The role of environmental shocks in shaping prosocial behavior
Duchoslav, Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H. Bulte, co-promotor(en): F. Cecchi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431477 - 190
environment - behaviour - economic development - social behaviour - stress conditions - environmental temperature - physical properties - social environment - milieu - gedrag - economische ontwikkeling - sociaal gedrag - stress omstandigheden - omgevingstemperatuur - fysische eigenschappen - sociaal milieu
All economic activity requires some degree of cooperation, and the process of economic development involves many social dilemmas. It is therefore crucial to understand how the preferences which guide our behavior vis-à-vis these situations are shaped. The ability and willingness to work for the benefit of the group rather than just one's own has evolved over many generations, and is – to some extent – innate to any healthy human being. At the same time, individual prosocial preferences are – also to a certain extent – endogenous to the physical and social environment within which we operate. This thesis identifies several ways in which environmental changes affect intrinsic prosocial preferences, and outlines a possible direction for fixing any such negative effects.
In Chapter 1, I introduce the topic of prosocial preferences. I briefly describe how prosociality has been viewed over the course of scientific history, and summarize the current state of knowledge about the formation of social preferences. I further outline how extrinsic incentives can influence prosocial behavior without affecting the preferences which underpin it. Finally, the chapter contains an overview of the methodologies used throughout this thesis.
In Chapter 2, I focus on an early formative factor of prosocial preferences—their fetal origins. I study how temperature shocks faced by pregnant women affect their children's later-life prosocial preferences. I find that exposure to higher than usual ambient temperatures during gestation reduces a child's probability of contribution to the public good, with the negative effect lasting into adulthood.
Chapter 3 continues in the same vein as Chapter 2, looking at the fetal origins of prosocial preferences. In this chapter, I investigate how prenatal stress induced by random violence affects the preferences for cooperation among children born during an armed conflict. To do so, I exploit variations in the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers—a marker of in utero hormone exposure negatively associated with high maternal distress during early fetal development. I show that prenatal stress reduces the probability that children contribute to the public good.
In Chapter 4, I move away from the physical aspects of human environment, focusing instead on the social ones. I study the effects of a sudden introduction of a formal institution on individual cooperative behavior within informal arrangements. In particular, I look at how an NGO intervention which helped create a mutual health insurance affected cooperative behavior in a public goods game. I find that the introduction of formal insurance reduces contributions to the public good. This reduction in cooperation levels is, however, not due to the adopters of the formal insurance who may now have less need for informal reciprocal networks, and who therefore (partially) withdraw from them. It is instead the non-adopters who become less cooperative towards the adopters.
To outline a possible direction for remedying the negative environmental effects on prosocial behavior described in the previous three chapters, I illustrate one of the ways in which prosocial behavior can be incentivized with a relatively simple and easily implementable policy. In Chapter 5, I evaluate the impact of introducing performance-based financial incentives on staff effort and, consequently, on allocative efficiency and output in healthcare provision. I show that in the case under investigation, financial incentives conditioned on output and worth roughly 5% of total expenditures increased staff effort to the extent that output rose by over 25%, without any detectable drop in the quality of the provided services. This not only shows the potential of incentive-compatible financing to improve the performance of underfunded healthcare systems in developing countries, but also that extrinsic motivation can be used to foster behavior which benefits the society rather than just the individual.
Finally, I combine the main findings from the core chapters of the thesis in Chapter 6. I discuss their policy implications, and point out the some of the outstanding questions, outlining the directions for future research.
Seeds as biosocial commons : an analysis of various practices in India
Patnaik, Archana - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578302 - 166
rice - seeds - plant genetic resources - plant genetics - seed production - seed storage - community development - gender - social environment - india - rural development - rijst - zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengenetica - zaadproductie - opslag van zaden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - sociaal milieu - india - plattelandsontwikkeling
This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities). Therefore, conservation and management of PGRs in the form of seeds are essential for plant breeding, agricultural production and to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. However, the changed use of PGRs through enclosures and appropriation of the Intellectual Property Rights creates underutilisation of these resources, risking their important societal role. Thus, this research aimed at analysing how the processes of commonisation of PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons emerge in the Indian context.
The research applied an in-depth qualitative research approach using case study method. It focused on four distinct issues of disconnection, collective resistance, strategies of repossession and ability of stakeholders to provide insights broadly into the processes of commonisation of PGRs. Describing the different cases it also establishes whether and how opportunities for commonisation of PGRs as biosocial commons emerge within these contexts. The research analysed four cases where one case reflected on the intellectual commons produced through institutionalisation of PGRs and the other three cases reflected on the bottom-up perspective of commons produced through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).
The research through its first case, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a public ex situ genebank, describes the disconnection of PGRs, while through the second case reflects on the collective activity of resistance through management of community seed banks (CSBs) by the Deccan Development Society (DDS). The third and fourth cases involved small, local initiatives; Loka Samabaya Pratisthan (LSP) and Sambhav that fostered collective action for repossession through in situ seed banks. The research used various techniques, such as interviews with respondents, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observation for primary sources of data, with published and unpublished documents, reports and official websites as secondary sources.
The second chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of disconnection and argues that storing seeds at genebanks disconnects the resources from their biosocial environment. Further, the evaluation of genetic traits within the stored seeds through the scientific intervention at the genebank creates the divide between the resources (seeds) and their informational content. Thus, this chapter concludes that disconnection of seeds from their biosocial environment leads to the creation of exclusive but positive intellectual commons.
The third chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of collective resistance and argues that disconnection of the community from their local food system can generate resistance and collective activity among the community. This chapter finds that the resistance and collective activity further brought in the interaction between the resource and the stakeholders through informal social relations and seed networks.
The fourth chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of strategies of repossession and argues that socio-political and ecological context play an important role in determining the strategy for repossession and commonisation of PGRs which further inhibits or facilitates the production of seeds as biosocial commons.
The fifth chapter of the thesis analyses the ability of stakeholders and finds that apart from institutional rights other factors like the social relations, ideology, negotiations and social identity of a stakeholder determines their ability in accessing the conserved resources.
The overall finding of the research suggests that the informal seed networks in the cases analysed stimulated in establishing the biosocial relations between the stakeholders and the resources. The biosocial relation further led seeds to function as biosocial commons. The research thus proposes that strengthening of these biosocial relations through informal seed networks can lead to the commonisation of the PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons in the Indian context.
(Em)pathetic pigs? : the impact of social interactions on welfare, health and productivity
Reimert, I. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth Bolhuis; Bas Rodenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739964 - 264
varkens - sociaal gedrag - sociaal milieu - emoties - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - fokwaarde - dierlijke productie - varkenshouderij - pigs - social behaviour - social environment - emotions - animal behaviour - animal welfare - animal health - breeding value - animal production - pig farming
The welfare, health and productivity of intensively raised pigs may be affected by routine management procedures and the physical environment they are housed in, but also by their social environment, i.e. by social interactions between pen mates. In this thesis, the effect of social interactions on pig welfare, health and productivity has been investigated in several ways. On the one hand, a new breeding method based on interactions, i.e. on heritable effects on the performance of pen mates, was investigated. The effect of divergent selection for a relatively positive or negative indirect genetic effect on growth of pen mates on pig behavior and physiology was studied. On the other hand, it was investigated whether pigs can be affected by (the emotional state of) their pen mates on the basis of two social processes, emotional contagion and social support. Pigs selected for a relatively positive indirect genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates seemed less fearful and less stressed in several novelty tests and they had lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations compared to pigs selected for a relatively negative indirect genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates. Moreover, it was found that pigs can indeed be affected by the emotional state of their pen mates either in a positive or negative way, which points to emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy, in pigs. Furthermore, evidence for social support has also been found. To conclude, this breeding method may be a strategy to improve the social environment of intensively raised pigs as pigs with relatively positive indirect genetic effects for growth may create a less stressful social environment for themselves. In addition, the welfare, health and productivity of pigs may not only depend on their own emotional state, but also on the emotional state of their pen mates.
Sociable swine : indirect genetic effects on growth rate and their effect on behaviour and production of pigs in different environments
Camerlink, I. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth Bolhuis; Piter Bijma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739551 - 231
varkens - sociaal gedrag - genetische effecten - groeitempo - diergedrag - agressief gedrag - sociaal milieu - dierlijke productie - selectief fokken - varkenshouderij - pigs - social behaviour - genetic effects - growth rate - animal behaviour - aggressive behaviour - social environment - animal production - selective breeding - pig farming
Social interactions between pigs can influence their health, welfare, and productivity. The effects of social interactions on individuals are partly genetic, and this genetic effect is known as an Indirect Genetic Effect. IGEs are thus the heritable effects of an individual on the trait values of its social partners, e.g. group mates. Previous research has identified IGE for production traits, which suggests that selection for IGE may contribute to selection response. However, validation through selection experiments is required.
The objectives of this thesis were a) to determine the consequences of selection for ‘IGE on growth rate’ (IGEg) for production traits and behaviour of pigs, and b) to study possible mechanisms underlying IGEg in pigs. First, the relationship between pig behaviour and growth rate was studied in several trials. This showed that oral manipulative behaviours directed at pen mates, such as tail- and ear biting and chewing, can reduce growth rate of the victims, whereas receiving social nosing may enhance growth rate. Second, a one-generation selection experiment was conducted in pigs. Sires (n= 24) and dams (n= 64) were selected to create a high vs. low contrast for IGEg in the offspring (n= 480). The contrast was 14 g average daily gain (ADG). Offspring were studied in a 2×2 arrangement with IGEg (high vs. low) and housing conditions (conventional vs. enriched with straw bedding) to examine genotype × environment (GxE) interactions. Selection did not alter production traits, including ADG. Behaviour showed consistent changes, whereby high IGEg pigs showed less biting behaviour towards group mates and objects. High and low IGEg pigs did not differ in aggression or body lesions during 24-h regrouping with unfamiliar pigs. They did, however, differ in aggression towards their own group members when they were reunited after the temporary regrouping test. In combination with other tests and observations, this might indicate that high IGEg pigs are less fearful or less stress sensitive than low IGEg pigs. There were no G×E interactions, but enrichment had a positive effect on behaviour which was additive to that of selection. Despite the lack of response in ADG, genetic selection for IGEg and enriched housing conditions improved the behaviour and welfare of pigs.
|Kijk naar de context : de alledaagse sociale omgeving als startpunt voor patiëntgebonden leefstijladvisering
Bouwman, L.I. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Dapper, T. - \ 2012
Voeding Nu 14 (2012)6/7. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 18 - 20.
gezondheidsbevordering - levensstijl - voeding en gezondheid - gedrag - patiënten - sociaal milieu - health promotion - lifestyle - nutrition and health - behaviour - patients - social environment
Het verband tussen leefstijl en gezondheid is evident. De voordelen van een gezonde leefstijl zijn bekend, maar hoe begeleid je patiënten optimaal op hun pad richting die gezonde leefstijl? Deze intrigerende vraag, die speelt op zowel het gebied van beleid, wetenschap als in de huisartsenpraktijk, stond centraal tijdens een afscheidssymposium op 10 mei 2012 in Nijmegen.
Health and Society “New kid on the block”
Koelen, M.A. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085858928 - 24
kwaliteit van het leven - gezondheid - sociaal milieu - milieu - sociale wetenschappen - quality of life - health - social environment - environment - social sciences
The social life of regions : salmon farming and the regionalization of development in Chilean Patagonia
Blanco Wells, G.E. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854319 - 319
regionale ontwikkeling - regionalisme - ontwikkeling - regio's - territorialiteit - sociologie - visteelt - sociaal milieu - sociale verandering - zalmteelt - argentinië - sociale situatie - sociale groepen - regional development - regionalization - development - regions - territoriality - sociology - fish culture - social environment - social change - salmon culture - argentina - social situation - social groups
This thesis explores a sociological approach towards understanding the contemporary process by which certain territorial relations are grouped under the notion of region. The research adopts an ethnographic perspective to reconstruct the social life of regions by focusing not only on the processes and activities that have transformed territorial units into objects of intervention, but also on the practices and sites that have turned regions into meaningful fields of action through which people carry out their life projects. This argument is sustained through research findings that recorded the spread of salmon farming in the Patagonian Region of Aysén in southern Chile.
Salmon farming expanded rapidly due to the increasing importance of trade networks that profited from the global demand of food commodities and the centrality given to regions as units of coordination between State agencies, trade networks, national or foreign capital and local livelihoods. The thesis shows how the practices and sites related to the expansion of salmon farming challenge the social organization and territorial functions attributed to the contemporary Region of Aysén. It argues that the regionalization of certain development processes have facilitated the emergence of new activities producing globally demanded commodities. The thesis critically examines the wide scope of social practices that over time have contributed to create regional entities and transform them into techno-political objects of intervention. This process went together with academic and managerial trends in which the main object of development shifted to regional modes of economic functionality and territorial coordination of actors. Since the 1980s, this trend that I have called the regionalization of development has become more relevant by the rising flows of global commodities, the new geographies of food production and consumption and new governmental patterns of territorial allocation of resources. The politics of regional development proposes a path to globalization based on the spatial organization of activities and the selective support of actors geared towards the production of successful exportable commodities.
Despite the popularity of regional development among experts, this thesis argues that the direction and hegemony of territorial approaches are increasingly modulated through the multiplicity of social groups and organizations that are contesting, subverting or adapting some of its effects until they are transformed in meaningful parts of people’s life-worlds. In this sense, the thesis shows that the form and the extent to which salmon farming relates to a politics of regional development is, indeed, controversial. In a techno-political approach to regional development actors do not struggle over one specific resource, but over a set of territorially based interventions, objects and projects that reflect differences in values, meanings and life-worlds. To understand this process differently, this thesis introduces the concept of a regional field of action in order to show a more complex and diverse landscape of activities, projects and livelihoods that are also contributing to make a region the home of settlers and workers. This living region unfolds daily within, around and outside the salmon farming industry but cannot be reduced to it. Salmon farming is already a part of the activities and strategies of local people but, contrary to the self-sufficiency of hegemonic projects, they manifest the right of seeing and imagining things differently and, accordingly, of granting or refusing the right to others to intervene in certain domains of their everyday life.
This book concludes that the existence of export-based activities and trade networks in Chile is partly made possible by the creation of a regional field of action that facilitates the re-allocation of resources and the mobilization of people, capital and materials. The concept of regional field of action allows us to unite, from a practice-oriented perspective, all the outcomes that region-making processes generate independently if they are created by rulers, entrepreneurs, workers or local people. Regional fields of action become an approach to study processes of development in a sociological sense by focusing on the effects that the formation of regions has for people’s organization of everyday life and the constitution of meaningful life projects.
In sum, this thesis explores how different social groups create, dwell in, and transform a region. The narrative does not reduce the experience of constructing a region to vertical and hierarchical techno-political perspectives. It shows a multiplicity of sites that express local forms of regaining, contesting or adapting those regional fields and transforming them into places and relations that are meaningful for people’s life-worlds. I believe this book broadens the perspective of regional development towards locally constructed forms of change that can contribute to make visible and build up new livelihood opportunities and to re-think a more inclusive perspective that values the experience of regional dwellers.
Effects of genetic background and social environment on feather pecking and related behavioural characteristics in laying hens
Uitdehaag, K.A. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Hans Komen; Bas Rodenburg. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049968 - 154
hennen - verenpikken - abnormaal gedrag - bangheid - genetische factoren - sociaal milieu - diergedrag - neurotransmitters - lijnen - selectief fokken - hens - feather pecking - abnormal behaviour - fearfulness - genetic factors - social environment - animal behaviour - neurotransmitters - lines - selective breeding
Woldwide, but especially in Europe, poultry husbandry will undergo significant changes due to the prohibition of
both battery cage systems and beak-trimming. In laying hens, these changes will increase the risk of feather
pecking. Feather pecking is defined as the non-aggressive pecking towards the plumage of other birds. It may result
in feather damage and mortality due to cannibalism, which can be considered the ultimate phase of severe feather
pecking. Feather pecking may therefore have negative consequences for bird welfare and the economic situation in
poultry industry. To gain further insight in risk factors related to feather pecking, this thesis investigated the effects
of genetic background and social environment on feather pecking and related behavioural characteristics in laying
hens. In several experiments, behaviour, performance and physiology of cage-housed birds from pure-bred genetic
lines was studied in different social environments at different ages. Results indicated that birds from different purebred
lines show differences in feather damage due to severe feather pecking (an indicator for feather pecking) and
in their response towards a novel object. This indicates that it is possible to select against high levels of both feaher
pecking and fear related behaviour. The tendency to develop feather pecking was also related to the response
towards a novel object, although this relation differed between birds from different backgrounds and from different
ages. Other results showed that the response in the novel object test was also related to performance, which should
be taken into account if such a test would to be used in a breeding program. Feather pecking and fear related
behaviour were also affected by group mates (social environment): non-fearful birds became more fearful in
presence of fearful birds. This effect could only be established at 18, but not at 5-6 weeks of age. At adult age,
fearful birds showed more feather damage in presence of non-fearful birds, whereas the social environment during
rearing had no effect on the occurrence of feather pecking. This indicates that fearful behaviour predisposes adult
birds both to more easily develop and to be targeted by feather pecking. The changes in social environment were,
however, not accompanied by physiological changes in brain serotonine or dopamine activity. These neurotransmission
systems have been related to feather pecking. Results did indicate that the role of serotonin uptake
does require further attention. According to the results from this thesis, laying hens should be kept in behavioural
uniform groups to minimize the damage due to feather pecking. Additionally, reducing the expression of feather
pecking could be achieved by breeding against expression of fearful behaviour, but possible correlated changes in
performance should be accounted for. It remains to be investigated how the results with respect to social
environment can be translated towards more extensive systems, such as floor-housing.
Nieuwkomers in het landelijk gebied
Overbeek, G. ; Vader, J. ; Elst-van der Lans, M.W.M. van der - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789086151592 - 57
plattelandsgemeenschappen - rurale sociologie - sociaal milieu - urbaan-rurale migratie - plattelandsbevolking - nederland - sociografie - zuid-holland - zeeuwse eilanden - rural communities - rural sociology - social environment - urban rural migration - rural population - netherlands - sociography - zuid-holland - zeeuwse eilanden
Een verkennend onderzoek naar nieuwkomers in het landelijk gebied op basis van literatuur, data en gesprekken met sleutelpersonen in Reeuwijk en op Schouwen-Duiveland. De definitie van nieuwkomers is niet eenduidig. Nieuwkomers zijn nauw betrokken bij het verenigingsleven, maar zijn in het lokale beleid minder actief. De aanwezige natuur en landschap in gemeenten vormt een verbindend element tussen nieuwkomers en autochtonen. Gemeenten kunnen daar meer op inspelen. This report reviews an exploratory study of newcomers in rural areas on the basis of a literature study, analyses of data and interviews with key figures in Reeuwijk and Schouwen-Duiveland. The definition of 'newcomers' was found to be fairly different. Newcomers are involved in local societies and clubs, but are less involved in local policy. The municipalities' nature and landscape create ties between newcomers and the indigenous population. Municipalities could make more use of this potential.
In de buurt van de stad : sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse van de buurt Hoogstede-Klingelbeek voor stedelijk ontwerp
Koedoot, M. ; Haan, H.J. de - \ 2005
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 220) - ISBN 9789067548663 - 125
stedelijke planning - expansie - relaties tussen stad en platteland - participatie - sociaal milieu - gelderland - urban planning - expansion - rural urban relations - participation - social environment - gelderland
Naar aanleiding van uitbreidingsplannen van 110 woningen in een wijk in de gemeente Arnhem, heeft de buurt een onderzoek laten verrichten naar de sociaal-culturele betekenis van de buurt bij toekomstige planningsprocessen. Aan bod komen in dit onderzoek: de relatie verstedelijking, landschap en cultuurhistorie; inbreiding, uitbreiding en stedelijke vernieuwing; de buurt als integratiekader; de betekenis van collectieve ruimte; ontmoetingsplekken en het belang van sociale ruimten
|Science, technology and agency in the development of droughtprone areas: a cognitive history of drought and scarcity
Vincent, L.F. - \ 2004
The Open University. Promotor(en): D.V. Wield. - - 396
droogte - aride klimaatzones - droog klimaat - woestijnvorming - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - sociaal milieu - sociale instellingen - politiek - schaarste - sociale factoren - agentschappen - bureaucratie - drought - arid zones - arid climate - desertification - water management - water resources - social environment - social institutions - politics - scarcity - social factors - agencies - bureaucracy
Social-environmental learning for sustainable natural resource management. Theory, practice and facilitation
Maarleveld, M. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; N.G. Röling, co-promotor(en): Maria Koelen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089236 - 215
sociaal milieu - leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - social environment - learning - natural resources - management - sustainability
Europese visies op de risico's van genetisch gemodificeerde gewassen (2)
Zadoks, J.C. - \ 2003
Gewasbescherming 34 (2003)3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 80 - 83.
genetische modificatie - plantenveredeling - gewasbescherming - biotechnologie - sociaal milieu - consumentengedrag - europa - amerika - genetic engineering - plant breeding - plant protection - biotechnology - social environment - consumer behaviour - europe - america
De genetische modificatie van gewassen houdt de gemoederen in Europa en de Verenigde Staten intensief bezig. Echte en vermeende risico's, vooroordelen voor de gewasbescherming, en morele, biologische, commerciële en politieke overwegingen spelen daarbij een hoofrol. Amerikanen gaan anders om met dit complex van overwegingen dan Europeanen. De auteur analyseert dit verschil in zienswijze vanuit het Europese perspectief in twee afleveringen. Dit is de 2e aflevering
Europese visies op de risico's van genetisch gemodificeerde gewassen (1)
Zadoks, J.C. - \ 2003
Gewasbescherming 34 (2003)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 44 - 47.
genetische modificatie - plantenveredeling - gewasbescherming - biotechnologie - sociaal milieu - consumentengedrag - europa - amerika - genetic engineering - plant breeding - plant protection - biotechnology - social environment - consumer behaviour - europe - america
De genetische modificatie van gewassen houdt de gemoederen in Europa en de Verenigde Staten intensief bezig. Echte en vermeende risico's, vooroordelen voor de gewasbescherming, en morele, biologische, commerciële en politieke overwegingen spelen daarbij een hoofrol. Amerikanen gaan anders om met dit complex van overwegingen dan Europeanen. De auteur analyseert dit verschil in zienswijze vanuit het Europese perspectief in twee afleveringen
|Measuring corporate social responsibility in a business-to-society context
Goddijn, S.T. ; Ziggers, G.W. - \ 2002
bedrijfsvoering - bestuur - sociaal milieu - klantrelaties - bedrijfseconomie - management - administration - social environment - customer relations - business management
Leefbaarheid op de agenda : Een studie naar het vigerend leefbaarheidsbeleid en leefbaarheidsthema's in de toekomst
Stegeman, J. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 163) - ISBN 9789067545983 - 85
platteland - sociaal milieu - levensomstandigheden - nederland - plattelandsontwikkeling - dorpen - rural areas - social environment - living conditions - netherlands - rural development - villages
Denken en doen in dialoog : een methode voor behoeftenarticulatie en ontwikkeling
Heymann, F.V. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C.M.J. van Woerkum; G. van der Laan. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789058080578 - 256
behoeftenbepaling - psychologische behoeften - basisbehoeften - sociaal milieu - menselijk gedrag - ontwikkelingspsychologie - needs assessment - psychological needs - basic needs - social environment - human behaviour - developmental psychology
This thesis is about the articulation of needs and human development.
Need articulation is a concept with double meaning. On the one hand it refers to a specific need-pattern of a person as the result of a developmental psychological process. On the other hand it refers to the way in which a person succeeds - sometimes with the help of professional intervention - in modelling his needs in a new way. The concept of need articulation is a theoretical construction, referring to the intra-psychological as well as to the relationship between the intra-psychological and the social and cultural environment. The concept, in practice, can be found under a series of different denominations, such as orientation, problem clarification, intake or need research. The background for this research were, amongst others, questions, which in practice are described as: 'how to reach target groups more effectively' and 'how to suit services better to the needs of clients'.
The objective of this study is to theoretically clarify the concept of need articulation and to contribute to a methodological framework, which can be used to support the process of need articulation in practice.
The problem definition of this research is subdivided in two questions.how can one understand the process of need articulation in human change?how can one transform the insights on need articulation into a methodological framework for professionals, including conditions for change?
The process of need articulation is researched from two specific angles:the influence of the social, historical and cultural relations; individual and collective experiences have great influence;specific value-orientations, which arrive from the above mentioned point; the 'self' and 'the other' (the world) are perceived through different perspectives. These value-orientations influence the possibilities for need articulation.
Because of these viewpoints much attention is given to the specific way the dominant worldview influences this process of need articulation. One can see this influence very clearly in three areas:the economising of social life and professional practices;the role of modern sciences;the pressure on people to act as 'autonomous subjects'.
The design of this research was open-ended, with much emphasis on case-studies in connection with theoretical analysis.
In the introduction and chapter 1 the problem definition is described, based upon an analysis of both theory and practice.
Chapter 2 will account for the research method and its exploratory character. Gradually this research developed, based on insights from literature and a series of case study results. A variety of qualitative research methods was used, such as (narrative) interviews and participatory observations. Two premises have been playing an important role in this research. The first premise is that experiences of people give insight into their reality. It is only possible to really understand people if one looks at the way they give meaning to their experiences. The second premise is that the perspectives that colour peoples views are important sources of knowledge as well. People always share their world with others. For this reason it is necessary to gain insight into the way in which interactions take place and to understand the significance these interactions have for the participating actors.
Chapters 3, 4 and 5 are the heart of this thesis.
In chapter 3 the problem of need articulation is further examined in the context of modern society and the dominant world view. The first part of this chapter describes an analytical framework, which is then used to clarify the problem. Need articulation is not possible without a dialogue, which in its turn requires active participation of clients. In Habermassian words: dialogue means communicative action. However, this participation is problematic and becomes quite often merely strategic action because of the way the modern world-view influences professionals as well as clients.
The three assumptions of the modern world-view, which have been named above, have consequences for the possibilities of need articulation. In order to demonstrate this, the analysis has been applied to extension and extension science. Both theory and practice are used to show how planning models, target group analysis and different methods are influenced by the assumptions of the dominant world-view.
In the final part of this chapter the outlines of a different approach are sketched. The starting points of the new approach, called a dialogue through deconstruction, are in line with the current critical debate in the social sector. The concept of 'normative professionalism' is the crux of this movement for innovation.
The approach aims to bring forward dialogue. In essence this only can be achieved by deconstructing the assumptions which professionals and clients hold. This means: to abolish the supposed neutrality of professionals; to let go of the idea that processes of change can be completely controlled; and to anchor active participation of clients by systematically exploring the inner- and outer perspectives of all parties involved.
In chapter 4 an additional theoretical analysis for this dialogue through deconstruction follows. In part 1 the attention goes to human development and how need articulation is taking place. Needs are sometimes not modelled, but kept away. Also the phenomenon that need articulation of a person is 'coloured' by the dominant value-patterns of his social environment is described. Human development is the result of the interaction between the public domain and the private domain.
Part two of this chapter will focus on the possibilities and conditions of human change. The concepts of 'zone of nearest development' and 'creative process' are at the core of this focus. The zone of nearest development shows how step-by-step change in need articulation can be understood. The creative process shows how every zone can be modelled in such a way that the process leads, step-by-step, to new need articulation.
In chapter 5 a framework is described to discern, understand, monitor and support processes of need articulation in practice. With the aid of a variety of research material, derived from practical studies, the method is presented. Part 1 provides the general principles and the wide range of possible applications. With this method it becomes possible to reach target groups better and to support professionals to bring their services better in line with the needs of clients. Also, the method can help to improve the participation of target groups and bridge gaps between groups: in other words, the method is also important for inter-cultural communication.
Two general principles are worked out, firstly the iterative and cyclic character of the method and secondly the principle of 'working with continuities'. The iterative character means that the target group analysis is performed through several cycles of analysis ánd experimenting. The second principle lies in working with continuities: the premise that the analysis and experimenting takes for granted the existence of different value-orientations, which can go together. The consequences of these principles are explained through a changed perspective on the concepts of target groups, goals and interventions. In part 2 the design and implementation of programmes are dealt with in more depth. The theory of chapter 4 and the different case-studies form the base-material. Activities are analysed on form and content. Finally, possibilities to improve participation are described.
Part 3 deals with the changed target group analysis. This analysis consists of two parts: an analysis of the needs of the target group and an analysis of the situation. This thesis shows that different methods are required for both parts. For the analysis of target group needs a narrative approach seems promising. For the situation analysis, in which the relationships between parties involved (including the professional) are explored, a network analysis based on deconstruction is suitable.
Chapter 6 shows two case-studies in more detail.
Finally, in chapter 7 , some conclusions are drawn. The essence is that the method of dialogue through deconstruction can help to really bring forward conditions for participation.
However, this is only possible if the professional:is willing to leave standard solutions;is able to systematically reflect upon his or her own assumptions;is able to give priority to the real opportunities for action of clients;is prepared to intervene through 'positive coercion', which means that every intervention is approved by clients.
Toerisme in de arena : een sociologische reflectie op de betekenis van toeristische attractievorming voor de sociale en fysiek-ruimtelijke omgeving in de Euregio Maas-Rijn
Brouwer, R. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.T.J. Nooij, co-promotor(en): J. Lengkeek. - S.l. : Brouwer - ISBN 9789058080042 - 263
toerisme - toeristische attracties - recreatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - ruimtelijke ordening - fysische geografie - landschapsbescherming - sociaal milieu - toerismebeleid - nederland - identiteit - tourism - tourist attractions - recreation - rural communities - physical planning - physical geography - landscape conservation - social environment - tourism policy - netherlands - identity
This thesis considers the significance of touristic-recreational processes for the physical/spatial and social environment. It will become clear that the construction of tourist attractions takes place in a context of opposing and competing claims. This emerges from a study of the strategies deployed by environmental organisations, municipal and regional administrators, tourist entrepreneurs and inhabitants of the Meuse-Rhine Euregio in appropriating the environment for their own or collective interests. A study of these strategies illuminates the way in which the construction of attractions manifests itself as an environment issue. The social and physical-spatial environment considered in this thesis is the countryside. The specific sectional interests that are decisive to the social, symbolic and material design of the countryside are examined. In order to gain a better understanding of the specific characteristics of attractions, the extent to which sub-regional attraction formation contributes to initiatives for cross-border regionalisation is also considered. The focus here is on the role played by boundaries in attraction formation.
This thesis deals with attraction formation in terms of control and interpretation, whereby communicative action generates meanings and strategic actions for the establishment of social and physical-spatial structures. The research focuses primarily on the relationship between symbolic and strategic actions. This approach arises from the use of Habermas's The Theory of Communicative Action as an interpretative framework. Use of this theory means that special attention is given to the principles of rationality which direct the establishment of attractions. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the construction of tourist attractions is not primarily or unilaterally dictated by considerations of material reproduction (profit, economic growth and success). The construction process is too complex for that. One-sidedness in the rationalisation process is prevented primarily by the existence of mutual dependencies: actors both oppose one another and need one another.
It is indicated in this thesis that a partial overlap of interests leads to changing collaborations involving divergent actors. This puts the representation of the countryside into the hands of various actors. The deployment of communicative or instrumental resources is primarily determined by the extent of dependency. As dependency increases, the standard of action becomes communicative rather than strategic. In case of mutual dependency, purposive-rational action is not a very efficient way to get results.
The research shows that in attraction formation, the world of ideas ("lifeworld") is interwoven with the world of material matters (the subsystems "market and state"). Processes of both symbolic and material reproduction underlie the establishment of attractions. Behind attraction formation is a complex world of interactions. Conservationists, government administrators, tourist entrepreneurs and the local population all fulfil a specific role in the establishment of tourist attractions in the countryside. They are all involved in different ways. Sometimes they have an direct involvement in the process; at other times they make an indirect contribution to regional touristic development. It also happens that some of them impose restrictions on the establishment of attractions. Divergent interests are at stake in the appropriation and design of countryside space for touristic ends, turning attraction formation into a competitive arena. Using strategies, actors try to create or (the reverse) limit the scope for touristic developments.
Regarding attraction formation as a competitive arena, however, does not mean that opposing interests necessarily lead to conflicts or serious tensions. It becomes clear in this thesis that the actors are involved with one another in various ways, and that they generally succeed in reaching agreement. The different interests may also fit together. Rendering the environment subservient to tourism and recreation, therefore, is achieved in various ways. In the area being researched, there is no question of a colonisation of the lifeworld, where market mechanisms spread in such a way that phenomena essential to the symbolic reproduction are regulated by supply and demand, a danger in modern capitalist society pointed out by Habermas.
The results of the survey (chapter 8) show that there is little reason for assuming that the local inhabitants interpret tourism in this manner. Curtailing communications in the lifeworld on the basis of purposive-rational actions is not always in the interests of the construction of tourist attractions, as the lifeworld plays an important role in creating a heterogeneous touristic reality. In attraction formation, the lifeworld does not function as a passive background against which tourism takes place. The lifeworld supplies resources that contribute to the unique nature of attractions. Attraction producers need the lifeworld to maintain the heterogeneity of their product, so unilateral purposive-rational actions are not worthwhile: "The requirements of attraction formation" mean one-sidedness is avoided in the rationalisation process. Attraction formation that is strongly linked to the lifeworld requires involvement, inspiration and solidarity. In that capacity, tourism takes on the character of an exchange process. It provides the local population with a framework for becoming more involved with one another and for expressing a local identity.
Nevertheless, attraction formation should be regarded as a social process that takes place within an area where tension between divergent interests exists. This emerges primarily from a study of the actions of businesses in the tourist industry. An increasingly dynamic tourism and recreation market means that attraction producers must anticipate changing conditions more effectively. New tourism products must be produced more quickly in order to challenge the competition. In this context, standardisation in attraction formation takes on the significance of producing a superficial symbolism. This accelerated production and consumption of touristic meanings increases the countryside's function as cultural source, a source on which tourist entrepreneurs draw in order to reach different target groups. They praise the countryside as a world of peace and quiet, nostalgia, 'green' and harmony, offering ample possibilities for recreation. As well as this, the countryside as cultural source offers opportunities for generating economic profit (e.g. offering holiday homes as profitable investments).
This process of symbolic appropriation as a response to market mechanisms brings with it the danger of meaning intensification, whereby one specific meaning of the countryside comes to dominate as a result of some unilateral development. The countryside then becomes entirely dominated by tourism. Touristic interests clearly prevail in that situation. The construction of a touristic reality encompasses a specific interpretation of rural life. As a result, certain (rural) activities no longer fit with the picture producers of attractions present to tourists. The business activities of modern farmers, for example, clash with tourists' image of the countryside as a world of nostalgia and tradition. Through the symbolic appropriation of the environment, producers of attractions indicate the interpretative margins of reality.
It happens on occasion that tourists treat special activities of strong symbolic value to the local population - such as processions and other ceremonies - as amusement. This interpretation sometimes causes annoyance amongst the local population, and in the worst cases even resistance. In such situations, it is important that producers of attractions reach agreement with the local population on the meanings of rural life. However, the research shows that opportunities to hold such discussions often fail to materialise, primarily due to the administrators. This can be attributed to a lack of daring combined with neglect.
However, communicative action in a situation of opposed or conflicting interests is not automatically successful. In some situations, for example, where the conflicting interests are considerable, strategic actions offer a solution. In order to deploy communicative action effectively in achieving objectives, negotiations with other actors should at the very least be well organised. For example, the dialogue between different actors in touristic platforms proved to be of little effect, because no clear consultative framework had been indicated in advance, and the resources necessary for effective negotiations (including a political basis) were lacking. A perception of mutual advantage is also a prerequisite for successful co-operation between actors. This was absent from the cross-border co-operation within the Meuse-Rhine Euregio. Furthermore, the pursuit of an identical concept for joint spatial planning turned out to be incompatible with the importance of a differentiated environment to attraction formation. Boundaries play an important role in regional tourist attractions: they contribute to the unique nature of the region.
The importance of symbolic appropriation of the countryside in an adequate response to competition and changing consumer preferences does not necessarily mean that attraction formation consists only of an accumulation of commercial activities. Attraction formation also offers a framework for history, education about the countryside, and tradition. Tourism is more than the consumption of sensation and spectacle or a sum of invented realities. Attraction formation involves both the construction and the reflection of a reality, enabling attractions to grow into a meaningful framework.
The commodification of the countryside, whereby cultural expression is given a price tag, also offers the local population a certain basis for experiencing continuity between old and new situations. For example, the symbolic reconstruction of the history of a village or region for touristic reasons brings the past back to life. Local traditions are then not only strategically deployed for the establishment of attractions; they also contribute to the symbolic reproduction of the lifeworld. Solidarity within a local community is thus not undermined by instrumental or strategic actions, but rather supported. This experience of mutual advantage indicates an interconnection between lifeworld and system. The local population evaluates developments in tourism on the basis of economic, aesthetic or normative considerations. They determine what is and what is not acceptable in the countryside. The research shows that it is primarily the economic advantages of tourism which are included in this evaluation. In brief: shared definitions of the situation are in part determined by economic interests.
A colonisation of the lifeworld is also (indirectly) counteracted by the interpretative margins which tourists impose on entrepreneurs. Tourists do not accept everything, and their idea of what is beautiful or pleasant may be different from that of the producers. Producers of attractions must therefore ensure that the touristic interpretation of reality does not deviate too far from everyday reality (see chapter 2). As a result of this "imposed" interpretative margin, the difference between representation and reality seldom disappears entirely. If producers were to act solely on the basis of instrumental and strategic considerations, there would be a danger that the touristic product would not be in keeping with prevailing touristic preferences. This was the case with the environmental organisations. It is argued in chapter 5 that the involvement of environmental organisations in attraction formation is based too much on considerations of control (controlling touristic behaviour). Consequently, some touristic-recreational initiatives on the part of environmental organisations have failed.
This thesis also shows that the battle for space is not wholly disadvantageous for businesses in the tourist industry. One advantage of the battle is "self protection". The battle for the environment often prevents proliferation, whereby rural resources are used and deployed for attraction formation alone, increasing the chances of the special environment being destroyed. The resistance of other actors prevents tourism dominating the countryside, and ensures that touristic plans are well thought-out in terms of their environmental consequences. In the battle for rural resources, the importance of conserving various characteristics is made clear to businesses in the tourist industry. Reactions from the social environment in which attractions exist prevent an intensification of the economic system in which there is no requirement for communication or aim for consensus. In a situation of permanent competition, the standard of action is strategic rather than communicative.
Despite the criticisms of the theory of communicative action which have been expressed, the findings of this research show that this theory is of some value for touristic research. This value lies primarily in diagnostics. Using Habermas' concepts, the actions of the different actors involved in attraction formation can be studied from two different principles of rationality. In so doing, it becomes possible to indicate which interests in the battle for social and physical-spatial environment dominate, when they dominate, and what the consequences are for other interests.
Platform for resource management : case studies of success or failure in Benin and Burkina Faso
Dangbegnon, C. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; A. Blum. - S.l. : Dangbegnon - ISBN 9789058080059 - 311
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bedrijfsvoering - sociale verandering - sociale ontwikkeling - sociaal milieu - economische situatie - benin - burkina faso - natural resources - management - social change - social development - social environment - economic situation - benin - burkina faso
The present book focuses on platforms for (natural) resource management. It analyses various case studies in Benin and Burkina Faso. Conditions for collective resource management in conflict and interdependent situations are the most critical issues. The present study raises the importance of socio-economic sustainability. It aims at incorporating social perspective within economic growth by focusing on stakeholders needs and by learning with them to respond to evolving conditions.
The present book is based on three main parts. After an introductory chapter (chapter 1), the first part discusses the perspectives and methodologies used to carry out the present study. The second part analyses six case studies, and the third part presents a synthesis and the main conclusions.
Part one: perspectives and methodologies
The fact that resource management problems unravel two different assets, the social (stakeholders) and the natural (ecosystems), I have used 'coupled systems thinking' to elaborate perspectives with respect to resource management (chapter 2). Based on this notion, 'hard system thinking' is applied to conceptualize ecosystems for the purpose of resource management. 'Soft system' is also applied as a form under which we organize our attempt to reach common appreciation of problematic situations. These perspectives enable me to develop the notions of platform, social learning to cope with both ecosystem and social dynamics, and the facilitation of change in resource management (communicative intervention, incentives, support institutions, and policy contexts). Having elaborated my perspectives for the present study, I could define first, the following problem statement:
"The extent to which the perspectives elaborated, help develop theories, practices and ideas, in the particular contexts of resource use in Benin and Burkina Faso, for the facilitation of adaptive resource management in various attempts to enhance regenerative practices and sustainable development in ecosystems".
Second, I define the following research questions:
The methodologies of the present study (chapter 3) involve a scientist's curricula for discovery learning and the concrete research methodology. Case study research approach, grounded theory and comparative study are used. Exploratory research is done to gain novel and fresh arguments that contribute to the scientific and public debate with respect to resource management practices.
Part two: case studies
The second case study (chapter 5) deals with rangeland resource management within the Chabe community in Benin. Two situations are compared: the local arrangement in Savè area and the implementation of the Appui-Conseil for collective rangeland resource management. The first situation reveals that, a lack of decision making capacity and concerted action, and an absence of organizations and institutions for resource management, affect failures. In the second situation, a negotiated agreement and concerted action led to the development of a platform. The major conclusion from this case study is that, barriers to collective rangeland resource management can be overcome if different categories of stakeholders adopt collective action, develop platforms for decision-making, monitoring, sanctions and exclusion at the level of gaa, villages and regions.
The third case study (chapter 6) presents watershed development problems with two ethnic groups, the Adja and Mahi people in Benin. The critical issue here is the extent to which scaling up watershed development from the level of farms to the watershed for intervention, is effective. This implies the need to develop inter-village perspectives. Within both the ethnic groups, the absence of consistent property right institutions was a barrier for watershed development. Platforms for pooling a systematic treatment of micro-watersheds towards the watershed development based on inter-village structuration (scaling up) did not yet emerge in Mono. A reason was the nonexistence of local organizations that could strengthen this process. In Ouèssè, the creation of the Union Inter-Villageoise pour la Gestion des ressource Naturelles (UIGREN) also called SEDOKU, was a platform at the level of the region of Mahi people. The success of the scaling up process was due to existing organizations and a collective learning path adopted by the intervening agency.
Resource-flow management to improve soil fertility by a women's group is analyzed in the fourth case study (chapter 7). The analysis considers two different contexts: before, and during democratization process in Benin. Resource-flow management can be effective only if successful collective action is maintained to provide public goods (e.g., infrastructures, the group itself). A major conclusion for this case study is that, a shift in the political system of Benin, has some implications for making grass-root development processes more dynamic. Many opportunities such as credit, training, exchange of experience, enable the maintenance of the group, and in turn, collective action for resource management.
The fifth case study (chapter 8) shows the evolution of forestry problems from a purely indigenous regulation to the recent intervention of the PNGT and co-management practices in Burkina Faso. This case study reveals that, the evolution of the platform is sensitive to ownership issues concerning the Maro forest. This case involves both public goods (e.g., fire break) and common goods (e.g., trees). Co-management practices, exclusion of free-riders and monitoring, enable collective action and platforms for regenerating the Maro forest.
The gestion des terroirs applied in a physical planning process to enable the creation of a zone for herding and tree planting, is analyzed in the sixth case study (chapter 9). The main issue was the aménagement of a zone sylvo-pastorale . The need to initiate this aménagement emerged from severe problems such as crop damages due to the transhumant herders, and clashing interests among herders, the native Bobo and the migrant Mossi. Perceived interdependence among these stakeholders was a driving factor for successful collective action and platform development for the aménagement of a zone sylvo-pastorale . This interdependence has become visible through repeated conflicts between herders and crop-farmers. However, the case study reveals that the management of the zone sylvo-pastorale will require new roles such as monitoring, conflict resolution, and mediation for professionals.
Part three: synthesis and conclusions
Leefbaarheidseffectrapportage. Leefbaarheid niet langer een blinde vlek in de besluitvorming.
Boomars, L. ; Hidding, M.C. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 135) - ISBN 9789067545037 - 71
levensomstandigheden - ruimtelijke ordening - plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - overheidsbeleid - grondbeleid - landgebruiksplanning - milieu - milieueffect - milieueffectrapportage - sociaal milieu - nederland - sociografie - sociale situatie - living conditions - physical planning - rural planning - rural development - land use - management - government policy - land policy - land use planning - environment - environmental impact - environmental impact reporting - social environment - netherlands - sociography - social situation