010
Clinical and Experimental Immunology 160 (2010)3. - ISSN 0009-9104 - p. 431 - 439.
dendritic cells - lamina-propria - t-cells - postnatal-development - gnotobiotic pigs - small-intestine - atopic disease - swine model - allergy - bacteria
P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12-28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2-5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12-28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy.
Bovine liver slices combined with an androgen transcriptional activation assay: an in-vitro model to study the metabolism and bioactivity of steroids
Wang, S. ; Rijk, J.C.W. ; Poortman, J.H. ; Kuijk, S. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Bovee, T.F.H. - \ 2010
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 397 (2010)2. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 631 - 641.
human hepatocytes - drug-metabolism - gene-expression - small-intestine - rat - bioassay - system - colon
Previously we described the properties of a rapid and robust yeast androgen bioassay for detection of androgenic anabolic compounds, validated it, and showed its added value for several practical applications. However, biotransformation of potent steroids into inactive metabolites, or vice versa, is not included in this screening assay. Within this context, animal-friendly in-vitro cellular systems resembling species-specific metabolism can be of value. We therefore investigated the metabolic capacity of precision-cut slices of bovine liver using 17ß-testosterone (T) as a model compound, because this is an established standard compound for assessing the metabolic capacity of such cellular systems. However, this is the first time that slice metabolism has been combined with bioactivity measurements. Moreover, this study also involves bioactivation of inactive prohormones, for example dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and esters of T, and although medium extracts are normally analyzed by HPLC, here the metabolites formed were identified with more certainty by ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–TOFMS) with accurate mass measurement. Metabolism of T resulted mainly in the formation of the less potent phase I metabolites 4-androstene-3,17-dione (4-AD), the hydroxy-T metabolites 6a, 6ß, 15ß, and 16a-OH-T, and the phase II metabolite T-glucuronide. As a consequence the overall androgenic activity, as determined by the yeast androgen bioassay, decreased. In order to address the usefulness of bovine liver slices for activation of inactive steroids, liver slices were exposed to DHEA and two esters of T. This resulted in an increase of androgenic activity, because of the formation of 4-AD and T
Effects of environmental enrichment and loose housing of lactating sows on piglet performance before and after weaning
Oostindjer, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Mendl, M. ; Held, S. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2010
Journal of Animal Science 88 (2010)11. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3554 - 3562.
growing pigs - gastrointestinal-tract - rearing environment - space allowance - small-intestine - behavior - growth - straw - stress - inflammation
We investigated effects of loose housing of the sow during lactation and enrichment of the pen pre- and postweaning on performance of newly weaned piglets. Before weaning, piglets (n = 320) were housed in an enriched (straw, wood shavings, peat and branches) or barren pen with a confined or loose-housed sow (n = 32). Loose-housed sows and their piglets could eat together from a family feeder, whereas confined sows and piglets had separate feeding troughs. Piglets (n = 256) were mixed postweaning and 4 piglets from each litter were relocated to a barren pen (n = 32 pens) and 4 other piglets were housed in an enriched pen (n = 32 pens). Growth from d 15 until weaning was higher for piglets from enriched pens (4.38 ± 0.29 versus 4.71 ± 0.21 kg/pig, P <0.05) and tended to be higher for piglets with a loose-housed sow compared to piglets with a confined sow (4.41 ± 0.26 versus 4.67 ± 0.24 kg/pig, P = 0.10). Preweaning feed intake was not affected by preweaning conditions (P > 0.25). Piglets from enriched preweaning pens ate more in the first 2 d postweaning than piglets from barren pens (first 48 h, barren 0.45 ± 0.05 kg/pig, enriched 0.53 ± 0.04 kg/pig, P <0.05). Piglets relocated to an enriched pen after weaning showed a higher growth in the 2 wk after weaning (barren 5.5 ± 0.2 kg/pig, enriched 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/pig, P <0.0001), had a profoundly lower diarrhea prevalence than piglets housed in barren pens after weaning (barren 2.4 ± 0.4 d, enriched 1.0 ± 0.3 d, P <0.0001), and had a higher feed efficiency (barren 0.81 ± 0.03, enriched 0.85 ± 0.02, P <0.05). Enrichment of the preweaning environment likely stimulates development of feeding behaviors and consequently increases feed intake immediately after weaning. Providing piglets with an enriched environment after weaning positively affected postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and incidence of diarrhea, which may be caused by decreased stress levels or increased gut health. Enrichment of the pre- and postweaning environment thus seems important in improving performance and health of newly weaned pigs
Effects of Salmonella on spatial-temporal processes of jejunal development in chickens
Schokker, D.J. ; Smits, M.A. ; Hoekman, A.J.W. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Rebel, J.M.J. - \ 2010
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 34 (2010)10. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 1090 - 1100.
coagulation factor-xiii - regulatory t-cells - gene-expression - immune-responses - broiler-chickens - small-intestine - gastrointestinal-tract - kyoto encyclopedia - barrier function - receptor system
To study effects of Salmonella enteritidis on morphological and functional changes in chicken jejunal development, we analysed gene expression profiles at seven points post-infection in 1-21 day-old broiler chickens. Nine clusters with different gene expression patterns were identified, and the genes in each cluster were further analyzed by a functional annotation clustering method (DAVID). Functional and morphological developmental processes dominated in all the nine clusters. Salmonella infection caused delays in several intestinal-morphological processes, whereas functional metabolic processes occurred in a similar spatial-temporal frame compared to normal jejunum development. A clear difference between normal developing- and Salmonella disturbed jejunum was the higher expression of genes involved in cell turn-over at early stages in the infected jejunum. Surprisingly, we found no clustered immune related processes in the infected birds. To compare the immunological processes between control and Salmonella infected chickens, the gene expression data was superimposed on known immunological KEGG pathways. Furthermore an in-depth analysis on the immune gene level was performed. As expected, we did find immunological processes in the Salmonella infected jejunum. Several of these processes could be verified by immunohistochemistry measurements of different immunological cell types. However, the well-ordered spatial-temporal development of the immune system, as observed in control non-infected animals, was completely abolished in the infected animals. Several immunological processes started much earlier in time, whereas other processes are disorganised. These data indicate that normal morphological and immunological development of jejunum is changed dramatically by a disturbance due to Salmonella infection. Due to the disturbance, the well-organized spatial-temporal development of morphological processes are delayed, those of the immunological development are scattered, whereas metabolic functional processes are almost not affected. This demonstrates the flexibility of developmental processes in the broiler chicken intestine. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets
Oostindjer, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Brand, H. van den; Roura, E. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2010
Physiology and Behavior 99 (2010)5. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 579 - 586.
creep feed consumption - housed weanling pigs - mothers diet - small-intestine - stress - preferences - performance - familiar - recognition - novelty
Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently show a period of anorexia, reduced health, and stress-induced behaviors. We investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure through the maternal diet on acceptance of a similarly flavored food and subsequent growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. Sows were offered anise-flavored (F) or control (C) food during late gestation. Piglets were cross-fostered after birth, with each sow fostering 5 piglets from an F sow and 5 from a C sow. During lactation, sows were offered F or C food, resulting in FF, CF, FC and CC piglets. Piglets were weaned on day 25 and were given both control and flavored food for two weeks using a double food choice approach. The flavored food was not preferred. Yet, prenatally exposed animals showed a higher food intake and a higher body weight in the first days after weaning, and a lower occurrence of diarrhoea than non-exposed piglets. Prenatal exposure also increased the latency to fight, and reduced oral manipulation of pen mates and mounting during the first two weeks after weaning. Prenatal exposure, but not postnatal exposure alone, to anisic flavor through the maternal diet reduced weaning-associated problems in piglets and enhanced their health and welfare in the period after weaning
Improving adaptation to weaning: Effect of intermittent suckling regimens on piglet feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Soede, N.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. ; Kuijken, N. ; Koets, A.P. - \ 2009
Journal of Animal Science 87 (2009)10. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3156 - 3166.
small-intestine - crypt depth - extended lactation - villous height - pigs - performance - citrulline - period
Daily separation of sows and piglets during lactation, intermittent suckling (IS), improves feed intake and postweaning adaptation in piglets. The aim of the current study was to determine how, in piglets that have been subjected to IS, age at weaning and the duration of the preceding IS period contribute to postweaning adaptation through effects on feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7. Litters were subjected to conventional weaning (CW) or to 1 of 3 IS regimens. In CW, litters (n = 29) had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 26, d 0 = farrowing). During IS, litters had access to the sow between 1600 and 0600 h. Litters in the IS treatments were subjected to IS 1) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 26 (IS19–7D, n = 33), 2) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS19–14D, n = 28), or 3) from d 26 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS26–7D, n = 33). The IS19–7D regimen resulted in a relative growth check within the first 2 d after weaning similar to CW litters (72 ± 13 and 90 ± 7%, respectively), but in a greater piglet growth (P = 0.014) and feed intake (P = 0.001) between d 2 and 7 postweaning. Moreover, IS19–7D was not associated with a (further) reduction in villus height as observed at d 2 postweaning in CW litters. In IS piglets weaned after an extended lactation (d 33), a markedly smaller weaning-associated relative growth check was observed shortly postweaning (11 ± 18 and 32 ± 19% for IS19–14D and IS26–7D litters, respectively). In these litters, feed intake and growth within the first 2 d after weaning were slightly greater when piglets were subjected to IS for 2 wk (IS19–14D) rather than for 1 wk (IS26–7D; P = 0.032 and P = 0.037 for feed intake and growth, respectively). Irrespective of duration of IS, weaning at d 33 with IS was not associated with a reduction in villus height. Irrespective of treatment, plasma citrulline concentrations were reduced at d 2 and 8 postweaning compared with the values at weaning (P 0.01). No correlation was observed between postweaning plasma citrulline concentrations and postweaning small intestinal villus height. This study indicates that 1 wk of IS before weaning at d 26 of lactation improves feed intake and growth between d 2 and 7 postweaning and does not result in a reduction of villus height as observed in CW piglets, although it did not prevent a profound growth check shortly after weaning. However, combining 1 wk of IS with an extended lactation improved postweaning adaptation markedly in terms of growth, feed intake, and gut characteristics. Increasing the duration of IS from 1 to 2 wk slightly improved growth and feed intake shortly after weaning, but the contribution to postweaning adaptation seemed to be relatively small compared with extending lactation
Gene expression patterns associated with chicken jejunal development
Schokker, D.J. ; Hoekman, A.J.W. ; Smits, M.A. ; Rebel, J.M.J. - \ 2009
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 33 (2009)11. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 1156 - 1164.
adapter protein slp-76 - amino-acid-sequence - b-cell development - immune-responses - dendritic cells - t-cells - gastrointestinal-tract - scavenger receptors - innate immunity - small-intestine
Jejunal development occurs in a spatio-temporal pattern and is characterized by morphological and functional changes. To investigate jejunal development at the transcriptomic level, we performed microarray studies in 1–21-day-old chickens. Nine gene clusters were identified, each with a specific gene expression pattern. Subsequently, groups of genes with similar functions could be identified. Genes involved in morphological and functional development were highly expressed immediately after hatch with declining expression patterns afterwards. Immunological development can be roughly divided based on expression patterns into three processes over time; first innate response and immigration of immune cells, secondly differentiation and specialization, and thirdly maturation and immune regulation. We conclude that specific gene expression patterns coincide with the immunological, morphological, and functional development as measured by other methods. Our data show that transcriptomic approaches provide more detailed information on the biological processes underlying jejunal development
Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production
Bouwmeester, H. ; Dekkers, S. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Hagens, W. ; Bulder, A.S. ; Heer, P.M. de; Voorde, S.E.C.G. ten; Wijnhoven, S. ; Marvin, H.J.P. ; Sips, A. - \ 2009
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 53 (2009)1. - ISSN 0273-2300 - p. 52 - 62.
oral delivery-systems - ultrafine particles - research strategies - drug-delivery - nanoscale particles - gold nanoparticles - small-intestine - acute toxicity - quantum dots - adult mice
Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products
Postweaning growth check in pigs is markedly reduced by intermittent suckling and extended lactation
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2007
Journal of Animal Science 85 (2007)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 258 - 266.
feed-intake characteristics - digestive enzyme-activity - housed weanling pigs - early-weaned pig - small-intestine - boar exposure - crypt depth - performance - sows - consumption
The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent suckling (IS) combined with an extended lactation can reduce postweaning growth check in pigs. Three weaning regimens [ conventional weaning (CW), IS with 6-h separation intervals (IS6), and IS with 12-h separation intervals (IS12)] were compared. In CW (n = 17 litters), litters had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 21, d 0 = farrowing). In IS6 and IS12, litters were separated from the sow for 12 h/d, beginning at d 14 and lasting until weaning (d 41 to 45). Litters were with the sow from 1400 to 2000 and from 0200 to 0800 (IS6, n = 14) or between 2000 and 0800 (IS12, n = 14). Litter size was standardized within 2 d after farrowing by crossfostering, resulting in an average litter size of 10.9 +/- 1.8 piglets. Piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7 onward. One week after the onset of IS (d 20), creep feed intake was increased in litters from both IS groups compared with CW litters (P <0.05). Both IS groups consumed considerable amounts of creep feed before weaning (d 41 to 45). Total feed intake before weaning was greater (P = 0.004) in IS12 (3,808 +/- 469 g/ piglet) than in IS6 (2,717 +/- 404 g/ piglet). In comparison, CW litters consumed 18 +/- 9 g/ piglet before weaning (d 21). Irrespective of weaning regimen, total feed intake of litters before weaning was highly correlated with postweaning feed intake (P <0.001). Furthermore, in all treatment groups, total preweaning feed intake was correlated with postweaning growth (P <0.10). Irrespective of treatment, piglets suckling anterior teats grew faster than piglets suckling middle or posterior teats during the first 2 wk of lactation. Body weights at the end of the experiment (d 55) were similar among weaning regimens. Onset of IS induced a growth check in both IS groups (34% for IS12 and 22% for IS6). Only a mild growth check was observed after weaning of IS litters (14% for both IS groups). However, a serious growth check (98%) was observed after weaning of CW litters. Results of the current study indicate that IS stimulated feed intake during lactation, providing a more gradual transition to weaning. Because the IS6 regimen did not prevent the growth check after the onset of IS and is rather laborious, we suggest that IS12 might be preferable for a practical implementation of IS.
Post-weaning feed intake level modulates gut morphology but not gut permeability in weaned piglets
Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Meulen, J. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2007
Livestock Science 108 (2007)1-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 146 - 149.
small-intestine - pigs
Piglets with a high voluntary feed intake were compared with piglets fed restrictedly. Weaning induced changes in gut morphology and permeability. The intake level of dry pelleted feed affected intestinal villous architecture but did not affect permeability to small or large molecules from d0 to d7 post-weaning. A restricted feed intake level negatively affected gut morphology at d4 post-weaning. This effect could be alleviated but not completely prevented by a high voluntary intake of dry pelleted feed directly after weaning. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning
Lalles, J.P. ; Bosi, P. ; Smidt, H. ; Stokes, C.R. - \ 2007
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 66 (2007)2. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 260 - 268.
early-weaned pigs - enterotoxigenic escherichia-coli - spray-dried porcine - fatty-acid concentrations - enterococcus-faecium strain - feed-intake characteristics - piglets receiving diets - housed weanling pigs - egg-yolk antibody - small-intestine
Early weaning of piglets is often accompanied by a severe growth check and diarrhoea. It is well established that this process is multi-factorial and that post-weaning anorexia and undernutrition are major aetiological factors. Gastrointestinal disturbances include alterations in small intestine architecture and enzyme activities. Recent data indicate transiently-increased mucosal permeability, disturbed absorptive¿secretory electrolyte balance and altered local inflammatory cytokine patterns after weaning. These responses appear to operate according to two distinct temporal patterns, an acute response followed by a long-lasting adaptation response. Pigs coexist with a diverse and dense commensal microbiota in their gastrointestinal tract. Most of these microbes are beneficial, providing necessary nutrients or protection against harmful pathogens for the host. The microbial colonisation of the porcine intestine begins at birth and follows a rapid succession during the neonatal and weaning period. Following the withdrawal of sow's milk the young piglets are highly susceptible to enteric diseases partly as a result of the altered balance between developing beneficial microbiota and the establishment of intestinal bacterial pathogens. The intestinal immune system of the newborn piglet is poorly developed at birth and undergoes a rapid period of expansion and specialisation that is not achieved before early (commercial) weaning. Here, new insights on the interactions between feed components, the commensal microbiota and the physiology and immunology of the host gastrointestinal tract are highlighted, and some novel dietary strategies are outlined that are focused on improving gut health. Prebiotics and probiotics are clear nutritional options, while convincing evidence is still lacking for other bioactive substances of vegetable origin.
Classification of temporal profiles of F4+ E. coli shedding and faecal dry matter in experimental post-weaning diarrhoea of pigs
Geenen, P.L. ; Meulen, J. van der; Bouma, A. ; Engel, B. ; Heesterbeek, J.A.P. ; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2007
Epidemiology and Infection 135 (2007)6. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1001 - 1009.
enterotoxigenic escherichia-coli - postweaning diarrhea - weaned pigs - experimental-model - small-intestine - brush-borders - k88 - phenotypes - piglets - colibacillosis
Enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli can colonize the intestine of pigs and cause diarrhoea. Our primary goal was to find a discriminant rule to discriminate between F4+ E. coli shedding profiles as this may reflect differences in the infectiousness of pigs. Our secondary goal was to find a discriminant rule to discriminate between diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic pigs. Repeated measurements (bacterial shedding and percentage dry matter of faeces) were taken of 74 weaned pigs that were infected experimentally with F4+ E. coli. These measurements were summarized into two new variables by means of a principal components analysis. Discriminant rules were derived based on these summary variables by fitting a mixture of normal distributions. Finally, the association between the classifications (as derived from the discriminant rules) and the occurrence in the pigs of the F4 receptor, an adhesion site for F4+ E. coli, was studied. We found that only the classification based on bacterial shedding allowed us to distinguish two significantly different groups of pigs (high and low shedders). Presence of the F4 receptor was associated strongly with pigs being high shedders.