Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    De potentie van co-creatie voor natuurbeleid : een conceptuele en empirische verkenning
    Bakker, H.C.M. de; Dagevos, H. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Agricola, H.J. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 59) - 69
    nature conservation policy - nature conservation - social capital - natuurbeleid - natuurbescherming - sociaal kapitaal
    In dit rapport wordt verslag gedaan van een zoektocht naar de potentie van co-creatie voor natuurbeleid. Een zoektocht in de literatuur, in verschillende disciplines, naar goede empirische voorbeelden en naar wat er leeft in de praktijk. Met deze conceptuele en empirische verkenning is het debat over co-creatie en de betekenis daarvoor voor natuurbeleid allerminst uitgekristalliseerd. De zoektocht levert vooral op dat de invulling van co-creatie niet vastligt. Eerder is het zo dat er verschillende routes en mogelijkheden zijn voor vruchtbare co-creatie. Co-creatie is geen kwestie van gebaande paden noch van snelle en eenduidige wegen. Co-creatie dient bovendien, zo betoogt dit rapport, begrepen te worden in een bredere sociale context en haar potentie te worden bezien in het licht van randvoorwaarden op micro- en meso/macroniveau.
    Het nieuwe stelsel agrarisch natuurbeheer: wat mogen we ervan verwachten?
    Melman, T.C.P. - \ 2015
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 2015 (2015)mei. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 4 - 7.
    agrarisch natuurbeheer - natuurbeleid - landschapsbeheer - habitats - soorten - provincies - sociaal kapitaal - samenwerking - agri-environment schemes - nature conservation policy - landscape management - habitats - species - provinces - social capital - cooperation
    Per januari 2016 gaat een vernieuwd stelsel voor agrarisch natuur- en landschapsbeheer van start. Het is bedoeld om het agrarisch natuur- en landschapsbeheer effectiever te maken en formeel alleen gericht op de 67 soorten waarvoor Nederland in EU verband verplichtingen heeft. Agrarische collectieven gaan het beheer doen, de verantwoordelijkheid daarvoor ligt bij de provincies en het rijk is systeemverantwoordelijk.
    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
    McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
    bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

    Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

    Networking, social capital and gender roles in the cotton system in Benin
    Maboudou Alidou, G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Jarl Kampen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570634 - 187
    katoen - productie - boeren - landbouwhuishoudens - boerenorganisaties - sociaal kapitaal - netwerken - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - benin - cotton - production - farmers - agricultural households - farmers' associations - social capital - networks - gender - livelihood strategies - benin

    Cotton production in Benin, West Africa, is intertwined with colonialism, which contributed to the trans­formation of the crop’s production system from traditional to modern. Through­out the years, the importance of the crop for the stakeholders varied. The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in cotton of farmers, businessmen, and the State. From having a marginal status during the seventies and the first half of the eighties, cotton grew in importance during the nineties, both in terms of area covered and income generated, averaging 37 percent of the total cultivated area in the country. Thus, cotton has a critical cash function and plays a key role in Benin’s economic growth, accounting for an important share in the State’s revenues and farm house­holds incomes. Indeed, the share of cotton exports represented 75 percent of the country’s total agricultural exports during the 2000s, and the crop provided up to 80 percent of rural households incomes in the North. Though cotton is grown throughout the country, its production was always concentrated in the North, where it is embedded in a farming system formerly dominated by food crops. Hence, cotton transformed subsistence farming into semi-subsistence farming.

    The central position of the crop in the country’s economy, which loomed large at the beginning of the 1990s, led to agricultural and economic policies being greatly influenced by the crop for decades. The Structural Adjustment Program of the early 1990s prescribed the liberalisation of the cotton sector, which had huge effects on the sector. This resulted in an increased importance of cotton farmer organisations that elapsed into the first ever hierarchical network in the country, and the crop being put at the forefront of agricultural development programs. Enduring benefits for farmers, farming communities, private actors, and the State were derived from that evolution. This gained cotton the status of ‘white gold’. The institutional dynamics that followed in the wake of liberalisation and their corollary of actors’ interactions generated never-ending conflicts of various kinds, particularly within the cotton farmers’ networks. These resulted in atomised networks. As a consequence, the benefits attached to cotton then started to wane and cotton production became a dilemma for farmers, as reflected in a steep decline of cotton production.

    This thesis aims at understanding the dynamic interactions between the economic activity of cotton production and the structure of social relations from community to household and individual level. It addresses the question of how farmers’ agency affected their organisations, the cotton system, and the collective action that evolved around the crop. The research was aligned along three main axes: the emergence of breakaway networks, the decline of social cohesion and the squeeze of collective action, and the livelihoods reconstruction after the demise of cotton production. The main theoretical perspectives underlying the conceptual framework were an actor-oriented approach, actor-network theory, livelihood theory, and a gender perspective.

    The research is based on fieldwork carried out in four provinces in the North of Benin from January 2009 to April 2011. Benin is a country whose employment capacity and economic growth heavily rely on the agricultural sector, in which cotton is a dominant factor. This is still the case for rural areas in the North, where rural households have been heavily dependent on cotton as a critical cash crop for poverty alleviation. Northern Benin supplies more than 75 percent of the cotton yearly produced in the country, thanks to the favourable agro-ecological conditions prevailing there, and because there is less population pressure than in the southern part. The exploratory phase of the research covered four provinces: Borgou, Alibori, Atacora and Donga. Since the provinces of Borgou and Alibori host the heart of the cotton belt, subsequent data collection progressively focussed on these two provinces.

    The research adopted a mixed-methods design, applying quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A survey was combined with focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and the life history method, to unveil the dynamic interactions between social actors and their interactions with the material and technical elements of the cotton system. The life history method was used to document the experience of women leaders that had made them exceptions to the rule among women cotton farmers. Apart from cotton farmers and their leaders, other targets groups of the research, like inputs suppliers and executives of cotton bodies, often had to be found beyond the two provinces in other parts of the country. The research covered eight cotton networks in ten villages in the four provinces. Survey interviews and in-depth interviews were conducted with 148 heads of cotton farming households, men as well as women.

    About 80 percent of the farmers in the sample were in their 40s or 50s, and more than half of them had no formal education. Educated women represented only 17 percent of their category, suggesting that male cotton farmers are significantly more educated than their female counterparts. The average household size was 16, with about 11 workers in male adult equivalents. While agriculture is the main occupation and often the only source of income in the area, women turned out to rely less on agricultural incomes than men.

    With regard to networking, the process of atomisation resulted in about 20 percent of stayers in remnant networks, 51 percent of joiners of operating networks, and about 28 percent of creators of new networks. It was found that more than three quarters of cotton farmers broke away from their original network at least once during their cotton cropping career, and that creators of new networks were more likely to be leaders than stayers or joiners. The results further tell us that more than one in two cotton farmers (ever) had a leadership position. A significant association was found between these three categories of farmers and leadership status. Finally, a greater stock of social capital was correlated with the ability of leading cotton networks.

    The research indicates that the liberalisation of an agricultural value-chain can be harmful rather than beneficial when the State fails to play a coherent role during the shift from State monopoly to private interest. Cotton proved to be the lifeline for farmer organisations, and drove collective action in rural areas from the important resources it generated. However, the decline of trust within the networks in conjunction with poor management of cotton resources led to a reversed dynamic that tore networks apart, which resulted in their atomisation. Social relations deteriorated when the financial stakes became higher. As attested by the way the process of network atomisation evolved, cooperation within large groups requires legal sanctions to be sustainable. The qualitative results showed that the process of atomisation was nurtured by ties of friendship, kinship, residence and ethnicity at the start, after which networks extended to include other areas and more general member­­ship. From the survey results it can be inferred that push and pull factors interacted to influence the process of cotton network atomisation. The most influential of these factors were, on the one hand, mismanagement of network resources and manipulation of farmers by outsiders, and, on the other hand, trust in board members, hope for board positions, the expectation of profit, and support from public officials and ethnic or religious connections.

    The research further demonstrates that gender myths and stereotypes obstruct women's active involvement in managing organisations, in spite of their key position in the cotton production system at household level. Women were found 21 times less likely to be a leader than men in cotton organisations, and their presence on boards hardly empowered them because they spend their energy struggling to meet practical needs. Women’s admission to cotton boards appears to be instrumental for men and hides men's real motives, judging by the way male board members tend to restrict the power of their female colleagues. However, men are inclined to give more freedom to women when they find their activities benefitting themselves, as was revealed by the data on livelihood adaptation strategies.

    The research clearly ascertains that farmers are more rational than often assumed and that they grow a crop as long as it is a source of livelihood and food security. Despite its current low to negative returns, cotton remains part of the livelihood diversification strategies of households because cotton production gives access to fertilisers which can then be used for food crops. However, relying on one source of income puts the livelihood system of rural households at risk. Faced with the cotton problems, households diversified their sources of income, first and primarily on-farm with food crops increasingly gaining a cash function. Additionally, they would deploy beyond-farm alter­native strategies, including migration of youth. It was also found that the decline of cotton production proved to result in more freedom for women. Because of their multiple extra-domestic activities, women are less vulnerable than men when it comes to coping with livelihood shortages. Their contribution to the provision for house­hold needs increased during the decline of cotton production and the ensuing income shortages compared to that of men. The livelihood adaptation strategies showed the decision making about income diversification to move from the centre of the household to its periphery.

    Mending new communities after involuntary resettlement in the Philippines and Indonesia
    Quetulio-Navarra, M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Wander van der Vaart. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570696 - 257
    bevolkingsverplaatsing - migratie - gemeenschappen - sociaal kapitaal - social network analysis - bevolkingsgroepen met een laag inkomen - huishoudens - filippijnen - indonesië - resettlement - migration - communities - social capital - social network analysis - low income groups - households - philippines - indonesia

    Displacement of poor families contribute to the worsening of their poverty situation yet involuntary resettlement still takes place. According to the latest Report of the Indonesian Centre on Housing Rights and Eviction, more than 12,000 people were reportedly evicted in August 2008 to give way to the “green space” land reclamation projects (COHRE 2008). In the Philippines, 59,462 households were relocated in the period 2001 – 2006 (HUDCC 2008) because of various infrastructure projects. Though more recent data are lacking, there is no evidence that the pace of displacement is slowing down.

    The Impoverishment, Risks and Reconstruction (IRR) model of Cernea (2000) identifies nine interlinked potential risks inherent to displacement: landlessness, joblessness, home­lessness, marginalization, food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, loss of access to common property, social disarticulation and educational loss. Out of the nine risks, social disarticulation or the loss of social capital in a resettlement site is the most complicated, because different factors are involved and because of its impact on vulnerability to the other risks. Social capital building or transplanting in an entirely different or new environment such as resettlement sites has remained an elusive topic in the research arena. This study tries to fill the void by addressing the following research problem: How does social capital grow across time in an involuntary resettlement setting and what is the role of the context and its elements in shaping this growth?

    The study used a comparative approach and a longitudinal perspective. Applying a longitudinal perspective aimed at capturing the process of social capital building through time. It entailed a framework that wove the factors involved in the process – as hypo­thesised on the basis of social capital and resettlement theories – into a timeline that comprised four periods. These four periods included before resettlement, the first year in the site after resettlement, the following years in the site, and the year of the field study (2011 in the first study area and 2012 in the second). The influence of social capital development in each period on the following period was investigated.

    Using a comparative perspective, two resettlement communities in Southeast Asia were chosen for this study. The first study site was in the Philippines and concerned an urban resettlement community named ‘Kasiglahan Village 1’ (KV1), situated in Barangay San Jose, Rodriguez, Rizal Province. The second study site, a rural resettlement community named ‘Bantarpanjang Translok’ (BT), was in Indonesia and located in Bantarpanjang, Cimanggu, Cilacap in Central Java Province, Both are government-managed resettlement communities. Moreover, the resettled households in both countries had incomes that were below the minimum standard of living, and the ages of the communities were sufficiently similar – the Philippine site was 12 years old, and the Indonesian site was 11 years in existence at the time of fieldwork. The age of the resettlement site is crucial for the longitudinal perspective utilized for this research. Although comparable in important aspects, the two locations differ in terms of their cultural traditions, physical location, institutional context, national resettlement policies, religion, ethnicity, and demographic and socio-economic profile. This allowed for a contextual analysis on the way in which social capital evolves.

    Data for this study were gathered by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, exploratory interviews, observation, focus group discussions and life histories, were blended with quantitative methods. The latter included a household survey that used a tailored calendar tool to enhance the validity and reliability of the retrospective data. Social network analysis was conducted as well.

    The results of the analysis of the state of the communities before involuntary resettlement and a year later conveyed the following. Overall, involuntary resettlement in both setting did not significantly harm the households’ structural and cognitive social capital. After a year, the households in both settings were able to create and somehow duplicate the levels of trust and reciprocity they had in their previous communities. Moreover, the data suggest that the civic engagement history of the households is only influential in social capital building within a new community when the households share cultural traditions and social practices that are regularly observed. In the absence of such cultural traditions social practices, it is institutional interventions that will stimulate social capital formation.

    When looking at social capital creation across time in the two locations, the forging of ties among the household grows every year. There are three perspectives that can explain such a process. These are represented by variables relating to (i) individual and household attributes, (ii) the institutional context, and (iii) social capital history. On developing weak and strong ties, both cases demonstrate growth spurts during the year when there was an influx of resettlers and basic services and public places had been put in place. Moreover, after a period of upsurge, social capital attains a level of steady growth. Social capital growth can be seen as intertwined with the stabilisation of the resettlement sites in terms of physical infrastructure and social services as well as the achievement of a sense of “getting settled”.

    The study provides rich insights on the effects of resettlement programs and social capital on whether households in an involuntary resettlement context ‘get by’ or manage to ‘get ahead’ and improve their situation. The outcomes differ according to resettlement policies, culture, location, and phase of resettlement (first year and last year). In addition, all forms of structural social capital turned out meaningful for getting by and getting ahead, although some types of ties would feature more prominently than others. In the Philippines case, the number of support ties played a prominent role in the economic and physical well-being of the households, while in the Indonesian case it is the number of close individuals and number of government ties that mattered most. Overall, ‘soft’ resettlement inputs were found indispensable in both locations for the households’ capacity to get by and get ahead. Government meetings and membership of civic organizations contributed positively to household food security (last year) and social well-being (both years) of the Philippine resettlers. For the Indonesians, these contributed to their household income (first year) and social well-being in both periods. Community organisation should therefore be an integral part of resettlement projects.

    Social network analysis was conducted on the networks of households in Indonesia and those of community leaders in the Philippines. In Indonesia and the Philippines, social network analysis revealed that after a certain period in a new community and living among other involuntarily resettled strangers, households eventually establish inter­connections among them. Gender proved to be a factor not only in shaping social networks but also in reinforcing certain advantages of some of the features of the social networks in a resettlement site. Gender differences emerged in both settings, the female advantage in forming friendships being one of them. In both cases, women (housewives in Indo­nesia and leaders in the Philippines) have a bigger proportion of friends in their network than men, indicating that they are better at nurturing connections that develop into friendship. The analysis also shows how the emerging community as a whole can benefit from the friendship networks of women. The default assignment of authority to men in the community and the wives supporting this gender construction, can account for the male-dominated brokerage roles and men being the influential actors in the Indonesian site. Contrastingly, in the Philippine location women leaders mono­polize the brokerage role and are influential actors. Compared to male leaders, Filipino women leaders in the community have better interpersonal skills, are more empowered and are more active in civic organisations and activities. They bring more projects and activities to their members and connect better to the authorities than their male counterparts.

    This study provides strong evidence on a number of issues. First, the mending of new social communities by social capital building takes place right after the resettlement and amidst a worsening poverty situation in the new location. Second, civic engagement history can only significantly enhance social capital building in a site when it is shared by almost the entire community. Third, social capital history can be created by the new inhabitants of a resettlement site even in a short period of time. And fourth, the results of applying the institutional perspective underscore the importance of the creation of policies and projects that target the community’s physical development and its social organisation. Overall, the process of social capital growth seems to be largely beyond the control of the individual resettlers. It is shaped by the context and its con­stituting elements, rather than by the characteristics of the individuals and households concerned.

    The role of information and knowledge in green urban initiatives : information govenance
    Dam, R.I. van; Hassink, J. ; Salverda, I.E. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Wentink, C.Q. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    stadsomgeving - openbaar groen - natuur - bewonersparticipatie - sociaal kapitaal - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kennisniveau - kennisoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - urban environment - public green areas - nature - community participation - social capital - sustainability - knowledge level - knowledge transfer - diffusion of information
    In this project the role of information, communication, expertise and knowledge is addressed in the realization of citizens’ initiatives in a green urban environment.
    Social capital, agricultural innovation and the evaluation of agricultural development initiatives
    Rijn, F.C. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739094 - 185
    ontwikkelingseconomie - sociaal kapitaal - landbouwontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - innovaties - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - institutionele economie - rwanda - uganda - democratische republiek kongo - landbouw - sociale netwerken - economische ontwikkeling - development economics - social capital - agricultural development - rural development - innovations - africa south of sahara - institutional economics - rwanda - uganda - congo democratic republic - agriculture - social networks - economic development

    In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration of knowledge from various actors and stakeholders. In chapter 1, I identify the three research questions upon which this thesis is based. First, how are social capital and agricultural innovation related? Second, can development initiatives increase agricultural innovation by building social capital? Third, does the initial level of social capital increase the success of these development initiatives in enhancing agricultural innovation? These question mainly relate to the increasing number of policies, programs and project that include beneficiaries in the design, management and decision making process.

    In chapter 2, I elaborate on the main concepts underlying this thesis including social capital, how it relates to development initiatives in the agricultural sector, and how it can be measured. I broadly define social capital as the participation of individuals in formal and informal networks, the norms that define these networks and the trust these individuals have within and outside these networks. Participation in networks is structural social capital, whereas norms and trust within and between these networks is cognitive social capital. I distinguish four dimensions of social capital: structural bonding, structural bridging, cognitive bonding and cognitive bridging. In this thesis bonding and bridging social capital is akin to social capital inside and outside the village. Agricultural innovation is defined in terms of improved land and crop management practices, an important area of agricultural innovation for small scale producers.

    In chapter 3 till 7, I empirically investigate the relationships between social capital, agricultural innovation and two types of development initiatives. The first initiative is the implementation of agricultural research through the Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) approach. IAR4D was adopted by the Sub Saharan African Challenge Program (SSA CP) and implemented in eight different countries. The core of this approach is the development of Innovation Platforms (IPs), which can be described as an informal coalition and alliance of conventional agricultural research and development actors. Using the semi experimental data collected in this context, I could investigate the important role of social capital in different contexts. The second type of initiative is implementation of sustainable certification schemes through group-based experimental learning approaches. I investigate four sustainable coffee projects in Vietnam, of which two adopted the interactive Farmer Field School training approach. The data of these four projects allow me to verify some of the conclusions in a different context and for a different development initiative.

    In chapter 3, I use baseline data from the IAR4D initiative to explore the association between different forms of social capital and uptake of various agricultural innovations, for a sample of 2500 households in seven countries in SSA. I find that structural bridging social capital is associated with more extensive adoption of agricultural innovations. This result is true for the pooled model as well as for four of the seven country models. This form of social capital captures agriculture-related links creating access to knowledge and resources and is considered an important dimension of economic development. I find a negative association between cognitive bonding social capital and the innovation index. This finding could represent a potentially harmful side of social capital in terms of agricultural innovation.

    In chapter 4, I investigate the impact of IAR4D on social capital. I narrow my focus on the border region between Rwanda, Uganda and the DRC. Because the SSA CP data set consist of randomized data of participating and non-participating villages, before and two years after implementation, I can investigate the impact of the program. Many participatory projects in rural Africa are efforts to enhance development indirectly by promoting cooperation in formal or informal networks, and by encouraging trust and norms of behaviour towards mutually beneficial action. But it remains unclear whether external interventions can actually influence social capital, especially in the short term. I show that IAR4D has had a positive impact on structural bridging social capital in DRC and Uganda. There was no impact on structural bridging social capital in Rwanda, or on the other dimensions of social capital. Finally, I showed that traditional agricultural extension has been less successful in increasing structural social capital than IAR4D.

    In chapter 5, I use data from a survey I conducted among IP coordinators to measure the extent to which IPs were implemented according to the principles of IAR4D across the three sub regions. Linking these data to the main survey data, I find that the extent to which IPs were implemented according to IAR4D principles is associated with the success of IAR4D in increasing the level of household food security, although not through increased adoption of agricultural innovation or increased levels of social capital at household level. Looking at the sub-components of these principles, especially involvement of IP stakeholder is crucial. Tentative results suggest that this involvement is higher in communities with a higher level of education, a higher percentage of female headed households, and a higher level of village social capital.

    In chapter 6, I analyse how different indicators used to represent social capital are related in the border region between Rwanda, Uganda and the DRC. I focus on the relationship between various indicators of trust, an important component of cognitive social capital, and group membership, an important component of structural social capital. The indicators used are based on questions I added to the follow up survey of the SSA CP in 2010. I find that different indicators of trust and group membership cannot be empirically captured by an overarching social capital factor, and are not even necessarily associated to each other.

    In chapter 7, I present evidence that the relationship between social capital and agricultural innovation is not only evident for the IAR4D approach, but also for a different development initiative in a different context: sustainable coffee certification in Vietnam. I use data collected among 240 randomly selected project participants and 150 comparable farmers that did not participate in the projects. I focus on the role of bonding and bridging cognitive social capital, defined as trust. I find a significant positive relation between trust and the uptake of sustainable agricultural training practices. This relationship mostly results from high levels of bridging trust, and is even higher in combination with high levels of bonding trust. I also find tentative evidence that participation in the sustainable coffee projects positively influenced bonding trust in one project whereas it negatively influenced bridging trust in another project.

    In chapter 8, I give an overview of the three main findings. First, social capital is associated with agricultural innovation. Second, development initiatives can influence social capital. Third, the existing level of social capital is associated with the success of development interventions. However, the effect was not necessarily positive and depends greatly on the dimension of social capital.

    I also present several implications for policy. First, stimulating social capital, especially bridging social capital, may be a natural leverage point for policy makers to promote agricultural development. Second, increased levels of social capital can indeed be an outcome of development initiatives, either intentionally or not. At the same time, I show that this impact requires specific efforts and is not necessarily positive. The third implication is that social capital matters for the success of certain development initiatives, either as a source of heterogeneous implementation or impact. Fourth, it is vital to take into account the multi-dimensional nature of social capital and the fact that these dimensions might have different relations to agricultural innovation and development initiatives. Combined these implications mean that indicators of social capital should be included in the design and evaluation of agriculture-related development initiatives.

    Finally, I give suggestion for future research. First, to further unravel the chains of causation between different dimensions of social capital, agricultural innovation, and development initiatives. Second, to validate the indicators and indices of social capital using experimental games, more advanced survey questions, or better embedding them in existing theories. A third area of future is to advance in the measurement of innovation as a truly interactive and participatory process. Fourth, to address whether the importance of social capital, as a catalyst for success or as an outcome variable, depends on the nature of the development initiatives or the context in which it is implemented. Finally, research yet has to address the long-run effect of development initiatives on social capital.

    Krimpbeleid met sociale media : sturen met sociaal kapitaal op maatschappelijke energie
    During, R. ; Willemse, R. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen University (Zo doen wij dat hier! dl. 5) - ISBN 9789461737076 - 56
    sociale netwerken - sociaal kapitaal - sociale participatie - plaatselijk bestuur - overheidsbeleid - samenleving - innovaties - nederland - social networks - social capital - social participation - local government - government policy - society - innovations - netherlands
    Naarmate het besef groeit dat de zorgsamenleving onbetaalbaar wordt onder invloed van de demografische en economische trends, komt sociale en maatschappelijke innovatie steeds nadrukkelijker op de agenda. In alle sectoren van het rijksbeleid wordt gesproken van vermaatschappelijking als belangrijke strategie en doorsnijdend thema. Het besef dat marktwerking en new public management (de overheidsdienst als bedrijf) de consumptieve houding van burgers hebben versterkt, ligt ten grondslag aan deze strategie. Het maatschappelijk initiatief is er nog steeds en kan als een soort humuslaag de voedingsbodem vormen van een actieve samenleving waarin de overheid verantwoordelijk is voor de infrastructuur, en burgers c.q. het maatschappelijk middenveld voor specifieke doelen. In het Noord-Groningse dorpje Holwierde kan de dorpswinkel open blijven, omdat verstandelijk gehandicapten bij wijze van dagbesteding meehelpen: een mooi voorbeeld van zo’n sociale innovatie in die humuslaag. In dit essay gaan we na hoe die humuslaag is ingebed in sociale-media-communicatiepraktijken en welke nieuwe mogelijkheden dit kan bieden voor het beleid inzake krimp. Hiervoor hebben we onderzoek gedaan, waarbij in de pilotgebieden Burgerschap in Krimp van BZK en de Landelijke Vereniging van Kleine Kernen (LVKK) is gekeken naar discussies over krimp en zelforganisatie.
    Movements against the current : scale and social capital in peasants’ struggles for water in the Ecuadorian Highlands
    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; M. Baud, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735904 - 193
    watervoorraden - waterrechten - water - boerenstand - inheemse volkeren - sociaal kapitaal - gemeenschappen - politieke bewegingen - watergebruik - instellingen - irrigatiesystemen - hooglanden - ecuador - water resources - water rights - water - peasantry - indigenous people - social capital - communities - political movements - water use - institutions - irrigation systems - highlands - ecuador
    This thesis is about peasant and indigenous struggles for water rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It is based on the following main research question: How have peasant and indigenous communities developed multi-scalar political agency in water governance to gain and maintain their water access and related rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands since the 1980s? To answer this question, this thesis analyses the histories and relationships between organized water users, water reforms and non-governmental development organisations (NGOs) active in the Ecuadorian irrigation sector. Through state reforms, and processes of coproduction between NGOs and local peasant and indigenous communities, water user associations were created in many supra-community irrigation systems. Once created, these organisations formed the basis for the development of provincial and national federations and policy advocacy networks and platforms that now form the building blocks of the Ecuadorian water users movement.
    Sociaal Cultureel ondernemerschap, in de groene leefomgeving
    Salverda, I.E. ; Jagt, P.D. van der; During, R. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra (Zo doen wij dat hier! 1) - ISBN 9789461732651 - 46
    samenleving - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - natuurbeleid - landschapsbeheer - ondernemerschap - sociale participatie - sociale verandering - sociaal kapitaal - society - community involvement - nature conservation policy - landscape management - entrepreneurship - social participation - social change - social capital
    In dit eerste deel komt de kracht en betekenis van sociaal cultureel ondernemerschap aan bod en de hierdoor ontstane kansen voor sociale innovatie. Hier wordt getoond dat er meer is dan de standaardopvatting van economische ondernemerschap en dat informele vormen van ondernemerschap kunnen worden toegevoegd aan het repertoire van ondernemerschap.
    Sociale Moestuin Sliedrecht : een tuin voor en door Sliedrechters
    Kruit, J. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Lent, M. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 291) - ISBN 9789085857266 - 39
    voedselproductie - regionale voedselketens - sociaal kapitaal - bewonersparticipatie - tuinen bij het huis - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - zuid-holland - stedelijke gebieden - food production - regional food chains - social capital - community participation - domestic gardens - community involvement - zuid-holland - urban areas
    De oprichting van een Sociale Moestuin Sliedrecht is voortgekomen uit een burgerinitiatief in de gemeente Sliedrecht in 2010. Binnen amper twee jaar tijd werd het idee voor een Sociale Moestuin medio 2012 werkelijkheid. Gaande de rit werd de Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR gevraagd om te helpen bij het uitwerken van plannen voor de korte en langere termijn. Kernpunten voor de sociale Moestuin Sliedrecht zijn in de visie van bestuursleden en sympathisanten: Ontmoeten centraal, duurzaam en kostenneutraal en een centrumfunctie in de gemeenschap voor collectieve voedselproductie. Het onderzoek gaat uit van twee ontwikkelingen: de inrichting en exploitatie van de moestuin an sich en de omgeving waar de tuin onderdeel van uitmaakt. Op langere termijn zijn er mogelijkheden om tuin en omgeving tot een lommerrijk park te integreren waarbij een rol voor de gemeente is weggelegd. De Sociale Moestuin zelf staat voor de exploitatie van de tuin en kan haar sociale rol invullen door mensen samen te brengen, met elkaar te tuinieren en via het organiseren van diverse aanverwante activiteiten de sociale cohesie te versterken. Aandachtspunten voor de kortere termijn vragen om een slagvaardige organisatie en evenredige taakverdeling onder bestuursleden en vrijwilligers, samenwerking met buren en organisaties, een attractieve inrichting van de tuin, en het benutten van de diversiteit aan mogelijkheden voor productie, afzet en verkoop van producten.
    Social limitations to livelihood adaptation : responses of maize-farming smallholder households to neoliberal policy reforms in Morelos, Southern Veracruz, Mexico
    Groenewald, S.F. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732217 - 222
    huishoudens - landbouwhuishoudens - kleine landbouwbedrijven - markten - boerenmarkten - agrarische economie - ontwikkelingseconomie - levensstandaarden - adaptatie - middelen van bestaan - sociaal kapitaal - maïs - ontwikkelingslanden - mexico - households - agricultural households - small farms - markets - farmers' markets - agricultural economics - development economics - living standards - adaptation - livelihoods - social capital - maize - developing countries - mexico

    This thesis describes the adaptation of smallholders to market changes shaped by neoliberal policy reforms in the Mexican maize sector. Contrary to expectations about smallholder responses to a liberalised maize market, in the study area maize still is the main source of income. Farmers did not leave the maize sector to produce more profitable crops neither did they exit agriculture. Special attention is given to the role of social capital in shaping households’ adaptation behaviour. By analysing the role of trust in adaptation processes, this study enhances our understanding of the importance of the social and historical context in contemporary livelihood decisions. It demonstrates that new forms of social capital are difficult to sustain if they do not link up with existing, local forms of social capital. Data collection in the field took place between March 2007 and May 2010. The research was conducted in Morelos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Dorpsidentiteit: op zoek naar eenheid in verscheidenheid : vijf methoden waarmee dorpsbewoners hun dorpsidentiteit expliciet kunnen maken
    Aalvanger, A. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 275) - 58
    plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - plattelandsgemeenschappen - dorpen - sociale participatie - plattelandsopbouw - toekomst - sociaal kapitaal - rural development - rural planning - rural communities - villages - social participation - rural animation - future - social capital
    Dit rapport gaat over de identiteit van dorpen. De Brede Overleggroep Kleine Dorpen in Drenthe, Doarpswurk en de Vereniging Groninger Dorpen ondersteunen dorpen bij het opstellen van een eigen dorpsvisie. Hierin zijn de wensen en ideeën van de dorpsbewoners opgenomen voor de toekomst van hun dorp. Daarbij speelt de dorpsidentiteit een belangrijke rol in de manier waarop bewoners omgaan met de ontwikkelingen die op hun dorp afkomen. Omgekeerd kunnen de ontwikkelingen gevolgen hebben voor de identiteit van het dorp. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het ontwikkelen van methoden waarmee bewoners zelfstandig, of met minimale ondersteuning, de identiteit van het dorp expliciet kunnen maken.
    Small scale agriculture, marginal conditions and market access: impacts on natural resources and farmers' welfare
    Cavatassi, R. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard; P.C. Winters. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857709 - 159
    landbouw bedrijven in het klein - kleine landbouwbedrijven - agrarische economie - voedselzekerheid - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - landbouwproductie - pesticiden - aardappelen - rassen (planten) - ontwikkelingslanden - ecuador - ethiopië - boeren - milieueffect - teeltsystemen - genetische diversiteit - sociaal kapitaal - peasant farming - small farms - agricultural economics - food security - natural resources - resource management - agricultural production - pesticides - potatoes - varieties - developing countries - ecuador - ethiopia - farmers - environmental impact - cropping systems - genetic diversity - social capital
    Keywords: small-scale farmers, food security, impact evaluation, Ecuador, Ethiopia, crop choice, social capital, crop genetic diversity, pesticides.

    Numerous are the obstacles and difficulties smallholder farmers from developing countries have to face to achieve food security or improve their wellbeing. Challenges and opportunities may vary dramatically from having to cope with harsh climatic and production conditions to having the option of entering the market, yet farming systems and production decisions are crucial elements to reduce poverty and improve wellbeing. This is particularly true in a time in which growing population, climate change and energy requirements pose increasing pressure on land and natural resources. In either context, the use and exploitation of natural resources is thus a key aspect to consider particularly with regard to the variety choices that can affect genetic diversity and to the use of pesticides that might be induced to achieve standards required by the market.
    This thesis attempts to address these elements by analysing how small-scale farmers deal with achieving food security and improving their wellbeing through crop production choices, farming technologies and strategies adopted to access the market in marginal but market-oriented conditions as opposed to manage production in harsh agro-ecological conditions.
    After analyzing in detail the role of agriculture, of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) and of agricultural markets and seed systems, the thesis is divided in two parts. The first part deals with analyzing how small-scale farmers from the Ecuadorian Sierra benefit from dynamic changes in the agricultural economy and what is the impact of their production choices on the use of pesticides and of potato varieties adopted. The second part examines how smallholder farmers from the Hararghe region of Ethiopia deal with frequent production difficulties and with production shocks mainly determined by drought through variety adoption choices and what are the impacts of these choices on production efficiency and genetic diversity. The importance of social capital, evident throughout the work presented, is specifically analyzed for the case of Ethiopia.
    By using different approaches, methodologies and data, among which rigorous impact assessment plays a key role, findings show the unequivocal importance of market access, seed sources, production technologies and social capital. The analysis undertaken demonstrates that programs and policies to be effective need to be implemented throughout the entire value chain: from input use to produce commercialization, whereas social capital might dramatically facilitate the successfulness of variety adoption, seed access and program implementation. Lastly, this work demonstrates that rigorous impact evaluation can help identify aspects of programs and policies crucial to suggest the way forward on achieving sustainable economic development.
    Boompje klimmen in eigen straat
    Bosch, F.J.P. van den - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)2. - p. 10 - 10.
    stadsomgeving - speelterreinen - buitenspelen - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - kinderen - openbaar groen - sociaal kapitaal - landschapsbeleving - urban environment - playgrounds - outdoor games - community development - children - public green areas - social capital - landscape experience
    Spelen tussen huizen of op een speelplaats met een zandbak, tegels en een wipkip is leuk, maar het is voor kinderen ook goed om door de bosjes te struinen, in poeltjes te peuren en in bomen te klimmen. Onderzoek naar hoe je in de stad meer van die speelplekken krijgt wijst onder meer uit dat een natuurspeelplek veel energie van betrokkenen vraagt
    Fragmented lives: reconstructing rural livelihoods in post-genocide Rwanda
    Koster, M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Georg Frerks; Lisa Price. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049678 - 468
    plattelandsontwikkeling - huishoudens - gezinsinkomen - oorlog - conflict - sociologie - sociale economie - platteland - plattelandsbevolking - huishoudelijke consumptie - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - landbouw - armoede - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - etnische groepen - rwanda - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - sociaal kapitaal - geslacht (gender) - rural development - households - household income - war - conflict - sociology - socioeconomics - rural areas - rural population - household consumption - subsistence farming - agriculture - poverty - rural women - woman's status - ethnic groups - rwanda - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - social capital - gender
    During the genocide in Rwanda (1994) nearly a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu were killed and millions of people were displaced. Since 2002, social scientist Marian Koster has regularly visited the country for her PhD-research at Wageningen University. Her study centred on the strategies that households in the northeast of Rwanda use to secure their livelihoods. During her visits to Rwanda, Koster was told that the poorest and most vulnerable households consist of those headed by women, and specifically those headed by widows. However, her research clearly indicates that this is not the case and that widowed heads of households perform much better than is generally assumed. This has important consequences for development interventions which, in an attempt to reach the poorest of the poor, continue to target widows. Koster’s research also shows that many new laws and policies, meant to increase land tenure security and agricultural production, are counterproductive and directly undermine poor people’s livelihood strategies.
    When AIDS meets poverty : implications for social capital in a village in Tanzania
    Nombo, C. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): B. O'Laughlin. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047476 - 277
    gemeenschapsontwikkeling - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - huishoudens - gezondheid op regionaal niveau - gezondheid - sociale economie - sociaal gedrag - tanzania - sociaal kapitaal - middelen van bestaan - netwerken - community development - community involvement - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - human immunodeficiency viruses - households - community health - health - socioeconomics - social behaviour - tanzania - social capital - livelihoods - networks
    The role of social capital in development has in recent years received increasing attention. Social capital seems to have evolved into panacea for the problems affecting poor communities. The question is how social capital produced in social networks is used, generated and maintained in a context of HIV/AIDS. This study investigated HIV/AIDS impacts on social capital and their implications for rural livelihoods. The study moved beyond the household, by looking at the significance of social networks for the coping capacity of individuals and households. It emphasizes the ability of individuals and households to mobilize resources through social networks such as kinship networks, friends and neighbours, and community groups. A gender perspective was integrated into the research questions and study design. The study was conducted in Mkamba village, in Morogoro region in Tanzania. It used qualitative methods, such as key informants interviews, focus group discussions and in-depth case study interviews, as well as a household survey and group inventory. Socio-economic information gathered from the area indicates a high level of livelihood insecurity. Although the sugarcane plantations and factories provide employment, the privatization of the sugar company has made many households vulnerable to poverty. In-migration has increased ethnic diversity, which has contributed to a decline of trust among community members. Witch­craft beliefs and anti-witchcraft initiatives are widely common and part of social life in the study area, but also have a deteriorating effect on community trust. The study found that HIV/AIDS epidemic is an additional burden on already vulnerable households producing complex, wide-ranging and gender-specific impacts on their livelihoods. Households affected by HIV/AIDS were generally found to have less income, reduced food security and increased vulnerability. Gender and age were found to be important attributes shaping HIV/AIDS impacts. Strong links between HIV/AIDS and poverty is demonstrated, with HIV/AIDS exacerbating existing problems such as household food insecurity, while at the same time poverty increases vulnerability to HIV/AIDS impacts. Extended families and kinship net­works are generally regarded as the main source of social, economic and practical support for individuals. In the wake of HIV/AIDS and other socio-economic difficulties in the area, kinship support was found to be hardly available. Migration and the splitting-up of families have led to weakened family ties and declining transfers. Additionally, economic con­straints limit the support one can get from relatives. Beyond the immediate and extended family, households in crisis are assumed to turn to friends and neighbours for assistance. However, the findings from this study show that support from friends and neighbours tends to be short-term and unreliable, usually limited to advice and emotional support. As a consequence of widespread poverty in the study area families are often too burdened with their own problems to be of much help to others. Witchcraft suspicion and accusations, while indicating deteriorating interpersonal trust, also create barriers to access support that might otherwise be provided by friends and neighbours. Provision of support is also fraught with difficulty due to the stigmatising nature of HIV/AIDS infection. Likewise, the secrecy surrounding HIV/AIDS limits the assistance from the community to those affected. Despite the potential benefits of membership in groups, the required contributions prevent some individuals from becoming members. Poor and HIV/AIDS-affected households are generally left out when it comes to participation in groups. It was found that social capital generated in formal groups benefit members only, rather than improving the welfare of the community as a whole. Both the generation and sustenance of social capital at household level are severely challenged by declining access to other livelihood assets as a con­sequence of HIV/AIDS. At the community level, there has been hardly any community-level mobilization in response to the devastating effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Funerals only are the communal events that display cooperation among community members. Although the socio-economic situation in the area has already weakened support relations, HIV/AIDS seems to have made matters worse. HIV/AIDS impacts exhaust the capacities and potential of a community. The study found that inability to maintain social relations at the interpersonal level results in unintended collective effects at community level, such as lack of cooperation and trust among community members. Distrust at the inter­personal level is extended to the community level, preventing people to work together to solve their problems. Unlike the idealized community solidarity, many households in the study area appear unable to cope with HIV/AIDS impacts and other crises. HIV/AIDS care and mitigation of its impacts proved to be difficult in a situation where there are multiple socio-economic problems as well as lack of community trust and solidarity as shown in the study area. Therefore, the study underscores the importance of contextualizing the role of inter­personal and community-level social capital when studying HIV/AIDS impacts on liveli­hoods. Also in recognition that the ability of households and communities to meet their members’ increasing needs is limited, there is a need for external support from government and NGOs to help communities respond to other shocks and new demands created by HIV/AIDS impacts.
    The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province
    Lu Hualiang, - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jacques Trienekens. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046653 - 252
    food chains - vegetables - marketing - production - china - trade - markets - businesses - relationships - socioeconomics - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - networks - social capital - voedselketens - groenten - marketing - productie - china - handel - markten - bedrijven - relaties - sociale economie - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - netwerken - sociaal kapitaal
    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,China

    Guanxiis ubiquitous inChinaand significantly influences people's behaviour in social life and in business. Guanxi refers to personal relationships or connections and is widely recognised as a Chinese form of social capital. This book focuses on the questions, if, and if so, how small-scale producers, together with processors and exporters, can be more successfully integrated into high-value supply chains (i.e., processors, supermarkets and international markets). In particular, our focus is on how Chinese vegetable farmers can use their guanxi networks to be integrated into these modern supply chains and can improve their market performance. We study the effectiveness of both formal (contracts) and relational ( guanxi ) governance mechanisms to improve the integration of buyer-seller relationships and ultimately, to enhance chain performance. We apply various theoretical approaches, supply chain management, social capital theory and transaction cost economics, to develop propositions regarding the interrelation of support from guanxi networks (what guanxi can do for you), buyer-seller relationships (interpersonal trust, transaction specific investments and contractual governance) and market performance (compliance with delivery/quality requirements, efficiency, quality/price satisfaction, and profitability). We combine case study with survey analysis and use structural equation modelling techniques to test the propositions.

    Background analysis of the Chinese vegetable sector indicates that small-scale farmers usually fail to integrate into high-value market outlets. This is because these farmers face several constraints, such as small production scale, less possibilities to implement quality standards, low negotiation power, and information asymmetry. However, empirical analysis based on three different buyer-seller relationships, including farmers, processors and exporters/supermarkets, shows that support from guanxi networks and integration of buyer-seller relationships significantly contribute to market performance (especially with downstream partners). The effects of guanxi networks differ between primary producers, processors and exporters/supermarkets, and across marketing channels. Vegetable farmers and their buyers show an idiosyncratic way to rely on their guanxi networks in doing business. Furthermore, vegetable farmers and their buyers follow different approaches to achieve market performance. Interpersonal trust and compliance with delivery requirements are important factors for all parties in supply chains to achieve superior performance. Particularly, in relationships with downstream partners, the sellers tend to rely on their guanxi networks when conducting transactions. In relationships with upstream partners, guanxi networks and contractual governance are less often used. This study shows that the combination of formal (contract) and informal ( guanxi ) governance mechanisms seems to be the best way to improve chain performance in vegetable supply chains inChina. Policy should be directed to improve farmers' capacity to participate in modern high-value markets as well as to enhance the prospects forChina's vegetables in the world.
    Institutional economic analysis of vegetable production and marketing in northern Philippines: social capital, institutions and governance
    Milagrosa, A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Louis Slangen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045977 - 183
    tuinbouw - groenteteelt - landbouwproductie - marketing - economische analyse - filippijnen - overheidsbeleid - sociaal kapitaal - institutionele economie - horticulture - vegetable growing - agricultural production - marketing - economic analysis - philippines - government policy - social capital - institutional economics
    This study examines vegetable production and marketing among indigenous communities in northernPhilippinesusing an institutional economics approach. It develops a framework that analyses the four levels of institutions; Social Embededdness, Institutional Environment, Governance Structures and Resource Allocation alongside the Structure, Conduct and Performance of the vegetable sector. Using this integrated framework, the thesis engages on a range of topics from the structure of the sector to sales and margins, from trust to favoured-buyer systems and from transaction cost analysis to farmer's decision-making processes. Also, a framework that aligns efficient contract types with governance structures based on observable transaction attributes was developed. The modeling approach that determines how farmers choose trading partners based on farm and farmer characteristics, transaction attributes and social capital was likewise used.

    The first important finding of the study is that a dual structure - in terms of farm-size and total sales - exists in the province. On the one hand, several small farmers own small farm sizes and share a small percentage of total market sales. On the other hand, a few big farmers own big farms and share a big percentage of total market sales. Three governance structures dominate trade; the most common are commissioner-based followed by wholesaler and contractor-based organization. Another important finding of the research is that many farmers turn to wholesalers for loans because of difficulties accessing or complying with formal credit institutions. At harvest time the repayment scheme forces farmers into trading arrangements with wholesalers which in turn, lowers search, negotiation and enforcement costs. This locked-in effect reduces trading alternatives for farmers and lowers total transaction costs. Not surprisingly, wholesaler-based governance structure is the most efficient marketing arrangement from a transaction costs perspective. A third important finding of the thesis is that the social capital of farmers and traders in the province, aggregated from scores on trust, associatedness, common goals and optimism, is low. Current social capital is ineffective in facilitating market information exchange and providing countervailing power to farmers in selling crops. With regards to decision-making, the study showed that farmers with relatively higher social capital select traders differently from farmers with lower social capital. Moreover, ethnicity is a significant factor that influences trust, volunteerism and social networking as well as trading partner selection. This thesis shows that bringing in social elements such as social capital and culture in institutional economic analysis yields richer results in the explanation of behaviour of the market and its participants.
    Das social Kapital : institutions and entrepreneurial networks in Russia's exit from socialism
    O'Brien, D.W. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044895 - 233
    instellingen - ondernemerschap - socialisme - rusland - sociaal kapitaal - institutions - entrepreneurship - socialism - russia - social capital
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