Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Dynamics of somatic cell count patterns as a proxy for transmission of mastitis pathogens
Dalen, Gunnar ; Rachah, Amira ; Nørstebø, Håvard ; Schukken, Ynte H. ; Reksen, Olav - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science (2019). - ISSN 0022-0302
intramammary infection - online cell count - somatic cell count - transmission

Management of udder health is particularly focused on preventing new infections. Data from the DeLaval Online Cell Counter (DeLaval, Tumba, Sweden) may be used in forecasting to improve decision support for improved udder health management. It provides online cell counts (OCC) as a proxy for somatic cell counts from every milking at the cow level. However, these values are typically too insensitive and nonspecific to indicate subclinical intramammary infection (IMI). Our aim was to describe and evaluate use of dynamic transmission models to forecast subclinical IMI episodes using milk cultures or changes in OCC patterns over time. The latter was expressed by an elevated mastitis risk variable. Data were obtained from the dairy herd of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Oslo, Norway). In total, 173 cows were sampled monthly for bacteriological milk culture during a 17-mo study period and 5,330 quarter milk samples were cultured. Mastitis pathogens identified were assigned to 1 of 2 groups, Pat 1 or Pat 2. Pathogens from which a high cell count would be expected during a subclinical IMI episode were assigned to the Pat 1 group. Pathogens not in the Pat 1 group were assigned to the Pat 2 group. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were the most common Pat 1 pathogens. Corynebacterium bovis, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were the most common Pat 2 pathogens. The OCC were successfully recorded from 82,182 of 96,542 milkings. The current study included 324 subclinical IMI episodes. None of the mastitis pathogens demonstrated a basic reproduction number (R0) >1. Patterns of OCC change related to an episode of Pat 1 subclinical IMI at specificity levels of 80, 90, and 95% at sensitivity levels of 69, 59, and 48% respectively, demonstrated an R0 >1. An existing infection was significant for transmission for several Pat 2 pathogens, but only for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis among Pat 1 pathogens. Dynamic transmission models showed that patterns of OCC change related to an episode of Pat 1 subclinical IMI were significantly related to the same pattern occurring in susceptible cows at specificity levels of 80, 90, and 99% at sensitivity levels of 69, 48, and 8%, respectively. We conclude that changes in herd prevalence of subclinical IMI can be predicted using dynamic transmission models based on patterns of OCC change. Choice of specificity level depends on management goals and tolerance for false-positive alerts.

Intramammary antimicrobial treatment of subclinical mastitis and cow performance later in lactation
Borne, Bart H.P. van den; Schaik, Gerdien van; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Nielen, Mirjam ; Frankena, Klaas - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4441 - 4451.
antimicrobial - clinical mastitis - dairy cow - milk yield - somatic cell count

The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis (RASCM) during lactation. Quarter-level clinical mastitis (CM) follow-up, composite somatic cell counts (SCC), and cow-level milk yield later in lactation were evaluated using follow-up data from 2 previously published linked randomized field trials. The first trial randomly assigned antimicrobial treatment with any intramammary product or negative control to culture-positive quarters of cows having a first elevated composite SCC after 2 consecutive low composite SCC measurements. Untreated cows that had a second elevated composite SCC at the next measurement and were staphylococci-positive (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus or non-aureus staphylococci) were randomly assigned to treatment or control. Quarter-level CM cases were reported by the participating herd personnel, and milk yield and composite SCC data were obtained from the regular test-day recording. Frailty survival models were used to evaluate the long-term therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment of RASCM on quarter-level CM follow-up. Mixed linear regression models were applied to quantify the effect on milk yield and composite SCC. Data of 638 quarters from 486 cows in 38 herds were available for statistical analyses, of which 229 quarters of 175 cows received antimicrobial treatment for RASCM. Antimicrobial treatment culminated in reduced composite SCC levels later in lactation but did not result in different milk yield levels or CM follow-up compared with control cows. Antimicrobial treatment of cows with RASCM should therefore only be considered in exceptional situations given the current focus on antimicrobial usage reduction in animal husbandry.

Dynamic forecasting of individual cow milk yield in automatic milking systems
Jensen, Dan B. ; Voort, Mariska van der; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 10428 - 10439.
dairy cow - dynamic linear model - milk yield - somatic cell count

Accurate forecasting of dairy cow milk yield is useful to dairy farmers, both in relation to financial planning and for detection of deviating yield patterns, which can be an indicator of mastitis and other diseases. In this study we developed a dynamic linear model (DLM) designed to forecast milk yields of individual cows per milking, as they are milked in milking robots. The DLM implements a Wood's function to account for the expected total daily milk yield. It further implements a second-degree polynomial function to account for the effect of the time intervals between milkings on the proportion of the expected total daily milk yield. By combining these 2 functions in a dynamic framework, the DLM was able to continuously forecast the amount of milk to be produced in a given milking. Data from 169,774 milkings on 5 different farms in 2 different countries were used in this study. A separate farm-specific implementation of the DLM was made for each of the 5 farms. To determine which factors would influence the forecast accuracy, the standardized forecast errors of the DLM were described with a linear mixed effects model (lme). This lme included lactation stage (early, middle, or late), somatic cell count (SCC) level (nonelevated or elevated), and whether or not the proper farm-specific version of the DLM was used. The standardized forecast errors of the DLM were only affected by SCC level and interactions between SCC level and lactation stage. Therefore, we concluded that the implementation of Wood's function combined with a second-degree polynomial is useful for dynamic modeling of milk yield in milking robots, and that this model has potential to be used as part of a mastitis detection system.

Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source in dairy cows on natural antibody titers and somatic cell count in milk.
Mayasari, N. ; Rijks, W. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Remmelink, G.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2015
dry period - somatic cell count - antibodies
Omission of the dry period of cows improved energy balance (EB) and showed variable effects on somatic cell counts (SCC) and natural antibodies (NAb) in milk. A glucogenic diet compared with lipogenic diet enhanced plasma NAb binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). NAb in milk were associated with SCC. It was hypothesized that during negative energy balance, NAb either have a role or reflect in inflammatory processes and are associated with SCC. The objective was to study effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on titers of NAb binding KLH and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in milk, SCC and mastitis. In total, 167 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of 3 dry period lengths: 0-, 30- or 60-d and 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic), in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Cows enrolled in this study were clinically healthy and had SCC in milk < 250,000 cell/mL. Milk samples for NAb and SCC measurement were sampled weekly and 4 times per week, respectively, from wk 1 until 14 postpartum. The data collected were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and logistic regression. Cows with a 0-d dry period had higher titers of IgG and IgM binding KLH and LPS and higher SCC in milk compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period (P < 0.01). Mastitis incidence was 17% and did not differ between dry period lengths or lactation diets. A glucogenic diet showed higher titers of IgM binding LPS and tended to have higher titers of IgG binding LPS in milk compared with a lipogenic diet (P < 0.01 and P = 0.08, respectively). Higher titers of IgG and IgM binding KLH and IgG binding LPS were associated with increased risk of high SCC (P < 0.05). Higher IgG and IgM binding KLH and LPS were also associated with increased risk of mastitis (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that cows with a 0-d dry period and fed a glucogenic diet showed high titers of IgG binding LPS in milk. Moreover, we can conclude that IgG and IgM binding KLH or LPS in milk might be additional valuable tools to detect increased risks for mastitis in dairy cows.
Pilot selectief droogzetten op Dairy Campus
Wemmenhove, H. - \ 2013
V-focus 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 42 - 44.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - gustperiode - antibiotica - dosering - celgetal - dairy farming - dairy cows - dry period - antibiotics - dosage - somatic cell count
Op Dairy Campus in Leeuwarden is onderzoek gedaan naar het selectief droogzetten van koeien. Alleen koeien waarbij de laatste drie uitslagen van de MPR beneden 150.000 cellen/ml lagen kwamen in aanmerking om selectief te worden drooggezet.
Droogzetten op kwartierniveau bespaart antibiotica
Wemmenhove, H. ; Kuijt, A. ; Hamming, F. - \ 2013
V-focus 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 46 - 47.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - gustperiode - antibiotica - dosering - celgetal - melkklieren - uiers - dairy farming - dairy cows - dry period - antibiotics - dosage - somatic cell count - mammary glands - udders
Naast het selectief droogzetten op koeniveau is er ook onderzoek gedaan naar selectief droogzetten op kwartierniveau. Door alleen kwartieren met een laag celgetal droog te zetten zonder antibiotica, is in deze pilot een besparing van 30 procent op droogzetpreperaten gerealiseerd zonder dat dit leidde tot het ontstaan van nieuwe mastitisgevallen tijdens de droogstand en in de eerste twee weken na afkalven. Voorwaarde is wel dat het koecelgetal op kwartierniveau kan worden gevolgd.
Immunogenetics in dairy cattle : somatic cell count and natural antibody levels
Wijga, S. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Henk Bovenhuis; John Bastiaansen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737274 - 178
melkvee - melkkoeien - immunogenetica - celgetal - natuurlijke antilichamen - genomica - immunologie - genetica - dairy cattle - dairy cows - immunogenetics - somatic cell count - natural antibodies - genomics - immunology - genetics

There remains is a lot to be learned about the interpretation of genetic parameters and the biology of disease resistance and SCS. This PhD thesis aimed to obtain additional insight in disease resistance and SCS by: 1) quantifying the impact of genetics on innate immunity, represented by natural antibodies (NAb), through estimation of heritabilities and genetic correlations; 2) identifying the genomic regions involved in SCS and NAb levels; 3) quantifying the impact of genetics on environmental sensitivity for SCS.

Natural antibody levels are heritable with heritabilities ranging from 0.06 to 0.55 and in general, heritabilities for NAb isotypes were higher than heritabilities for total NAb levels, the latter making no distinction between isotypes. Genetic correlations suggest that isotypes IgA and IgM have a common genetic basis, but that the genetic basis for IgG1 differs from that for IgA or IgM. An additional genome-wide association study for NAb levels showed that information can be gained when total NAb levels are further subdivided into isotype levels. A region on chromosome 23 was significantly associated with genetic variation in isotype IgM levels. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is located near this region, making this a region of candidate gene(s) involved in NAb expression in dairy cows both from a functional and positional perspective. Results from the study on genetic parameters and the genome-wide association study suggest that NAb isotypes may provide a better characterization of different elements of the immune response or immune competence and enable more effective decisions when breeding programs start to include innate immune parameters. A genome-wide association study was not only performed for NAb levels, but also for SCS. Relatively few associations, however, were found, which suggests that SCS is controlled by multiple loci, each with a relatively small effect, distributed across the genome.

Somatic cell score is partly under genetic control, but is also affected by the environment. Sensitivity to respond to environmental factors, however, can have a genetic origin.

Environmental factors can be divided into known and unknown factors, referred to as macro- and micro environment, respectively. Macro-environmental sensitivity can be expressed as genetic variation in the slope of a reaction norm, whereas micro-environmental sensitivity can be expressed as differences in residual variance that have a genetic origin. Both macro- and micro-environmental sensitivity were found for SCS and these sensitivities were positively correlated. Knowledge on both forms of sensitivity can aid in optimization of selection as correlations between the additive genetic variance in intercept, slope and environmental variance were all away from unity. Selection for reduced environmental sensitivity has the potential to reduce variability in animal performance due to environmental factors and herewith increase predictability of performance across and within environments.

Knowledge on disease biology is important to fully understand the processes involved when selecting for increased disease resistance, as a better understanding enables a better prediction of the consequences. In this context, the general discussion involved the phenotype definition and statistical modeling, influence of maternal effects and genetic variation in the MHC region. The discussion contained three conclusions: 1) analyses of cell types (detailed phenotypes) rather than SCS can provide further insight in the genetic control of SCS and mastitis; 2) no evidence was found for maternal genetic effects on NAb levels in milk. Maternal environmental effects, however, could play a role in NAb levels; 3) genetic diversity in the MHC region is maintained by natural selection. Selective breeding and farm management practices may affect this genetic diversity, which could bring about negative effects on animal fitness, such as fertility problems. Selective breeding for specific MHC haplotypes may therefore impose a risk for negative effects on animal health.

Vaccineren tegen uierontsteking werkt
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
dairy farming - dairy cows - mastitis - vaccination - udders - cattle diseases - animal disease prevention - somatic cell count
Genetic aspects of somatic cell count and udder health in the Italian Valle del Belice dairy sheep
Riggio, V. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Henk Bovenhuis; B. Portolano. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732460 - 137
ovis - schapen - schapenziekten - uiers - mastitis - celgetal - genetica - melkveehouderij - dierveredeling - italië - ovis - sheep - sheep diseases - udders - mastitis - somatic cell count - genetics - dairy farming - animal breeding - italy

Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder, which leads to economic loss, mainly consisting of discarded milk, reduced milk production and quality, and increased health costs. Somatic cell count (SCC), and therefore somatic cell score (SCS), is widely used as indicator of mastitis. In this thesis, I focus on the genetic parameters of SCS as indicator of mastitis, and on the possibilities of using this trait for selection for mastitis resistance in the Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

In Chapter 1, mastitis and SCS are defined and introduced. Chapter 2 deals with the estimation of genetic parameters for SCS and milk production traits in primiparous Valle del Belice ewes. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.09 to 0.14 for milk, fat and protein yields and contents. For SCS, the heritability of 0.14 was relatively high. SCS was genetically positively correlated to milk, fat and protein yields and contents. However, correlations were not extreme, so simultaneous improvement for milk yield and SCS seems possible. In Chapter 3, the level of SCC is included in a survival analysis to evaluate the effect of SCC on functional longevity. Results showed that an increase in SCC was associated with an increase in culling rate.Elevated SCC, therefore, play an indirect role in the culling decisions of Valle del Belice dairy sheep farmers, although, at present, farmers do not directly select for reduced SCC. In Chapter 4, the genetic parameters of the infection status and SCS, according to whether the samples were bacteria negative or positive are reported. Moreover, the impact of imperfect sensitivity and specificity on variance component estimates was investigated. The heritability was 0.10 for bacteria negative SCS, 0.03 for bacteria positive SCS, and 0.09 for infection status, on the liability scale. The genetic correlation between bacteria negative and bacteria positive SCS (0.62) suggests that they may be genetically different traits, confirming that SCSfrom healthy and infected animals should be analyzed separately. Moreover, a positive genetic correlation between bacteria negative SCS and liability to mastitis was found, suggesting that the approach of selecting animals for decreased SCS will help to reduce the prevalence of mastitis. The results also showed that the imperfect diagnosis of infection has an impact on estimated genetic parameters,which may reduce the efficiency of selection strategies aiming at distinguishing between bacteria negative and bacteria positive SCS. In Chapter 5, the diagnostic ability of SCCand California Mastitis Test (CMT) to detect intramammary infectionswas evaluated by using the Receiver-Operating Characteristic(ROC) curves, in order to identify a SCCthreshold that better discriminated healthy from infected udders. The results indicate that the CMT can only discriminate the udders infected from major pathogens. Nevertheless, in general SCS was the best indirect test for the bacteriological status of the udder.

The final chapter explores and discusses the opportunities to use SCS as indicator of mastitis in a selection scheme to improve mastitis resistance for the Valle del Belice dairy sheep breed.

Milk and milk products : annual report 2008 National Reference Laboratory
Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Pol-Hofstad, I. - \ 2009
Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety 2009.010) - 33
melk - melkproducten - rauwe melk - melk testen - celgetal - alkalisch fosfatase - fosfatasetest - kiemgetal - milk - milk products - raw milk - milk testing - somatic cell count - alkaline phosphatase - phosphatase test - bacterial count
Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy farming in the Netherlands
Wagenaar, J.P. ; Langhout, D.J. - \ 2009
melkveehouderij - zogen - spenen - speengewicht - melkkwaliteit - biologische landbouw - celgetal - dairy farming - suckling - weaning - weaning weight - milk quality - organic farming - somatic cell count
In an on-farm experiment three calf rearing methods were compared: bucket feeding of milk replacer, bucket feeding of tank milk and suckling of mother or nurse cow up to three months of age. Aim was to determine whether the technical results of suckling systems in calf rearing were satisfactory. Calves reared in a suckling system reached significantly higher liveweights at weaning (90 days). Although the average growth rate between weaning and the age of 1 year did not differ significantly, liveweight at 1 year did still differ significantly. Compared to both bucket fed rearing groups, suckling did not have a significant effect on Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of mothers. Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy production show satisfactory technical results. Calves have the potential to grow fast and no negative effect of suckling on SCC or general animal health were observed.
Een veestapel in balans voorkomt een hoog celgetal
Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2008
Bioveem
melkveebedrijven - melkveehouderij - diergezondheid - celgetal - biologische landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - antibiotica - dierverzorging - dairy farms - dairy farming - animal health - somatic cell count - organic farming - farm management - antibiotics - care of animals
Durks doelstelling is een bedrijfsvoering te ontwikkelen, waarbij hij het vee, de omstandigheden en het management zodanig op elkaar afstelt, dat antibioticagebruik tegen uierontsteking niet meer nodig is. Achterliggende visie is dat het gebruik van medicijnen beperkt moet blijven. Durk ontdekte dat de koeien na de omschakeling naar biologische bedrijfsvoering sterker waren geworden. De dieren herstelden sneller en gemakkelijker. Ook verliep het afkalven gemakkelijker en waren de kalveren vitaler en meer helder. Op basis hiervan zag Durk mogelijkheden om binnen zijn bedrijfssysteem het antibioticagebruik af te bouwen.
Udder health: analysis of bloodcell dynamics in the PIR-DAP 'traffic light'
Hooijer, G.A. ; Haas, Y. de; Horneman, M. - \ 2008
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)8. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 340 - 341.
rundermastitis - celgetal - uiers - veterinaire praktijk voor grootvee - testen - bovine mastitis - somatic cell count - udders - large animal practice - testing
PIR-Dap heeft in 2005 een hulpmiddel ontwikkeld die de verschuiving in het celgetal inzichtelijk maakt: het stoplicht. Binnen dit instrument wordt de veestapel percentagegewijs in drie groepen ingedeeld, namelijk het percentage dieren met een celgetal lager dan 100.000 (groen), het percentage met een celgetal tussen 100.00 en 200.000 (oranje) en het percentage met een celgetal hoger dan 200.000 (rood). Er wordt bij deze indeling geen onderscheid gemaakt tussen vaarzen en koeien. Dieren in deze drie categorieën worden als het gaat om uiergezondheid gezien als respectievelijk gezond, verdacht van besmetting en besmet
Mammary Health: breeding
Haas, Y. de; Jong, G. de; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2008
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)11. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 464 - 468.
diergezondheid - melkveehouderij - uiers - mastitis - celgetal - rassen (dieren) - verbetering van de veestapel - dierveredeling - animal health - dairy farming - udders - mastitis - somatic cell count - breeds - herd improvement - animal breeding - clinical mastitis - cows
Uiergezondheidsproblemen kunnen ontstaan door een verstoring van de balans tussen de infectiedruk en de weerstand van dieren. Er zijn veel factoren van invloed op die weerstand, waarvan de erfelijke aanleg er een is. Fokkerij houdt zich bezig met de verbetering van deze erfelijke aanleg. Het is een bij uitstek op de toekomst gerichte activiteit vanwege het grote generatie-interval. Beslissingen die in de fokkerij worden genomen, bepalen de aanleg van de dieren die op termijn zullen produceren. Als is vastgesteld wat het fokdoel is, moeten de beste dieren voor die kenmerken worden geselecteerd als ouders van de toekomstige generatie. Weerstand tegen mastitis is voor een deel erfelijk bepaald en kan daarom worden verbeterd door middel van fokkerij. Hiervoor is het van belang dat er een “uiergezondheidsindex” is, waarin vijf kenmerken zijn verwerkt en worden gewogen. In dit artikel wordt duidelijk uiteengezet hoe deze zijn nut kan bewijzen
Mastitis incidence and milk quality in organic dairy farms which use suckling systems in calf rearing.
Wagenaar, J.P. ; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2008
In: Proceedings of the second scientific conference of the ISOFAR, Modena June 2008. - - p. 24 - 27.
biologische landbouw - dierhouderij - rundvee - melkveehouderij - uiers - mastitis - celgetal - organic farming - animal husbandry - cattle - dairy farming - udders - somatic cell count
In order to identify important factors influencing animal health and general disease resistance, detailed qualitative and quantitative farm data were collected from 99 organic dairy farms in the Netherlands. Mastitis incidence and milk quality were focal points of the data collection. In this paper the results of a group of farms which rear dairy calves in suckling systems (n=11) are presented. It was found that compared to other farms in the study (n=88), suckling systems in calf rearing had no clear adverse effects on mastitis incidence and milk quality. In 2006 average clinical mastitis incidence on suckling farms was 14%, on other farms 20%. The percentage of cows with a somatic cell count less than 250,000 at drying-off was lower (60 vs. 66%) at suckling farms. Also immediately after calving the percentage of cows with a somatic cell count less than 250,000 was lower (65 vs. 75%) on suckling farms. Between other farms and suckling farms, but also within suckling farms, distinctively different attitudes to disease management prevailed. Most suckling farms recently introduced suckling systems in calf rearing. Only 1 or 2 generations of suckled heifers had been introduced into the herds up to now. In order to judge whether suckling systems have a potential to improve udder health in future dairy herds, evaluation should be carried out again once suckled heifers constitute the majority of the herd.
Laag celgetal bij eerste afkalving betaalt zich terug
Smolders, E.A.A. ; Wagenaar, J.P. - \ 2008
V-focus 5 (2008)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 20 - 21.
melkveehouderij - vaarzen - melkproductie - uiers - diergezondheid - biologische landbouw - celgetal - kalven - dairy farming - heifers - milk production - udders - animal health - organic farming - somatic cell count - calving
De uiergezondheid van meer dan 7.500 vaarzen van ruim 100 biologische melkveebedrijven zijn beoordeeld op basis van MPR-gegevens (MelkProductieRegistratie 2003-2007). Het celgetal in de eerste MPR na afkalven was gemiddeld 82.000 en was het laagst bij dieren die afkalfden in het begin van de stalperiode. Afkalven op oudere leeftijd had geen gunstige invloed op het celgetal. Vaarzen die afkalfden met een laag celgetal hielden een lager celgetal tijdens de lactatie en werden minder snel afgevoerd
National Reference Laboratory Milk and Milk Products in the Netherlands Combined Annual Report 2006 and 2007
Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. - \ 2008
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety 2008.0009) - 68
melk - melkproducten - rauwe melk - melk testen - celgetal - alkalisch fosfatase - fosfatasetest - kiemgetal - milk - milk products - raw milk - milk testing - somatic cell count - alkaline phosphatase - phosphatase test - bacterial count
Betrouwbaar naar gezonde uiers: ontrafelen celgetalgegevens levert uiergezondheidsindex met 85 procent betrouwbaarheid
Haas, Y. de; Jong, G. de; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Napel, J. ten; Ouweltjes, W. ; Sampimon, O.C. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Windig, J.J. - \ 2008
Veeteelt 25 (2008)9. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 15.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - uiers - diergezondheid - celgetal - koe-indexen - fokwaarde - dierveredeling - dairy farming - dairy cows - udders - animal health - somatic cell count - cow indexes - breeding value - animal breeding
Fokken op uiergezondheid kan betrouwbaarder, zo luidt de conclusie van nieuw onderzoek. Door de celgetalgegevens dieper te analyseren ontstaat een index met 85 % betrouwbaarheid, vergelijkbaar met fokwaarden in de zo geroemde Scandinavische landen. Stieren zullen op z'n vroegst in april 2009 een vernieuwde fokwaarde krijgen
Actieve aanpak celgetal loont : deelnemers studiegroepen UGCN realiseren een significant lager celgetal
Jansen, J. ; Borne, B.H.P. van den - \ 2008
Veeteelt 25 (2008)1. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
melkveehouderij - uiers - melkkwaliteit - celgetal - dierziektepreventie - kennisoverdracht - dairy farming - udders - milk quality - somatic cell count - animal disease prevention - knowledge transfer
Melkveehouders die gemotiveerd in studiegroepen aan uiergezondheid werken, verbeteren de uiergezondheid van hun veestapel. Dat blijkt uit resultaten van studiegroepen van het Uiergezondheidscentrum Nederland. De dierenarts is hierbij de vertrouwenspersoon en de kennisbron. Maar dierenartsen kunnen nog meer betekenen voor de verbetering van de uiergezondheid
'Vertrouw op weerstand van de koe' : Gerard Keurentjes gebruikt al vijf jaar geen antibiotica meer bij zijn koeien
Keurentjes, G. - \ 2007
Nieuwe oogst / LTO Noord. Editie Oost 3 (2007)6. - ISSN 1871-0891 - p. 16 - 16.
melkveehouderij - melkvee - diergezondheid - weerstand - ziekteresistentie - celgetal - graskuilvoer - kuilvoer - droge stof - suikergehalte - diervoeding - dairy farming - dairy cattle - animal health - resistance - disease resistance - somatic cell count - grass silage - silage - dry matter - sugar content - animal nutrition
Gerard Keurentjes houdt zijn koeien gezond met veel aandacht voor de bodem en de weerstand van zijn vee
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