Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Functional Divergence of Two Secreted Immune Proteases of Tomato
    Ilyas, M. ; Hörger, A.C. ; Bozkurt, T.O. ; Burg, H.A. van den; Kaschani, F. ; Kaiser, M. ; Belhaj, K. ; Smoker, M. ; Joosten, M. ; Kamoun, S. ; Hoorn, R.A.L. van der - \ 2015
    Current Biology 25 (2015)17. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 2300 - 2306.
    cf-2-dependent disease resistance - pathogen effectors - transcription factors - provides insights - genome sequence - plant-pathogens - gene - defense - target - specialization
    Rcr3 and Pip1 are paralogous secreted papain-like proteases of tomato. Both proteases are inhibited by Avr2 from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, but only Rcr3 acts as a co-receptor for Avr2 recognition by the tomato Cf-2 immune receptor [ 1, 2, 3 and 4]. Here, we show that Pip1-depleted tomato plants are hyper-susceptible to fungal, bacterial, and oomycete plant pathogens, demonstrating that Pip1 is an important broad-range immune protease. By contrast, in the absence of Cf-2, Rcr3 depletion does not affect fungal and bacterial infection levels but causes increased susceptibility only to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Rcr3 and Pip1 reside on a genetic locus that evolved over 36 million years ago. These proteins differ in surface-exposed residues outside the substrate-binding groove, and Pip1 is 5- to 10-fold more abundant than Rcr3. We propose a model in which Rcr3 and Pip1 diverged functionally upon gene duplication, possibly driven by an arms race with pathogen-derived inhibitors or by coevolution with the Cf-2 immune receptor detecting inhibitors of Rcr3, but not of Pip1.
    Amazonian Dark Earth shapes the understory plant community in a Bolivian Amazonian Forest
    Quintero-Vallejo, E. ; Klomberg, Y. ; Bongers, F. ; Poorter, L. ; Toledo, M. ; Pena Claros, M. - \ 2015
    Biotropica 47 (2015)2. - ISSN 0006-3606 - p. 152 - 161.
    mesoscale distribution patterns - anthropogenic soils - environmental gradients - species composition - brazilian amazonia - tropical forest - diversity - ferns - specialization - landscape
    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are the result of human modification of the Amazonian landscape since pre-Columbian times. ADE are characterized by increased soil fertility compared to natural soils. In the Amazonian forest, soil fertility influences understory herb and fern species composition. However, little research has been done to evaluate the effect of ADE on the composition of the understory community. We evaluated the effects of ADE and soil in 36 plots (150 m × 4 m) established in a Bolivian moist forest (La Chonta). For each plot, we determined soil nutrients, and the composition, richness, and abundance of terrestrial fern, angiosperm herb, and understory palm species. We found that the presence of ADE created a gradient in soil nutrients and pH that affected the understory species composition especially of ferns and palms. Additionally, the higher nutrient concentration and more neutral soil pH on ADE soils caused a decrease of ferns species richness. We therefore conclude that the current composition of the understory community in this particular Bolivian forest is a reflection of past human modifications of the soil.
    Conservation and sustainable use of Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture : country report of the Netherlands for the 2nd State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture : executive summary
    Hiemstra, S.J. ; Hoving, A.H. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2014
    Wageningen/The Hague : CGN&Ministry of Economic Affairs (CGN report 31) - 25
    genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische diversiteit - landbouwbeleid - conservering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselveiligheid - landbouw - nederland - specialisatie - technologie - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - animal genetic resources - genetic diversity - agricultural policy - conservation - sustainability - food safety - agriculture - netherlands - specialization - technology - farm size
    The updated Dutch national report on conservation and sustainable use of Animal Genetic Resources summarizes the state of national implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources. Seven strategic priority areas have been identified, dealing with remaining or future challenges. At national level conservation strategies will be strengthened to halt the loss of farm animal genetic diversity and to protect our bio-cultural heritage. New technologies will be adopted and further developed for characterization, conservation and breeding purposes. The Netherlands will contribute to the global agenda by generating knowledge and development of improved breeding material for sustainable development of the livestock sector and future food security.
    Herbivory and habitat association of tree seedlings in lowland evergreen rainforest on white-sand and terra-firme in the upper Rio Negro
    Stropp, J. ; Sleen, J.P. van der; Quesada, C.A. ; Steege, H. ter - \ 2014
    Plant Ecology & Diversity 7 (2014)1-2. - ISSN 1755-0874 - p. 255 - 265.
    amazonian forests - resource availability - growth - patterns - soils - specialization - communities - landscape - diversity - worldwide
    Background: It has been proposed that the interaction between herbivory and soil nutrient availability drives habitat association of tree species in Peruvian Amazonia. Nevertheless, there is no empirical evidence that this interaction holds across other Amazonian regions. Aims: We address this knowledge gap by testing whether the interaction between herbivory and soil nutrient contributes to habitat association of tree species in white-sand and terra-firme forests in the upper Rio Negro, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a reciprocal transplanting field experiment in which we controlled for the presence of herbivores. We tested for differences in tree-seedling growth and herbivory among seven white-sand and seven terra-firme habitat-specialist species. Additionally, we assessed whether tree seedlings differed in their functional traits. Results: We found no empirical evidence that an interaction between herbivory and soil nutrients shapes habitat association in white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro. Tree seedlings showed higher mortality when growing in their non-typical habitat. Growth and herbivory were similar regardless of the presence or absence of herbivore protection and type of soil. Conclusions: We suggest that the overall differences in soil nutrient status between white-sand and terra-firme forests in the upper Rio Negro are insufficient to trigger an interaction between herbivory and soil nutrient availability.
    Specialist wordt zeldzaam : Huub Schepers: 'Sector verliest regie over phytophthoraonderzoek'
    Schepers, Huub - \ 2012
    phytophthora infestans - potatoes - plant protection - agricultural research - knowledge level - specialization - arable farming
    Exploring opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina
    Chavez Clemente, M.D. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Paul Berentsen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734204 - 161
    tabak - gespecialiseerde landbouw - gewasproductie - landbouwbedrijven - diversificatie - specialisatie - inkomen - risico - bodemdegradatie - argentinië - tobacco - specialized farming - crop production - farms - diversification - specialization - income - risk - soil degradation - argentina
    In the Northwest of Argentina tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is economically and socially important. Tobacco mono-cropping, excessive tillage and inadequate irrigation management cause soil degradation. This and also tobacco production dependence on government subsidies and concern about health damage from tobacco consumption calls for research on diversification. The aim of this thesis was to explore opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina.
    Phytophagy on phylogenetically isolated trees: why hosts should escape their relatives.
    Yguel, B. ; Bailey, R. ; Everhart, D. ; Vialatte, A. ; Vasseur, C. ; Vitrac, X. ; Prinzing, A. - \ 2011
    Ecology Letters 14 (2011)11. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1117 - 1124.
    bark volatiles - plants - herbivory - insects - lepidoptera - diversity - evolution - specialization - conservatism - tortricidae
    Hosts belonging to the same species suffer dramatically different impacts from their natural enemies. This has been explained by host neighbourhood, that is, by surrounding host-species diversity or spatial separation between hosts. However, even spatially neighbouring hosts may be separated by many million years of evolutionary history, potentially reducing the establishment of natural enemies and their impact. We tested whether phylogenetic isolation of oak hosts from neighbouring trees within a forest canopy reduces phytophagy. We found that an increase in phylogenetic isolation by 100 million years corresponded to a 10-fold decline in phytophagy. This was not due to poorer living conditions for phytophages on phylogenetically isolated oaks. Neither species diversity of neighbouring trees nor spatial distance to the closest oak affected phytophagy. We suggest that reduced pressure by natural enemies is a major advantage for individuals within a host species that leave their ancestral niche and grow among distantly related species.
    Characterizing a scientific elite: the social characteristics of the most highly cited scientist in environmental science and ecology
    Parker, J.N. ; Lortie, C. ; Allesina, S. - \ 2010
    Scientometrics 85 (2010)1. - ISSN 0138-9130 - p. 129 - 143.
    publication output - gender-differences - citation analysis - productivity - level - specialization - authors
    In science, a relatively small pool of researchers garners a disproportionally large number of citations. Still, very little is known about the social characteristics of highly cited scientists. This is unfortunate as these researchers wield a disproportional impact on their fields, and the study of highly cited scientists can enhance our understanding of the conditions which foster highly cited work, the systematic social inequalities which exist in science, and scientific careers more generally. This study provides information on this understudied subject by examining the social characteristics and opinions of the 0.1% most cited environmental scientists and ecologists. Overall, the social characteristics of these researchers tend to reflect broader patterns of inequality in the global scientific community. However, while the social characteristics of these researchers mirror those of other scientific elites in important ways, they differ in others, revealing findings which are both novel and surprising, perhaps indicating multiple pathways to becoming highly cited.
    Intra-lake stable isotope ratio variation in selected fish species and their possible carbon sources in Lake Kyoga (Uganda): implications for aquatic food web studies
    Mbabazi, D. ; Makanga, B. ; Orach-Meza, F. ; Hecky, R.E. ; Balirwa, J.S. ; Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Chapman, L. ; Muhumuza, E. - \ 2010
    African Journal of Ecology 48 (2010)3. - ISSN 0141-6707 - p. 667 - 675.
    trophic structure - east-africa - mwanza gulf - nitrogen - diet - delta-n-15 - victoria - ecosystem - specialization - delta-c-13
    The stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) and carbon (delta 13C) provide powerful tools for quantifying trophic relationships and carbon flow to consumers in food webs; however, the isotopic signatures of organisms vary within a lake. Assessment of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures in a suite of plants, invertebrates, and fishes in Lake Kyoga, indicated significant variation between two sites for delta 13C (paired t = 6.305; df = 14, P <0.001 and delta 15N paired t = 1.292; df = 14; P <0.05). The fish fauna in Bukungu was generally more 13C enriched (mean delta 13C = -16.37 +/- 1.64 parts per thousand) than in Iyingo (mean delta 13C = -20.80 +/- 2.41 parts per thousand) but more delta 15N depleted (mean delta 15N = 5.57 +/- 0.71 parts per thousand) than in Iyingo (mean delta 15N = 6.92 +/- 0.83 parts per thousand). The simultaneous shifts in phytoplankton and consumer signatures confirmed phytoplankton as the major source of carbon for the food chain leading to fish. Limited sampling coverage within lakes may affect lake wide stable isotope signatures, and the same error is transferred into trophic position estimation. Consideration of potential intra-lake spatial variability in isotope ratios and size is essential in evaluating the spatial and trophic structure of fish assemblages.Resume Les isotopes stables d'azote (delta 15N) et de carbone (delta 13C) sont des outils interessants pour quantifier les relations trophiques et le flux de carbone vers les consommateurs de chaines alimentaires; cependant, la signature isotopique des organismes varie au sein d'un meme lac. L'evaluation des signatures isotopiques du carbone et de l'azote dans une suite de plantes, d'invertebres et de poissons du lac Kyoga indiquait une variation significative entre deux sites pour delta 13C (test t apparie = 6.305; df = 14; P <0.05). La faune piscicole de Bukungu etait generalement plus enrichie en delta 13C (moyenne de delta 13C = -16.37 +/- 1.64 parts per thousand) qu'a Iyingo (moyenne de delta 13C = -20.80 +/- 2.41 parts per thousand) mais plus depourvue de delta 15N (moyenne de delta 15N = 5.57 +/- 0.71 parts per thousand) qu'Inyingo (moyenne de delta 15N = 6.92 +/- 0.83 parts per thousand). Les glissements simultanes des signatures du phytoplancton et des consommateurs confirmaient que le phytoplancton est la source principale de carbone de la chaine alimentaire qui aboutit aux poissons. Une couverture limitee de l'echantillonnage dans les lacs peut affecter la signature des isotopes stables de tout le lac, et cette meme erreur est reportee dans l'estimation de la situation trophique. Il est essentiel de tenir compte de la variabilite spatiale possible des taux et de la taille des isotopes dans les lacs lorsque l'on evalue la structure spatiale et trophique des assemblages de poissons.
    Relationship between the ability to penetrate complex webs of Tetranychus spider mites and the ability of thread-cutting behavior in phytoseiid predatory mites
    Shimoda, T. ; Kishimoto, H. ; Takabayashi, J. ; Amano, H. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2010
    Biological Control 53 (2010)3. - ISSN 1049-9644 - p. 273 - 279.
    womersleyi schicha acari - kanzawai kishida acari - intraguild predation - amblyseius-womersleyi - natural enemies - prey preference - food - specialization - populations - orchards
    Predatory mites, that are important natural enemies of Tetranychus spider mites, are less hindered by complex webs of the spider mites than are other predatory mites that are natural enemies of other pest herbivores. This can be partly explained by their chaetotaxy, a morphological protection against the webs. However, it has up to now been unclear whether the ability to penetrate complex webs is related to the ability of thread-cutting behavior to reduce the effects of the webs. The two predatory mites Neo-seiulus cucumeris and Typhlodromus vulgaris, that are natural enemies of other pest herbivores, were often entrapped by the sticky silken threads while moving within the complex web produced by the two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae. Once captured, their movements and foraging activities were hindered until their escape from entrapment. In contrast, N. womersleyi and Phytoseiulus persimilis, that are important natural enemies of Tetranychus mites, were significantly less frequently entrapped by the web and for shorter periods. Furthermore, N. womersleyi and P. persimilis cut significantly more silken threads within the web than did N. cucumeris and T. vulgaris. The different behavioral activities exhibited by N. cucumeris and N. womersleyi could not be explained by their rearing conditions (i.e., past experience with complex webs). These results supported the hypothesis and might offer an ecological indicator for distinguishing potential important natural enemies of Tetranychus mites from less useful types. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pim Paternotte, onderzoeker gewasgezondheid WUR: "Er ligt een uitdaging nieuwe teeltsystemen te ontwikkelen" (interview met Pim Paternotte)
    Knaap, I. ; Paternotte, S.J. - \ 2010
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 65 (2010)25. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 6 - 6.
    teeltsystemen - schimmelziekten - specialisatie - landbouwontwikkeling - gewasbescherming - glastuinbouw - cropping systems - fungal diseases - specialization - agricultural development - plant protection - greenhouse horticulture
    Na een dienstverband van ruim veertig jaar nam Pim Paternotte afscheid als onderzoeker gewasgezondheid van WUR Glastuinbouw. Op het gebied van plantenziektes heeft hij zijn sporen verdiend als specialist schimmelziektes. Een voorname ontwikkeling die hij in zijn loopbaan heeft meegemaakt is dat veranderingen van teeltsystemen, inclusief nieuwe manieren van telen, behoorlijke invloed hebben op plantenziektes. Op dát vlak ziet hij voor de toekomst dan ook een grote uitdaging.
    Veterinary advice for entrepreneurial Dutch dairy farmers : From curative practice to coach-consultant: what needs to be changed?
    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. ; Egmond, M.J. van; Jorritsma, R. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Lievaart, J.J. - \ 2008
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)1. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 4 - 8.
    specialisatie - consulenten - melkveehouderij - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - grote landbouwbedrijven - veterinaire praktijk - veterinaire opleidingen - beroepsvaardigheden - specialization - consultants - dairy farming - farm size - large farms - veterinary practice - veterinary schools - job skills
    Dairy farms are tending to become larger, with a milk quota of more than 8 tons a year, and are managed by entrepreneurial dairy farmers with their own specific characteristics and farming style. Some Dutch veterinary practices appear unable to respond to this different style and often do not serve such farms or lose them as client. Moreover, the veterinary curriculum often focuses on traditional, family-run, smaller dairy operations and not on larger farms, which raises the question whether newly qualified veterinary practitioners are adequately trained to provide these entrepreneurial farmers with the services they require. This article addresses the characteristics of entrepreneurial dairy farmers and those of cattle practitioners, to determine whether cattle practitioners need to acquire other skills to better prepare them for their coaching-consultant tasks on larger dairy farms.
    Schaalgrootte en specialisatiegraad akkerbouwbedrijven
    Meer, R.W. van der - \ 2007
    Agri-monitor 2007 / 13 (2007)5. - ISSN 1383-6455
    akkerbouw - gewassen - landbouwondernemingen - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - specialisatie - agrarische economie - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rentabiliteit - arable farming - crops - farm enterprises - farm size - specialization - agricultural economics - farm results - profitability
    Het aantal gespecialiseerde akkerbouwbedrijven in Nederland daalt al jaren. In de periode tussen 2000 en 2006 is het aantal afgenomen van 13.700 tot 12.200. De gemiddelde bedrijfsgrootte van de bedrijven stijgt in dezelfde periode van 35 ha tot 38 ha. Door schaalvergroting ontstaan er steeds meer grote bedrijven (> 100 ha). Zo neemt het aantal grote akkerbouwbedrijven al jaren toe, waarbij de stijging in de grootteklasse 100 tot 150 ha het grootst is (figuur 1). Het percentage grote akkerbouwbedrijven bedraagt in 2006 7% van het totale aantal akkerbouwbedrijven (12.200). Bedrijven tussen de 25 en 50 ha hebben 40% van het akkerbouwareaal in gebruik. Het aandeel van deze bedrijven neemt behoorlijk af in de laatste jaren. Zowel het percentage akkerbouwbedrijven kleiner dan 25 ha als het aandeel van deze bedrijven in het akkerbouwareaal blijft vrij stabiel
    The role of comptetitors for Chrysomela lapponica, a north Eurasian willow pest, in pioneering a new host plant
    Gross, J. ; Fatouros, N.E. ; Neuvonen, S. ; Hilker, M. - \ 2007
    Journal of Pest Science 80 (2007)3. - ISSN 1612-4758 - p. 139 - 143.
    defensive secretion - leaf beetles - coleoptera - insects - specialization - performance - quality - europe - larvae
    The Palaearctic leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica usually feeds upon willows in the northern region of its occurrence. However, in Central Europe, some populations are known that have specialised on birch. In this study, we investigated the significance of other herbivores occurring together on the same host plants as possible exploitative competitors of C. lapponica. Two populations were studied: a population from Finland specialised on the willow Salix borealis, and a population from the Czech Republic, specialised on the birch Betula pubescens. Abundances of folivorous and suctivorous insects on both host plants were recorded at both population sites. The willow leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae was the most abundant herbivorous insect at both study sites on willow. A field study was conducted to examine the effects of P. vitellinae on the performance of C. lapponica. The presence of P. vitellinae larvae on the same twig upon which C. lapponica larvae were feeding did not affect increase of body weight in C. lapponica larvae. Thus, the high resource availability of both willows and birches suggest that interspecific competition is unlikely to be a selection factor driving the evolution of host shift in C. lapponica.
    Genetics of host-plant preference in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae), and evolutionary implications
    Nylin, S. ; Nygren, G.H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Janz, N. ; Bergstrom, A. - \ 2005
    Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84 (2005). - ISSN 0024-4066 - p. 755 - 765.
    life-history traits - oviposition preference - herbivorous insects - larval host - sex-linkage - lepidoptera - behavior - specialization - associations - performance
    In the Lepidoptera, sex-linked genes have been found to be of importance for species differences in, for example, hostplant preference, and have been implicated in ecological speciation. Variation within species is typically not sexlinked. However, in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae) an X-linked gene has been found to play a major role in determining differences in host-plant use between two well separated populations. For this reason, we studied the role of sex-linked genes for host-plant preference within a single Swedish population of this species. Three generations of females with known pedigrees were studied in the laboratory, and they were given a choice between Urtica dioica and Salix caprea in flight cages. We found strong variation among females and significant genetic variance for host-plant preference, but no evidence for major importance of sex linkage of host-plant preference on this local scale. To what extent the observed genetic variation was due to additive genes and/or effects of major genes was not clear from the maximum likelihood analysis. In a follow-up study we sampled females over a larger area. We found strong variation among females, but not among localities, suggesting an open population structure with strong gene flow. From the combined stock, a selection experiment was performed over 2 years and six generations. The selection lines diverged after the first generation of selection and remained separate, but did not diverge further, suggesting a low degree of narrow-sense heritability and that the genetic differences may be effects of major genes. We discuss these results in relation to the possible role of genetics in the radiation of the Lepidoptera and other phytophagous insects
    Leren van eigenwijze collega's : Onderzoek naar innoverende melkveehouders
    Livestock Research, - \ 2004
    Oogst : weekblad voor de agrarische ondernemer. Landbouw 200424 (2004)24 sept.. - ISSN 1566-2616 - p. 28 - 28.
    melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - melkstandinrichtingen - biologische landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - innovaties - specialisatie - samenwerking - kosten - schaalvoordelen - dairy farming - dairy farms - milking parlours - organic farming - farm management - farm development - innovations - specialization - cooperation - costs - economies of scale
    De melkveehouderij wordt geplaagd door lage melkprijzen en een streng milieu- en mestbeleid. Melkveehouders gaan op zoek naar creatieve oplossingen en slagen er op diverse manieren in om hun bedrijf verder te ontwikkelen. In dit artikel drie voorbeelden. Biologisch melkveehouder André Mulder in Zwolle investeert niet in quotum en kiest voor onafhankelijkheid van de bank. Met Brown-Swiss stieren worden dubbeldoelkoeien gefokt en er is vleesverkoop aan huis. Melkveehouder Jan Hoogenboom in Oudewater (ZH) verlaagt de kosten door zich te concentreren op melken en voeren en de jongveeopfok en het akkerbouwwerk uit te besteden. Er wordt simpel gewerkt met een sobere, open frontstal en een twee keer 22-stands visgraatmelkstal met swingover melkstellen zonder automatische afname. Melkveehouder Herman Bakhuis in Daarle (O) bespaart kosten door veel samen te werken, o.a. bij de jongveeopfok, de ruwvoerwinning en mestafvoer (met akkerbouwers), en quotumuitbreiding (een 'quotummaatschap' met een stoppende collega).
    Oviposition preference of Lygocoris pabulinus (Het., Miridae) in relation to plants and conspecifics
    Groot, A.T. ; Heijboer, A. ; Visser, J.H. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2003
    Journal of Applied Entomology 127 (2003)2. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 65 - 71.
    host-plant - phytophagous insects - behavior - lepidoptera - selection - specialization - perception - evolution - abundance - pyralidae
    To predict possible locations of Lygocoris pabulinus (L) in the field during the summer, we determined their oviposition preference under summer conditions. With L. pabulinus reared on potato, oviposition preference was determined for potato, tomato or green bean. As preference may depend on larval or early adult experience, the oviposition preference of bugs reared on green bean for three generations, and of bugs captured from the field 12 h prior to the experiment was also determined. All females showed a strong preference for potato plants, on which fecundity was higher. Hence, although L. pabulinus is a generalist in its feeding habits, the summer generation seems to be an oviposition specialist. Aggregation of ovipositing females does not seem to occur; similar amounts of eggs were oviposited in plants with clip cages containing conspecifics as in plants without conspecifics. More eggs were oviposited in damaged plants than in undamaged plants. Plant volatiles released upon damage may aid L. pabulinus females in finding suitable oviposition sites.
    Specialisatie in de boomkwekerij
    Spenkelink, H. - \ 1992
    Boskoop : Proefstation voor de Boomkwekerij (Rapport / Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek nr. 18) - 46
    arbeidsverdeling - boomkwekerijen - bosbouw - bosbouwkundige handelingen - Nederland - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - specialisatie - gespecialiseerde landbouw - division of labour - forest nurseries - forestry - forestry practices - Netherlands - ornamental woody plants - specialization - specialized farming
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