Effect of water use by smallholder farms in the Letaba basin : a case study using the SIMGRO model
Querner, E.P. ; Froebrich, J. ; Clercq, Willem de; Jovanovic, Nebo - \ 2016
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2715) - 49
hydrology - models - groundwater - surface water - irrigation - farming systems - limpopo - south africa - hydrologie - modellen - grondwater - oppervlaktewater - irrigatie - bedrijfssystemen - limpopo - zuid-afrika
For the Letaba basin situated in the South African part of the Limpopo basin, a hydrological study was carried out in order to quantify the effect of smallholder farming on river flows. Important was to study the consequences of improved agricultural systems on the river flows, in particular for the Kruger National Park situated in the lower part of the Letaba basin. The SIMGRO model was used in this study, which integrates groundwater and surface water. The model was calibrated, and furthermore a comparison of measured discharges and groundwater levels against calculated discharges and groundwater levels, revealed that the model is suiTable for practical analysis. For the smallholders farms different scenarios were defined with different levels of crop yield. An increase in crop yield has consequences on more water use as irrigation and crop water use. Because the area covering smallholder farming is only 0.5% of the basin, the effects of changes in water use are relatively small. In a scenario, the weather conditions for 2050 were analysed. This reveals that discharges will go down by 30% on average, which means a substantial reduction of the water resources.
Is Inclusive Business for you? Managing and upsclaing an inclusive company : Lessons from the field
Blomne Sopov, M. ; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Sertse, Y. ; Vellema, W. ; Verjans, H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462571938 - 147
ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - contractlandbouw - bedrijfssystemen - agrarische economie - economische ontwikkeling - afrika - ethiopië - burundi - kenya - mozambique - zuid-afrika - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - markten - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - contract farming - farming systems - agricultural economics - economic development - africa - ethiopia - burundi - kenya - mozambique - south africa - africa south of sahara - markets
Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a billion hungry people and some four billion people at the base of the economic pyramid by 2050, are we making progress fast enough? What options are there with real promise? And, how can all stakeholders collaborate better to bring change at scale? This report gives the outcomes of the ‘From Islands of Success to Seas of Change’ initiative on scaling inclusive agri-food markets. It combines background research, interviews and case studies with the insights of 100 leaders from business, government, NGOs, research, and farmer organizations who attended the Seas of Change workshop in April 2012. The case for scaling inclusive agrifood markets is explained and ten key challenges are explored. This leads to lessons for key stakeholders and a follow-up agenda for improved targeting of inclusive investments.
Mapping and modelling the effects of land use and land management change on ecosystem services from local ecosystems and landscapes to global biomes
Petz, K. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Rob Alkemade; Dolf de Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738509 - 212
ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - landgebruik - grondbeheer - cartografie - modelleren - extensieve weiden - begrazing - noord-brabant - zuid-afrika - ecosystem services - ecosystems - land use - land management - mapping - modeling - rangelands - grazing - noord-brabant - south africa
Herstel en duurzaam beheer van biodiversiteit en ecosysteemdiensten worden steeds meer geïntegreerd in nationaal en internationaal beleid. In dit proefschrift wordt een methodologie ontwikkeld voor de kwantificering van effecten van landmanagement op de ruimtelijke verspreiding van ecosysteemdiensten, zodat de door landmanagement veroorzaakte trade-offs tussen ecosysteemdiensten bepaald kunnen worden voor zowel lokale ecosystemen en landschappen als regionale en mondiale biomen. Een groot aantal ecosysteemdiensten zijn bestudeerd. De karterings- en modelleringsmethoden zijn toegepast en gecombineerd met scenario-analyse in de Nederlandse en Zuid-Afrikaanse studies. Voor Nederland is het landschap van Het Groene Woud bestudeerd.
|In the Shadow of Policy: Everyday Practices in South Africa’s Land and Agrarian Reform
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Cousins, B. - \ 2013
Johannesburg : Wits University press - ISBN 9781868147458 - 308
pachtstelsel - landhervorming - overheidsbeleid - eigendomsrechten - landgebruik - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw - zuid-afrika - tenure systems - land reform - government policy - property rights - land use - rural development - agriculture - south africa
Landscapes of deracialization : power, brokerage and place-making on a South African frontier
Leynseele, Y.P.B. Van - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737311 - 248
landhervorming - grondrechten - gemeenschappen - grondeigendom - landverdeling - landgebruik - rassendiscriminatie - plattelandsontwikkeling - rurale sociologie - limpopo - zuid-afrika - land reform - land rights - communities - land ownership - land diversion - land use - racial discrimination - rural development - rural sociology - limpopo - south africa
This thesis deals with the politicized struggles for land in South Africa’s Limpopo Province. With land having been an essential part of colonial and apartheid segregation policies and practice – with 87% of land appropriated by whites –, a land reform programme was imperative after the African National Congress came to power in 1994. One of the three branches of the land reform programme, land restitution, is a key focus of this thesis. It is particular in its goal to do justice to victims of past land dispossessions who lost land rights as result of racially-discriminatory laws by compensating them for this past loss of land and livelihoods. Where compensation for lost rights involves the government buying and redistributing land to groups with historical rights to land, such land deals present particular challenges around the ideal of restorative justice and what is means to ‘bring the past into the present’.
Linking climate smart agriculture and good agriculture practices: case studies on consumption potatoes in South Africa, the Netherlands and Ethiopia
Hengsdijk, H. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 508) - 30
duurzame landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - teeltsystemen - aardappelen - good practices - gevalsanalyse - akkerbouw - zuid-afrika - nederland - ethiopië - sustainable agriculture - farming systems - cropping systems - potatoes - good practices - case studies - arable farming - south africa - netherlands - ethiopia
Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture has been coined in an attempt to overcome existing barriers among food security, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, and mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because the goals of CSA ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is important to link and integrate CSA goals with Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). Although the general scope of GAP is clear, i.e. sustainable agricultural intensification, there is little common ground in what 'good' means in practice and how CSA goals should be addressed in GAP. Using the integrated framework, this report illustrates the integration of CSA and GAP in potato production systems in three contrasting economies with different biophysical and climatological conditions, i.e. The Netherlands (Flevoland) a high income economy in a temperate climate, South Africa (Sandveld) an upper-middle income economy in a Mediterranean climate, and Ethiopia (Rift valley) a low income economy in a semi-tropical climate. Related to the differences in economic development, physical conditions and expected impacts of climate change the cases illustrate the location-specific differences in current potato management, CSA options, and strategies to lift existing institutional and financial barriers hindering the realization of these options.
Modelling water quantity and quality using SWAT : a case study in the Limpopo River basin, South Africa
Querner, E.P. ; Zanen, M. - \ 2013
Alterra : Wageningen (Alterra-report 2405) - 70
waterkwaliteit - water - waterbeheer - modelleren - modellen - rivieren - zuid-afrika - water quality - water - water management - modeling - models - rivers - south africa
In the EAU4Food project the enormous challenges African agriculture is facing today are addressed: the agricultural productivity must increase in the coming years. At present the increase in food production cannot keep up with the population growth. In the coming years irrigation will gain importance, but at the same time the availability of fresh water and the sustainable use of soil resources is under increasing pressure. Hence, new approaches are required to increase food production in irrigated areas in Africa, while ensuring healthy and resilient environments. The need to use less water to produce crops requires innovative approaches. By using models the aim is to analyse feasible measures to improve water efficiency and to reduce negative impacts. The SWAT model has been applied in the Nsama sub-basin, which is situated within the Letaba basin in South Africa. SWAT is a conceptual, physically based hydrological model using daily time steps. In SWAT, a basin to be modelled is divided into multiple sub catchments, which are then further subdivided into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) that consist of a homogeneous land use, management, ground slope, and soil characteristics. Flow generation, sediment yield, and non-point-source loadings from each HRU in a sub catchment can be simulated. The purpose of this case study is to use the SWAT model to analyse the effects of changes to the hydrological system. Because of the lack of data, the model could not be calibrated, instead a sensitivity analysis was carried out. Measured discharges from the Letaba basin were scaled down to the Nsama in order to compare at that level measured and calculated discharges. As a test case two scenarios were modelled, being a change in land use and the effect of a DDT application. Based on the experience of this try-out with the SWAT model and the ArcSWAT user interface, the model will be used further for analysis of agricultural production changes and their effects on water quantity and quality.
|Geboeid door het verleden. Beschouwingen over historische ecologie
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Janssen, J.A.M. - \ 2012
Zeist : KNNV uitgeverij - ISBN 9789050114493 - 184
historische ecologie - veengebieden - heidegebieden - prunus serotina - ecologisch herstel - nederland - zuid-afrika - natuurbeheer - historical ecology - peatlands - heathlands - prunus serotina - ecological restoration - netherlands - south africa - nature management
Geboeid door het verleden heeft de historische ecologie tot onderwerp, een vakgebied waaraan je steeds meer verslingerd raakt naarmate je dieper in de verhalen doordringt. De geschiedenis van natuur en landschap vormt de bakermat voor het bestaan en de identiteit van ieder mens, zo verwoordde Theo Spek (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen) onlangs in zijn inaugurele rede. In een achttal beschouwingen komt een geweldige verscheidenheid aan thema’s aan bod, vaak met verrassende inzichten en conclusies. Ieder hoofdstuk is geschreven door een student samen met een gerenommeerde vakgenoot. Hoe zag het Nederlandse landschap er uit aan het eind van de Middeleeuwen? Wat is de toekomst van de heiden in ons land? Hoe ontstonden onze vennen, de pelen op de grens van Brabant en Limburg, onze beemden in de uiterwaarden? In hoeverre is de natuur ons land eigenlijk wel maakbaar, en hoe kunnen we het beste omgaan om invasieve struiken in onze bossen. Allemaal vragen waarop getracht wordt een antwoord te vinden.
|Kroonjuwelen van de Kaap
Sluiter, L. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2012
Zeist : KNVV - ISBN 9789050114301 - 191
plantenecologie - vegetatie - natuurbescherming - biodiversiteit - plantengeografie - fijnbos (zuid afrika) - lokale geschiedenis - inheemse volkeren - flora - westkaap - zuid-afrika - plant ecology - vegetation - nature conservation - biodiversity - phytogeography - fynbos - local history - indigenous people - western cape - south africa
'Kroonjuwelen van de Kaap' neemt de fascinerende wereld van de Kaap onder de loep. Niet alleen de biologische rijkdom van het fynbos, maar ook de geschiedenis van het gebied en zijn bewoners. Na eeuwenlang op zichzelf te hebben geleefd, in nauw samenspel met de natuur, kregen de oorspronkelijke bewoners, de Khoikhoi en de San, vanaf de zeventiende eeuw te maken met kolonialisme, en de daaruit voortgekomen apartheid. Recente ontwikkelingen, waaronder de grootschalige teelt van rooibosthee, zetten het kwetsbare gebied en haar oeroude bevolking sterk onder druk. Maar dankzij lokale initiatieven doen duurzaamheid en eerlijke handel geleidelijk hun intrede. 'Kroonjuwelen van de Kaap' is een beeldende reportage van een bijzonder gebied en de mensen die er wonen en werken. Natuurbeschermers, wetenschappers en de lokale bevolking komen aan het woord. Het eerste deel van het boek stelt de natuur centraal, het tweede deel gaat over het menselijk gebruik van het fynbos en de vragen die dit oproept.
Elephants of democracy : an unfolding process of resettlement in the Limpopo National Park
Milgroom, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732699 - 322
nationale parken - natuurbescherming - ontwikkelingsprojecten - politiek - natuurbeleid - wildbescherming - invloeden - inheemse volkeren - bevolkingsverplaatsing - zuid-afrika - zimbabwe - mozambique - national parks - nature conservation - development projects - politics - nature conservation policy - wildlife conservation - influences - indigenous people - resettlement - south africa - zimbabwe - mozambique
The proposed paper will focus on the process of displacement taking place in the context of the creation of the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. This park is part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also includes the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and Gonarezhou National Park (Zimbabwe). The creation of the Limpopo National Park – which involved the translocation of more than 3000 animals from Kruger park to Limpopo park, including more than a hundred elephants – is strongly associated by some local residents with political developments following the cease-fire in 1992 and the increased regional cooperation since South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994. The paper will describe how the establishment of the larger transfrontier park resulted in pressure on the Mozambican government to favour the model of a national park over other conservation options that might have better accommodated the interests of local communities. About 26 000 people are currently living in the Limpopo National Park; about 6000 of whom are in the process of being resettled to an area southeast of the park. The Mozambican government and donors funding the creation of the park have maintained that no forced relocation will take place. However, the pressure created by restrictions on livelihood strategies resulting from park regulations, and the increased presence of wildlife has forced some communities to ‘accept’ the resettlement option. The paper will describe the negotiation process about alternative locations and compensation packages for the communities to be resettled, involving park officials, local and international NGOs, and communities. An analysis will be presented of the power struggles between those parties, but also of the internal contradictions and conflicts that each of the parties experience. Furthermore, an often neglected aspect will be explored, namely that of the possible consequences of resettlement for the hosting communities outside of the park
|Over mensen en natuur; Agrarisch en Particulier Natuurbeheer in de Baviaanskloof, Zuid-Afrika
Vries, J.R. de; Oude Munnink, J. - \ 2012
Landwerk 2012 (2012)1. - ISSN 1567-1844 - p. 37 - 42.
natuurbeleid - natuurgebieden - particuliere organisaties - grondeigendom - zuid-afrika - nature conservation policy - natural areas - private organizations - land ownership - south africa
Natuurbeheer moet weer in en door de streek gebeuren, vindt het kabinet. De nieuwe aandacht voor gebiedsgewijze aanpak in natuurbeheer nodigt uit om dit onder de loep te nemen. Ook in Zuid-Afrika is een verschuiving gaande van natuurbeheer door de overheid naar natuurbeheer door particuliere grondeigenaren. Aan de hand van een Zuid-Afrikaanse casus analyseren de auteurs wat belangrijke factoren zijn bij het realiseren van natuurbeheer en natuurherstel door particuliere grondeigenaren.
Unlocking markets to smallholders : lessons from South Africa
Schalkwyk, H.D. van; Groenewald, J.A. ; Fraser, G.C.G. ; Obi, A. ; Tilburg, A. van - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Mansholt publication series vol. 10) - ISBN 9789086861347 - 268
kleine landbouwbedrijven - landbouw - boerenmarkten - integratie - markten - zuid-afrika - small farms - agriculture - farmers' markets - integration - markets - south africa
This book assesses the institutional, technical and market constraints as well as opportunities for smallholders, notably, emerging farmers in disadvantaged areas such as the former homelands of South Africa. Emerging farmers are previously disadvantaged black people who started or will start their business with the support of special government programs. Public support programs have been developed as part of the Black Economic Empowerment strategy of the South African government. These programs aim to improve the performance of emerging farmers. This requires, first and foremost, upgrading the emerging farmers skills by providing access to knowledge about agricultural and entrepreneurial practices. To become or to remain good farmers they also need access to suitable agricultural land and sufficient water for irrigation and for feeding their cattle. Finally, for emerging farmers to be engaged in viable farming operations, various factors need to be in place such as marketing and service institutions to give credit for agricultural inputs and investments; input markets for farm machinery, farm implements, fertilizers and quality seeds; and accessible output markets for their end products. This book develops a policy framework and potential institutional responses to unlock the relevant markets for smallholders
EBONE in Mediterranean and desert sites in Israel, with notes on South Africa : report on field tests in LTER sites and habitat monitoring
Olsvig-Whittaker, L. ; Jobse, D. ; Gelder, A. de - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2260) - 54 p.
habitats - biodiversiteit - remote sensing - woestijnen - israël - zuid-afrika - habitats - biodiversity - remote sensing - deserts - israel - south africa
|New Alliances for Tourism, Conservation and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa
Duim, R. van der; Meyer, D. ; Saarinen, J. ; Zellmer, K. - \ 2011
Delft : Eburon - ISBN 9789059725423 - 210
duurzaam tourisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - toeristenindustrie - economische ontwikkeling - natuurbescherming - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - kenya - uganda - botswana - namibië - zuid-afrika - mozambique - zanzibar - sustainable tourism - tourism development - tourist industry - economic development - nature conservation - community involvement - africa south of sahara - kenya - uganda - botswana - namibia - south africa - mozambique - zanzibar
This book introduces and discusses new alliances related to the growth of tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa. The private sector is increasingly involved in inter-sectoral alliances to both capitalise on the growing tourism industry and contribute to wider economic development in the destinations. The first three chapters of this book discuss representative cases of such alliances in Mozambique, Zanzibar and Uganda. The chapters that follow examine evidence of growth in partnerships between public, private and third-sector organisations in tourism, conservation and development. These illustrate the variety of emerging partnerships and some of their consequences, by means of case studies from Kenya, Uganda, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa.
Cooperation or competition : dilemma for resource managers in sustainable wildlife utilisation
Mwakiwa, E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; J. Hearne, co-promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Hans Stigter. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730381 - 137
wildbeheer - particulier eigendom - grondeigendom - modelleren - loxodonta africana - savannen - grondproductiviteit - natuurreservaten - nationale parken - zuid-afrika - wildlife management - private ownership - land ownership - modeling - loxodonta africana - savannas - land productivity - nature reserves - national parks - south africa
Keywords: analytical modelling; Associated Private Nature Reserves; consumptive use; elephants; Kruger National Park; land productivity; non-consumptive use; waterpoints; Savanna ecosystem model; South Africa.
Wildlife as part of biodiversity is a global natural resource. However, landowners have some control over the future of wildlife on their land. Wildlife could be managed by the state or private landowners. The survival of the wildlife and their habitats is determined by how these landowners decide to use the land and the renewable resources on it. Some complication come into place given that wildlife usually roam on land held over by more than one owner providing more challenge to its management. In addition, wildlife as a natural resource has multiple uses that generate revenues for the betterment of the landowners. The uses could be consumptive or non-consumptive. Each landowner has multiple objectives which might be conflicting which poses even a greater challenge to the sustainable wildlife management.
To meet their objectives wildlife managers use management tools. Some of the tools used include constructing or closing of artificial waterpoints, fire management, fencing, and population manipulation through culling/hunting or translocation of animals. However, use of these management tools can lead to unintended or opposite effects if they are not well understood. There are direct and indirect effects of the tools on biodiversity. Landowners could be tempted to excessively use some of the tools in order to achieve their objectives. In addition, most studies have concentrated on either the ecological or economic effects of the wildlife management tools. For the landowner, it is essential that he comprehends both the ecological and economic effects of the wildlife management tools for the sustainable management of wildlife, a contribution of this study.
The main objective of this study is to assess the ecological and economic implications of some wildlife management tools on the landowners’ welfare. I use simple ecological economic analytical models based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle to perform the analyses. The Savanna ecosystem model which is a spatially explicit, process-oriented model is also used to further explore the effects of one of the wildlife management tools on landowner’s multiple objectives.
One of the tools that is analyzed in this thesis is the improvement of land productivity through increasing of vegetation quality. Given that, it is usually not easy to increase the land size in response to increased incentives, some landowners might consider increasing the land productivity. The results show that utilization of wildlife can contribute to wildlife conservation and enhancement of welfare as a result of investment by landowners into habitat quality improvement. However, the use of a wildlife management tool has direct and indirect effects as demonstrated by another framework presented in this thesis on waterpoints. Waterpoints are used by wildlife managers to supplement natural water supplies which in turn support herbivore populations, like elephants. A private oriented landowner may be interested only in maximization of profits or personal benefits either from elephant offtake and/or tourism revenue, thus might ignore the negative effects that could be brought about by elephants to biodiversity. In such case, the game reserve management as the authority entrusted with sustainable management of the game reserve should use economic instruments such as subsidies or payments for the compliant landowners and/or taxes or charges for the non-compliant landowners to encourage compliance with sustainable wildlife management practices.
The Savanna ecosystem model is used to explore the effects of waterpoints on elephant density (representing an economic objective) and biodiversity (representing an ecological objective). The model is used to analyze the differential impact of waterpoints on the Kruger National Park’s regions under 26 waterpoints manipulation scenarios. The model is also used to analyze elephant impact on vegetation biomass diversity in four regions of Kruger National Park. The results showed that constructing (or closing) extra waterpoints in one region does not necessarily translate into higher (or lower) elephant densities in that region, but the effect depends on the vegetation and other conditions of the region in comparison to neighbouring regions. In one of the regions, the model showed that there is a trade-off between elephant density and vegetation biomass diversity. In another region, elephants’ effect on vegetation biomass diversity follows the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, whilst in other regions the relationship is positive. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis postulates that there would be a higher diversity of vegetation structure at intermediate elephant densities whilst at extreme levels of both low and high disturbance the diversity would be reduced. The model thus suggests that different strategies should be adopted for different regions, e.g., an adaptive management strategy could be used for one of the regions where waterpoints are switched on and off depending on the elephant density.
Another wildlife management tool that is analyzed is the use of physical barriers like fences. Physical barriers could be utilised by landowners to separate different wildlife uses which might be conflicting. Landowners or game reserve management are often faced with the decision whether to undertake consumptive (hunting) and/or non-consumptive (tourism) use on their properties. A theoretical model is constructed to examine these cases. The results show that that the two uses can be undertaken in the same contiguous area if the consumptive use is not dominating.
In conclusion, what emerges from this work is that given that the landowner’s welfare is not only affected by his own actions but also his neighbours’ modi operandi, then the landowner should consider all levels of cooperation with his neighbours in order to fully maximize his welfare. This includes cooperation in terms of which management tool(s) he and/or his neighbour should use. The frameworks presented in this thesis could be used by landowners (both state and private) to analyze the effects of their management actions on their welfare.
Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS
Preez, C.J. du - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Gerda Casimir. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859321 - 199
landbouwhuishoudens - platteland - hiv-infecties - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - ziekte - sociologie - zorg - geslacht (gender) - middelen van bestaan - zuid-afrika - zuidelijk afrika - agricultural households - rural areas - hiv infections - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - illness - sociology - care - gender - livelihoods - south africa - southern africa
In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the context or situation within which households arrange their lives, generate livelihoods and arrange and provide care. The differential impacts of HIV and AIDS on male and female members of different ages within households is poorly documented and understood. How people arrange care, especially for household members who are chronically ill, while generating livelihoods at the same time, is even less clear in the context of HIV and AIDS. This research assessed household living and care arrangements and livelihood generation in non-urban Mbonambi in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS. The study used a combined approach of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Demographic, socio-economic and health data were collected at the level of the household by means of a survey and results were verified and clarified by means of focus group discussions. For the survey, two research locations were selected, one close to town, with a high population density and fairly good infrastructure and the other further from town and with poorer infrastructure. In the latter location, lack of access to electricity and clean water close to the home adds to the burden of domestic work. In addition, this location also has fewer individuals who are working, with many of those who are working, employed in low paying elementary occupations or working as unskilled labourers. Households at this location also have lower household incomes, are more dependent on state grants and own fewer assets that can be converted to cash if need be.
Female-headed households proved to be bigger than male-headed ones, having significantly more demographic and effective dependents residing at their homesteads. Female heads are significantly older than their male counterparts, the majority of them widows relying on state old-age pensions as the main source of household income. Female-headed households have significantly lower average incomes and fewer assets than male-headed households. All the households in the survey sample were categorised based on whether and how they were afflicted and/or affected by HIV/AIDS and/or TB, where TB was used as a proxy indicator for HIV infection. Households were allocated to four clusters. Households in Cluster 1 did not experience any impacts attributed to AIDS and included just more that half of al the households. Afflicted households in Cluster 2 had at least one ill member diagnosed with HIV or TB and requiring some care, but did not experience any deaths and were not taking care of orphans. Affected households in Cluster 3 had no ill members, but took care of orphans and/or experienced deaths, while households in Cluster 4 were both afflicted and affected by HIV and AIDS.
Progression from Cluster 1 to Cluster 4 showed a significant difference in household size, with households in Cluster 4 having on average two more members than households in Cluster 1. Households in Clusters 3 and 4 had significantly more demographic dependents than those in Clusters 1 and 2, while the households hosting orphans in Clusters 2 and 4 had significantly more effective dependents than the households in the other clusters. Although not significant, households in Clusters 2, 3 and 4 had lower household incomes and fewer assets. Of all the households it is clearly visible that households in Cluster 4 that host ill persons and orphans, and experienced deaths, are in all regards worse off than the households in the other clusters, and are extremely vulnerable to livelihood insecurity. Considering that these households have more dependents they will be more severely affected by the lower household income that has to be shared by more persons. Having fewer assets also mean that they do not have anything they can sell when they need money to cover household expenses or to pay for transport or a funeral.
Case study households were selected from each cluster for further study of their living arrangements and livelihoods. This was done by means of interviews and observations, and each household was visited at least two times over a period of six months. This revealed that the majority of households experienced changes in their living arrangements, regardless of whether and how they were affected by HIV and AIDS. It was especially young people and children who were mobile and individuals were leaving or joining households for a variety of reasons. Young women with or without their children were leaving to look for work, get married or provide care. Mobile children moved between the homesteads of unmarried mothers and biological fathers. The case study households included several households where unmarried mothers were living with their children at the homesteads of their frequently unmarried or widowed mothers.
Although changes in living arrangements can be caused by many factors other than morbidity and mortality, the majority of cases described experienced changes as a direct result of TB and/or AIDS-related illness and death. The time frame of inter-household movements varies from a few months to several years. The variation in cases presented illustrates that when movements between homesteads take place, the impact of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on the livelihood and resources extends beyond the single household.
It is clearly visible that the majority of households depend on social transfers, either grants from government or private grants, as their only or main source of income, emphasizing the strategic importance of grants in coping with poverty. The financial situation of households may even improve when children receiving grants join a household and are ‘accompanied’ by their grants. But when such children move, the gain of income in one household will translate into a loss for another. Furthermore, some cases show that accessing grants for children is difficult when the status of the child changes and/or the foster parent does not have the required papers. The role of maternal parents or grandparents becomes clear when looking at intra-household cooperation to arrange health care or take care of vulnerable or orphaned children.
All the households are visited regularly by paid Community Health Workers and/or volunteer Home Based Caregivers, all of them female. These people are well-trained and work closely with the local public health clinic to assist households with care activities, caregivers with emotional support and patients with nutritional advice and traditional treatments to maintain health and relief symptoms. This is very important, as none of the HIV-positive persons in this small sample were on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment at the time of the research. Although treatment is free, to access it means regular blood tests and frequent hospital visits, which translates into indirect costs.
The cases clearly reveal that women are still the main providers of health- and childcare. When the demand on their time to provide care increases, they have less time to devote to income generating and community activities, which means less time to invest in social networks. This will cause already poor households with weak safety nets ‘to fall through’ the vulnerability threshold. All case households reveal the significance of social capital, the network of kin in particular, as a source of material and immaterial support. Relatives may take in a child to relieve the household’s burden, may send money, or may provide emotional and practical support. When no relatives are living nearby, the neighbours provide the latter kind of support. At the same time, the cases also show ‘missing’ partners and parents who have opted out and whose whereabouts are sometimes not even known.
Although the majority of children in the case study households manage to stay in school, they are absent from school more often due to HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. As a result they fall behind and are at risk of eventually dropping out. Some children choose to stay at the homestead of their late parents, with or without adult supervision rather than moving in with grandparents or other relatives, in an attempt to retain their parents’ homestead and land. This may make children vulnerable to exploitation. Child migration as a strategy to cope with HIV/AIDS-related morbidity was employed by some of the households. Although migration in search of employment has long been common in Southern Africa, migration of ill persons and children seeking care is a much more recent phenomenon.
Inter-household movements are likely to occur when a household affected by AIDS-related morbidity and mortality does not have the capacity to meet the additional demand for care. Moving of ill persons or vulnerable or orphaned children across household boundaries may make for more efficient use of human, material and financial resources. The cases show a continuous adaptation of living arrangements in response to illness and death. While the homestead and the kinship network still function as important anchors for people’s lives, at the same time HIV and AIDS induce flux and instability, changes dependency relations between homesteads, makes ‘holes’ in safety nets, and undermines relations between partners, in particular those that are not sanctioned by traditional marriage, turning their children into de facto orphans. The homestead also seems to be losing its unified and patriarchal character, though more analysis is needed to prove this, and the supportive role and authority of grandmothers and maternal relatives is increasing. Care is not only morally grounded, it can also add to moral authority.
The government should look into ways to facilitate better access to ARV treatment, because this would not only improve and prolong the life of people living with HIV, but also contribute to a better quality of life for household members. Streamlining access to foster care grants will prevent households taking care of orphans or orphans living on their own from living in extreme poverty. Increasing the number of well-trained paid community health workers, liaising with formal health care and social workers, will enhance the much need support required by households living with the burden of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality.
Although consisting of a very small sample of households studied over a relatively short period of time, this study shows significant HIV/AIDS-induced changes in living arrangements, the variation in the timeframe of these changes, and the impact of these changes on the livelihoods of households and their potential to arrange health- and childcare, thus revealing the mechanisms of micro-level social change induced by the AIDS epidemic. It demonstrates the importance of qualitative research to complement cross-sectional survey research. More qualitative and longitudinal research is needed to know whether in the wake of the epidemic the cultural and social landscape of rural KwaZulu-Natal is fundamentally changing.
Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections
Mda, S. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Joop van Raaij; F.P.R. de Villiers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858577 - 168
voedselsupplementen - minerale supplementen - vitaminetoevoegingen - humane immunodeficiëntievirussen - hiv-infecties - voedingstoestand - diarree - ademhalingsziekten - kinderen - zuid-afrika - food supplements - mineral supplements - vitamin supplements - human immunodeficiency viruses - hiv infections - nutritional state - diarrhoea - respiratory diseases - children - south africa
Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and increased risk of diarrhoea and respiratory infections. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in HIV-infected children. The poor growth, diarrhoea and respiratory infections seen in HIV-infected children may be partly due to micronutrient deficiencies. The studies in this thesis had two main objectives: (1) to evaluate the effect of short-term (during hospitalization) and long-term (6 months) multi-micronutrient supplementation on episodes of diarrhoea and respiratory infections in HIV-infected children who are not yet on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and (2) to assess the effects of long-term multi-micronutrient supplementation on appetite and growth performance of HIV-infected who are not on ART.
Methods and results: Four studies were conducted. Initially a cross-sectional study was performed in which the duration of hospitalization, weight, length, micronutrient status and appetite of HIV-infected children admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia was compared with the results of HIV-uninfected children. Duration of hospitalization was 2.8 days (52%) longer in HIV-infected children. Appetite as measured by amount of test food eaten (g per kg body weight) was 26% poorer in HIV-infected children. Mean length-for-age Z-scores were lower in HIV-infected children; there was no difference in level of wasting.
Subsequently multi-micronutrient supplementation studies were performed, one short-term and two long-term studies. The effect of supplementation on the duration of hospitalization in HIV-infected children with diarrhoea or pneumonia was assessed in the short-term study. One long-term study assessed the supplement’s impact on growth and frequency of episodes of diarrhoea and of pneumonia in HIV-infected children. The other evaluated the effect of the supplement on the appetite of these children. The supplement contained vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E and folic acid, and the minerals copper, iron, selenium and zinc at levels based on recommended dietary allowances.
In the short-term supplementation study HIV-infected children aged 4-24 months who were hospitalized with pneumonia or diarrhoea received the supplement or a placebo until discharge from hospital. The duration of hospitalization was 1.7 days (19%) shorter in the supplement group.
Long-term multi-micronutrient supplementation improved the weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores of HIV-infected children aged 4-24 months by 0.4 over the 6-month period. There was no improvement in stunting. Children in the supplement group had substantially fewer episodes of respiratory symptoms per month than the placebo group (0.66 ± 0.51) per month vs (1.01 ± 0.67) (P < 0.05) and marginally fewer episodes of diarrhoea per month (0.25 ± 0.31) vs (0.36 ± 0.36) (P = 0.09). There was no effect on CD4 lymphocytes. Long-term supplementation with micronutrients had benefits on the appetite of HIV-infected children aged 6-24 months as well. Improvements in amount of test food eaten over the 6-month period were much higher among children who received the supplement (4.7 ± 14.7 g/kg body weight) than the changes in those who received the placebo (-1.4 ± 11.6 g/kg body weight).
Conclusion: Multi-micronutrient supplementation reduces the duration of diarrhoea and of pneumonia and incidence of diarrhoea and of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children who are not yet on ART. Multi-micronutrient supplementation also improves appetite and weight in these children but not height. The results of these studies indicate that multi-micronutrient supplementation should be considered in HIV-infected infant and young children who have not commenced ART.
|Reforming Land and Resource Use in South Africa: Impact on Livelihoods
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Shackleton, C. - \ 2011
London : Routledge (Routledge ISS studies in rural livelihoods 6) - ISBN 9780415588553 - 336
landhervorming - landgebruik - sociale situatie - economische situatie - plattelandsontwikkeling - zuid-afrika - land reform - land use - social situation - economic situation - rural development - south africa
This book debates the emergent proprieties of rural and peri-urban South Africa since land and agrarian reforms were initiated after the transition to democracy in 1994. It explores how these reforms have broadened options for the use of land and natural resources. Reform-minded policies in South Africa have assumed that if access to land and other natural resources is less problematic, the use of these resources would be intensified which in turn would alter the structure and dynamic of rural and urban poverty. Reforming Land and Resource Use in South Africa examines in detail, and from several disciplinary perspectives, whether and how this has occurred, and if not, why not. A key argument that this collection pursues is whether land reform has resulted in transformed use of natural (i.e. land, crops, cattle, rangeland, wild products etc.) and other strategic resources (labour, knowledge, institutions, networks etc.), and the value communities and household place on them. The contributions explore a combination of new or alternative meanings of land, including a look beyond crops and cattle per se to include the collection and selling of wild products, as well as a discussion of how land for agriculture has become redefined by land reform beneficiaries as urban land, for settlement and urban employment opportunities, in addition to urban-based agricultural activities. This book pursues an analysis of land reform dynamics at various levels of aggregation. National and regional level analyses of poverty and the ramifications of the property clause are combined with analyses at disaggregate levels such as the land reform project or village.
Does international sustainability certification support regional biodiversity conservation objectives? : the case of rooibos production and Fynbos conservation in South-Africa
Waarts, Y.R. ; Kuit, M. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 21) - ISBN 9789461734747 - 14
biodiversiteit - certificering - natuurbescherming - conservering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fijnbos (zuid afrika) - zuid-afrika - afrika - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - milieu - biodiversity - certification - nature conservation - conservation - sustainability - fynbos - south africa - africa - development policy - policy - environment
Observing temporal and spatial variability of forage quality
Knox, N. - \ 2010
University of Twente. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins. - Enschede : ITC - ISBN 9789061642947 - 187
ruwvoer (forage) - voederplanten - natuurlijke graslanden - savannen - variatie in de tijd - ruimtelijke variatie - zuid-afrika - voederkwaliteit - forage - fodder plants - natural grasslands - savannas - temporal variation - spatial variation - south africa - forage quality