Like water for justice
Joshi, D. - \ 2015
Geoforum 61 (2015). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 111 - 121.
environmental justice - management - himalaya - politics - south
The narrative of environmental justice is powerfully and passionately advocated by researchers, practitioners and activists across scale and space. Yet, because these struggles are multifaceted and pluralistic, rooted in complex, evolving “socio-material-political interminglings” the concept is difficult to grasp, and even harder to realise. Recent literature raises concerns as to what makes for environmental injustices, how injustices are defined, classified as urgent and/or critical, by whom and why, how they gain political attention, etc. This paper draws attention to these issues by contrasting the largely untold, nonetheless entrenched and enduring “old” water supply injustices in the Darjeeling region of the Eastern Himalaya in India with articulate contestations relating to the speedy advancement of “new” hydropower projects here. Water supply problems in the Darjeeling region are particularly wicked – nested in fractious ethnicity–identity political conflicts. These complex local realities tend to obscure the everyday challenges relating to water as well as render these problems spatially anecdotal. What happens – or does not – around water here is certainly unique, yet comparison to other struggles in other settings show that locational and environmental politics provide critical evidence to question the several implicit universalisms in relation to water justice.
Evaluation of ecosystem-based marine management strategies based on risk assessment
Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Knights, A.M. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Paijmans, A.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2015
Biological Conservation 186 (2015). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 158 - 166.
fisheries management - new-zealand - vulnerability - support - areas - south - pressure - context - threats - number
This study presents a comprehensive and generic framework that provides a typology for the identification and selection of consistently defined ecosystem-based management measures and allows a coherent evaluation of these measures based on their performance to achieve policy objectives. The performance is expressed in terms of their reduction of risk of an adverse impact on the marine ecosystem. This typology consists of two interlinked aspects of a measure, i.e. the “Focus” and the “Type”. The “Focus” is determined by the part of the impact chain (Driver–Pressure–State) the measure is supposed to mitigate or counteract. The “Type” represents the physical measure itself in terms of how it affects the impact chain directly; we distinguish Spatio-temporal distribution controls, Input and Output controls, Remediation and Restoration measures. The performance of these measures in terms of their reduction in risk of adverse impacts was assessed based on an explicit consideration of three time horizons: past, present and future. Application of the framework in an integrated management strategy evaluation of a suite of measures, shows that depending on the time horizon, different measures perform best. “Past” points to measures targeting persistent pressures (e.g. marine litter) from past activities. “Present” favors measures targeting a driver (e.g. fisheries) that has a high likelihood of causing adverse impacts. “Future” involves impacts that both have a high likelihood of an adverse impact, as well as a long time to return to pre-impacted condition after the implementation of appropriate management, e.g. those caused by permanent infrastructure or persistent pressures such as marine litter or specific types of pollution.
Partnering for Change in Chains: the capacity of Partnerships to Promote Sustainable Change in Global Agrifood Chains
Bitzer, V.C. - \ 2012
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 15 (2012)B. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 13 - 38.
public-private partnerships - climate governance - coffee certification - business - sector - initiatives - impact - south - standards - networks
Intersectoral partnerships mirror the changing nature of the relationships among state, business and civil society organizations, and are often considered innovative mechanisms to overcome single actor failure in the context of globalization. This article analyzes the capacity of partnerships to promote sustainable change in global agrifood chains from a governance and a development perspective. The global coffee, cotton, and cocoa chains serve as main fields of application. From a governance perspective, the emergence of partnerships is largely positive inasmuch as partnerships act as initiators and agents of change which, although still mostly confined to niche markets, unfolds a chain-wide governance effect. From a development perspective, partnerships can be viewed critically as their top-down and business-driven nature leads to uncertain benefits for producers and results in the marginalization of certain development concerns. These differing conclusions can be explained by the fact that partnerships largely embody the neoliberal agenda, which raises specific questions, particularly from a development perspective.
Virulence genes in bla (CTX-M) Escherichia Coli isolates from chickens and humans
Randall, L. ; Wu, G. ; Phillips, N. ; Coldham, N. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Teale, C. - \ 2012
Research in Veterinary Science 93 (2012)1. - ISSN 0034-5288 - p. 23 - 27.
beta-lactamase - ctx-m - diarrhea - resistance - strains - toxin - south
The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes in isolates of CTX-M Escherichia coli from diseased chickens, from healthy chickens and from urinary tract infections in people. Three CTX-M E. coli strains from three different instances of disease in poultry (two of which were E. coli related) were tested for blaCTX-M sequence type and replicon type. Additionally, they were tested for the presence of 56 virulence genes (encoding fimbriae, adhesins, toxins, microcins and iron acquisition genes) using a micro-array. Results were compared to the virulence genes present in isolates from 26 healthy chickens and from 10 people with urinary tract infections. All genes found in isolates from diseased birds, including the astA (heat stable toxin) and tsh (temperature sensitive haemagglutinin) genes which have previously been associated with colibacillosis in chickens, were also present in isolates from healthy birds. However, 6/10 of the virulence genes found were exclusive to isolates from humans. Genes exclusive to chicken isolates included ireA (sidephore receptor), lpfA (long polar fimbriae), mchF (microcin transporter protein) and tsh whilst genes exclusive to human isolates included ctdB (cytolethal distending toxin), nfaE (non-fimbrial adhesion), senB (plasmid encoded enterotoxin) and toxB (toxin B). The results support previous findings that CTX-M E. coli strains in chickens are generally different from those causing disease in humans, but genes such as astA and tsh in isolates from diseased birds with colisepticaemia were also present in isolates from healthy birds
Changing forestry discourses in Vietnam in the past 20 years
Dang, T.K.P. ; Turnhout, E. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2012
Forest Policy and Economics 25 (2012). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 31 - 41.
policy - management - lessons - south - land
Governance and sustainability are important topics of debate in global forest policy. It is however crucial to understand how these ideas have impacted national and local forest policy and management. The case of Vietnam is interesting and relevant because since the late 1980s, Vietnam's state forestry has undergone a reform towards sustainable management and social participation. This reform has triggered the emergence of two new policy discourses — ‘forestry socialization’ and ‘sustainable forest management’. This article uses discourse analysis to investigate the implications of these discourses in Vietnam forestry. In particular, it examines the extent to which the ‘forestry socialization’ and ‘sustainable forest management' discourses can be recognized in Vietnamese forest policy over the last 20 years. The results show that both discourses are well represented in policy documents and related discussions broad presence of both discourses. However, the findings also demonstrate the existence of discursive struggles among different coalitions over the interpretation of ‘forestry socialization’ and ‘sustainable forest management’. We conclude that the two discourses have had a significant impact on how key actors in Vietnam forestry frame problems and solutions. However, the specific patterns in which the two discourses developed in the Vietnamese context also indicate that powerful elites have been hesitant to take further steps in forestry socialization.
Mapping the irrigated rice cropping patterns of the Mekong delta, Vietnam through hyper-temporal SPOT NDVI image analysis
Nguyen, Thi Thu Ha ; Bie, C.A.J.M. de; Ali, A. ; Smaling, E.M.A. ; Hoanh, C.T. - \ 2012
International Journal of Remote Sensing 33 (2012)2. - ISSN 0143-1161 - p. 415 - 434.
multitemporal modis images - time-series - agriculture - areas - china - south - classification - expansion - systems - fields
Successful identification and mapping of different cropping patterns under cloudy conditions of a specific crop through remote sensing provides important baseline information for planning and monitoring. In Vietnam, this information is either missing or unavailable; several ongoing projects studying options with radar to avoid earth observation problems caused by the prevailing cloudy conditions have to date produced only partial successes. In this research, optical hyper-temporal Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) VEGETATION (SPOT VGT) data (1998–2008) were used to describe and map variability in irrigated rice cropping patterns of the Mekong delta. Divergence statistics were used to evaluate signature separabilities of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes generated from the iterative self-organizing data analysis technique algorithm (ISODATA) classification of 10-day SPOT NDVI image series. Based on this evaluation, a map with 77 classes was selected. Out of these 77 mapped classes, 26 classes with prior knowledge that they represent rice were selected to design the sampling scheme for fieldwork and for crop calendar characterization. Using the collected information of 112 farmers’ fields belonging to the 26 selected classes, the map produced provides highly accurate information on rice cropping patterns (94% overall accuracy, 0.93 Kappa coefficient). We found that the spatial distributions of the triple and the double rice cropping systems are highly related to the flooding regime from the Hau and Tien rivers. Areas that are highly vulnerable to flooding in the upper part and those that are saline in the north-western part of the delta mostly have a double rice cropping system, whilst areas in the central and the south-eastern parts mostly have a triple rice cropping system. In turn, the duration of flooding is highly correlated with the decision by farmers to cultivate shorter or longer duration rice varieties. The overall spatial variability mostly coincides with administrative units, indicating that crop pattern choices and water control measures are locally synchronized. Water supply risks, soil acidity and salinity constraints and the anticipated highly fluctuating rice market prices all strongly influence specific farmers’ choices of rice varieties. These choices vary considerably annually, and therefore grown rice varieties are difficult to map. Our study demonstrates the high potential of optical hyper-temporal images, taken on a daily basis, to differentiate and map a high variety of irrigated rice cropping patterns and crop calendars at a high level of accuracy in spite of cloudy conditions
Anatomy of extraordinary rainfall and flash flood in a Dutch lowland catchment
Brauer, C.C. ; Teuling, R. ; Overeem, A. ; Velde, Y. van der; Hazenberg, P. ; Warmerdam, P.M.M. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2011
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15 (2011). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1991 - 2005.
neerslag - regen - waterstand - waterbergend vermogen - wateropslag - waterverzadiging - waterbeheer - laaglandgebieden - precipitation - rain - water level - water holding capacity - water storage - waterlogging - water management - lowland areas - route contributions - groundwater - france - event - south - soil
On 26 August 2010 the eastern part of The Netherlands and the bordering part of Germany were struck by a series of rainfall events lasting for more than a day. Over an area of 740 km2 more than 120 mm of rainfall were observed in 24 h. This extreme event resulted in local flooding of city centres, highways and agricultural fields, and considerable financial loss. In this paper we report on the unprecedented flash flood triggered by this exceptionally heavy rainfall event in the 6.5 km2 Hupsel Brook catchment, which has been the experimental watershed employed by Wageningen University since the 1960s. This study aims to improve our understanding of the dynamics of such lowland flash floods. We present a detailed hydrometeorological analysis of this extreme event, focusing on its synoptic meteorological characteristics, its space-time rainfall dynamics as observed with rain gauges, weather radar and a microwave link, as well as the measured soil moisture, groundwater and discharge response of the catchment. At the Hupsel Brook catchment 160 mm of rainfall was observed in 24 h, corresponding to an estimated return period of well over 1000 years. As a result, discharge at the catchment outlet increased from 4.4 × 10-3 to nearly 5 m3 s-1. Within 7 h discharge rose from 5 × 10-2 to 4.5 m3 s-1. The catchment response can be divided into four phases: (1) soil moisture reservoir filling, (2) groundwater response, (3) surface depression filling and surface runoff and (4) backwater feedback. The first 35 mm of rainfall were stored in the soil without a significant increase in discharge. Relatively dry initial conditions (in comparison to those for past discharge extremes) prevented an even faster and more extreme hydrological response.
Accountability and legitimacy in earth system governance: A research framework
Biermann, F. ; Gupta, A. - \ 2011
Ecological Economics 70 (2011)11. - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 1856 - 1864.
global environmental assessments - private governance - transparency - south - organizations - institutions - communities - disclosure - politics - rule
Along with concerns over the effectiveness of earth system governance, ways of enhancing its accountability and legitimacy are increasingly coming to the fore in both scholarly debate and political practice. Concerns over accountability and legitimacy pertain to all levels of governance, from the local to the global, and cover the spectrum of public and private governance arrangements. This conceptual article elaborates on the sources, mechanisms and reform options relating to more accountable, legitimate and democratic earth system governance. We proceed in four steps. First, we conceptualize accountability and legitimacy in earth system governance. Second, we place questions of accountability and legitimacy within the larger context of earth system transformation, which, we argue, poses special challenges to the pursuit of accountability and legitimacy. Third, drawing on the contributions to this special section, we analyze different sources and mechanisms of accountability and legitimacy and their effects on the democratic potential and effectiveness of governance. Fourth, in concluding, we outline reform options that may help alleviate persisting deficits in the democratic potential of earth system governance
Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees
Biermann, F. ; Boas, I.J.C. - \ 2010
Global Environmental Politics 10 (2010)1. - ISSN 1526-3800 - p. 60 - 88.
environmental refugees - 21st-century - impacts - south
human history. Millions of people, largely in Africa and Asia, might be forced to leave their homes to seek refuge in other places or countries over the course of the century. Yet the current institutions, organizations, and funding mechanisms are not sufficiently equipped to deal with this looming crisis. The situation calls for new governance. We outline and discuss in this article a blueprint for a global governance architecture for the protection and voluntary resettlement of climate refugees—defined as people who have to leave their habitats because of sudden or gradual alterations in their natural environment related to one of three impacts of climate change: sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and drought and water scarcity. We provide an extensive review of current estimates of likely numbers and probable regions of origin of climate refugees. With a view to existing institutions, we argue against the extension of the definition of refugees under the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Key elements of our proposal are, instead, a new legal instrument specifically tailored for the needs of climate refugees—a Protocol on Recognition, Protection, and Resettlement of Climate Refugees to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change—as well as a separate funding mechanism.
Evaluating the performance of survey-based operational management procedures
Pomarede, M. ; Hillary, R. ; Ibaibarriaga, L. ; Bogaards, J.A. ; Apostolaki, P. - \ 2010
Aquatic Living Resources 23 (2010)1. - ISSN 0990-7440 - p. 77 - 94.
international-whaling-commission - stock assessment methods - african pelagic fishery - strategy evaluation - south - experiences - indexes - model - flr
The design and evaluation of survey-based management strategies is addressed in this article, using three case-study fisheries: North Sea herring, Bay of Biscay anchovy and North Sea cod, with a brief history and the main management issues with each fishery outlined. A range of operational management procedures for the case study stocks were designed and evaluated using trends that may be derived from survey indices (spawner biomass, year-class strength and total mortality) with an array of simple and more structured observation error regimes simulated. Model-free and model-based indicators of stock status were employed in the management procedures. On the basis of stochastic stock-specific simulations, we identified the following key determinants of successful management procedures: (i) adequate specification of the stock-recruit relationship (model structure, parameter estimates and variability), (ii) knowledge of the magnitude and structure of the variation in the survey indices, and (iii) explication of the particular management objectives, when assessing management performance. More conservative harvesting strategies are required to meet specified targets in the presence of increasing stochasticity, due to both process and observation error. It was seen that survey-based operational management procedures can perform well in the absence of commercial data, and can also inform aspects of survey design with respect to acceptable levels of error or bias in the surveys.
Transparency to what End? Governing by disclosure through the Biosafety Clearing House
Gupta, A. - \ 2010
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 28 (2010)2. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 128 - 144.
right-to-know - global environmental assessments - information disclosure - cartagena protocol - scientific advice - governance - accountability - politics - south - risk
Although transparency is a key concept in the social sciences, it remains an understudied phenomenon in global environmental governance. This paper analyzes effectiveness of ‘governance by transparency’ or governance by information disclosure as a key innovation in global environmental and risk governance. Information disclosure is central to current efforts to govern biosafety or safe trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Through analyzing the dynamics of GMO-related information disclosure to the global Biosafety Clearing House (BCH), I argue that the originally intended normative and procedural aims of disclosure in this case—to facilitate a GMO-importing country’s right to know and right to choose prior to trade in GMOs—are not yet being realized, partly because the burden of BCH disclosure currently rests, ironically, on importing countries. As a result, BCH disclosure may even have market-facilitating rather than originally intended market-regulating effects with regard to GMO trade, turning on its head the intended aims of governance by disclosure
Discursive biases of the environmental research framework DPSIR
Svarstad, H. ; Petersen, L.K. ; Rothman, D. ; Siepel, H. ; Wätzold, F. - \ 2008
Land Use Policy 25 (2008)1. - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 116 - 125.
africa - ecology - south - land - tool
The Drivers¿Pressures¿State¿Impacts¿Responses (DPSIR) framework has evolved as an interdisciplinary tool to provide and communicate knowledge on the state and causal factors regarding environmental issues. Based on a social constructivist and discourse analytic perspective, this paper provides a critical examination of theoretical foundations of the DPSIR approach. We focus on the example of biodiversity, but our conclusions are relevant to other fields of environmental research. The DPSIR framework is viewed through the `lenses¿ of four major types of discourses on biodiversity: Preservationist, Win¿win, Traditionalist and Promethean. Based upon this examination, we argue that the DPSIR framework is not a tool generating neutral knowledge. Instead, application of this framework reproduces the discursive positions the applicant brings into it. We find that when applied in its traditional form to studies in the field of biodiversity, the framework is most compatible with the Preservationist discourse type and tends to favour conservationist and to neglect other positions. Thus, contrary to what is often claimed, we find that the DPSIR framework has shortcomings as a tool for establishing good communication between researchers, on the one hand, and stakeholders and policy makers on the other. The problem with the framework is the lack, so far, of efforts to find a satisfactory way of dealing with the multiple attitudes and definitions of issues by stakeholders and the general public.
Habitat use of warthogs on a former cattle ranch in Tanzania
Treydte, A.C. ; Halsdorf, S.A. ; Weber, E. ; Edwards, P.J. - \ 2006
Journal of Wildlife Management 70 (2006)5. - ISSN 0022-541X - p. 1285 - 1292.
long-term - savanna - vegetation - diversity - patterns - kenya - south - dung
We investigated habitat use of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) on a large, recently abandoned ranch in Tanzania. Fifty years of ranching had heavily modified the savanna vegetation, especially close to the paddocks where cattle were kept overnight. We recognized 4 characteristic vegetation zones along transects radiating from these paddocks: paddock center (PC), paddock margin (PM), acacia scrub (AS), and unmodified savanna (SV). Within these zones, we recorded warthog traces such as footprints, dung pellet groups, and diggings, and used these data to calculate presence and activity indices. Warthog traces were more abundant in the PM and AS than in PC and SV zones, and during dry periods the presence and activity indices were highest within and close to paddocks. From our results, we concluded that 1) warthogs are pioneer species, being one of the first native ungulates to recolonize cattle-impacted savanna vegetation; 2) areas close to former paddocks are particularly attractive to this species because of their vegetation structure and nutritional quality; 3) management to restore wildlife populations in former rangeland should initially focus on those areas where wildlife recolonization commences; and 4) indirect observations help to identify habitat-use patterns and point out key wildlife areas important for future protection.