Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Studies on biological control of Chenopodium album by Ascochyta caulina
    Kempenaar, C. - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.C. Zadoks; P.C. Scheepens. - S.l. : Kempenaar - ISBN 9789054854111 - 127
    biologische bestrijding - schimmels - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - chenopodiaceae - deuteromycotina - onkruiden - sphaeropsidales - biological control - fungi - biological control agents - chenopodiaceae - deuteromycotina - weeds - sphaeropsidales

    Studies were carried out to assess the perspectives of the plant pathogenic fungus Ascochyta caulina (P. Karst) v.d. Aa & v. Kest. as a mycoherbicide against Chenopodium album L., world-wide a weed in arable crops. A. caulina is associated with necrosis of leaves and stems of plants belonging to genera of Chenopodium L. and Atriplex L. The studies were focused on recognition of factors that may limit disease development and on relationships between disease development and control. Three control strategies of C.album were studied: application of A. caulina to the soil, to young plants and to flowering plants. Disease development of plants after the application of the fungus was quantified for a broad range of conditions. Relationships between disease development and control were demonstrated. The perspectives of A.caulina as a mycoherbicide against C.album were discussed. It was concluded that the fungus has a good potential to be further developed into a mycoherbicide against the weed.

    Literatuuroverzicht van Ascochyta caulina : een pathogene schimmel met mogelijkheden voor bestrijding van Chenopodium album
    Kempenaar, C. ; Horsten, P.J.F.M. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : AB-DLO (Rapport / Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 13) - 18
    biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - deuteromycotina - schimmels - overzichten - onkruiden - sphaeropsidales - biological control - biological control agents - deuteromycotina - fungi - reviews - weeds - sphaeropsidales
    Sporenproduktie van de schimmel Ascochyta caulina, een potentieel mycoherbicide tegen Chenopodium album
    Horsten, P.J.F.M. ; Kempenaar, C. - \ 1994
    ␗Wageningen : AB-DLO (Rapport / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Agrobiologisch Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 23) - 32
    biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - chenopodiaceae - deuteromycotina - schimmels - onkruiden - sphaeropsidales - biological control - biological control agents - chenopodiaceae - deuteromycotina - fungi - weeds - sphaeropsidales
    De epidemische ontwikkeling van Sphaeropsis sapinea, oorzaak van scheutsterfte en bastnecrose bij pinus-soorten in Nederland
    Kam, M. de - \ 1990
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / De Dorschkamp Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer nr. 598) - 212
    bosbouw - bomen - deuteromycotina - bosschade - schimmels - bacteriën - afsterving - mortaliteit - knoppen - bladeren - scheuten - beschadigingen - schade - schors, bomen - cambium - nederland - sphaeropsidales - forestry - trees - deuteromycotina - forest damage - fungi - bacteria - dieback - mortality - buds - leaves - shoots - injuries - damage - bark - cambium - netherlands - sphaeropsidales
    Conferencia regional sobre la septoriosis del trigo, Montevideo, Uruguay 8 al 12 de noviembre de 1987 = Regional conference on the septoria diseases of wheat
    Kohli, M.M. ; Beuningen, L.T. van - \ 1990
    Wageningen [etc.] : IPO [etc.] - 253
    deuteromycotina - hexaploidy - plant pathogenic fungi - triticum aestivum - wheat - sphaeropsidales - deuteromycotina - hexaploïdie - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - triticum aestivum - tarwe - sphaeropsidales
    Application of a mathematical function for a temperature optimum curve to establish differences in growth between isolates of a fungus.
    Keen, A. ; Smits, T.F.C. - \ 1989
    Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 95 (1989). - ISSN 0028-2944 - p. 37 - 49.
    computersimulatie - deuteromycotina - groei - warmte - plantenontwikkeling - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - temperatuur - approximaties - sphaeropsidales - functietheorie - computer simulation - deuteromycotina - growth - heat - plant development - simulation - simulation models - temperature - approximations - sphaeropsidales - theory of functions
    Een functie is voorgesteld die de groeisnelheid van de imperfecte schimmel Sphaeropsis sapinea in relatie tot de temperatuur beschrijft. De functie bevat drie vrije parameters, die de maximale groeisnelheid, de optimum temperatuur en de vorm van de curve representeren
    Onderzoek naar de oorzaken van de sterfte van de platanen op het kasteeldomein Hex te Heers (Belgie)
    Burg, J. van den; Dam, B.C. van; Kam, M. de - \ 1988
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 533) - 31
    bosbouw - bomen - deuteromycotina - beschadigingen - knoppen - bladeren - scheuten - snoeien - schade - schors, bomen - cambium - belgië - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - bossen - sphaeropsidales - forestry - trees - deuteromycotina - injuries - buds - leaves - shoots - pruning - damage - bark - cambium - belgium - nutrient requirements - forests - sphaeropsidales
    De conditie en de minerale - voedingstoestand van opstanden van groveden (Pinus sylvestris) en Corsicaanse den (Pinus nigra var. maritima) in de Peel en op de Zuidoostelijke Veluwe
    Burg, J. van den; Evers, P.W. ; Martakis, G.F.P. ; Relou, J.P.M. ; Werf, D.C. van der - \ 1988
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" No. 519) - 66
    bosbouw - bomen - deuteromycotina - beschadigingen - knoppen - bladeren - scheuten - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - achteruitgang, bossen - levensvatbaarheid - mineralen - as - planten - mineraalgehalte - bosschade - luchtverontreiniging - gassen - stikstof - nederland - sphaeropsidales - noord-brabant - veluwe - gelderland - de peel - forestry - trees - deuteromycotina - injuries - buds - leaves - shoots - plant pathogenic fungi - plant pathogenic bacteria - forest decline - viability - minerals - ash - plants - mineral content - forest damage - air pollution - gases - nitrogen - netherlands - sphaeropsidales - noord-brabant - veluwe - gelderland - de peel
    Onderzoek naar de samenhang tussen het optreden van scheut- en kroonsterfte in opstanden van groveden en Corsicaanse den, de minerale voedingstoestand en het verhoogde optreden van chemische "stress" indicatoren in de hormonenbalans
    Ethyleenproduktie als gevolg van aantasting door Sphaeropsis sapinea van groveden in de Peel en op de Veluwe
    Relou, J.P.M. ; Evers, P.W. - \ 1987
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" nr. 494) - 27
    bosbouw - bomen - deuteromycotina - ethyleen - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - sphaeropsidales - forestry - trees - deuteromycotina - ethylene - plant pathogenic fungi - plant pathogenic bacteria - sphaeropsidales
    Sphaeropsis sapinea in Nieuw Zeeland
    Kam, M. de - \ 1985
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 410) - 34
    deuteromycotina - bosschade - schimmels - bacteriën - bosbouw - rondreizen - nieuw-zeeland - sphaeropsidales - studie - deuteromycotina - forest damage - fungi - bacteria - forestry - tours - new zealand - sphaeropsidales - study
    Sphaeropsis sapinea (= Diplodia pinea), oorzaak van het afsterven van eindscheuten bij Pinus in Nederland = Sphaeropsis sapinea (= Diplodia pinea), cause of dieback of top shoots with Pinus in the Netherlands
    Dam, B.C. van; Kam, M. de - \ 1984
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Mededeling / Rijksinstituut voor onderzoek in de bos- en landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no.212) - 5
    knoppen - deuteromycotina - bosbouw - beschadigingen - bladeren - nederland - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - scheuten - bomen - sphaeropsidales - buds - deuteromycotina - forestry - injuries - leaves - netherlands - plant pathogenic bacteria - plant pathogenic fungi - shoots - trees - sphaeropsidales
    Acquired resistance to systemic fungicides of Septoria nodorum and Cercosporella herpotrichoides in cereals
    Horsten, J.A.H.M. - \ 1979
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J. Dekker, co-promotor(en): H. Fehrmann. - Wageningen : Horsten - 107
    graansoorten - chemie - deuteromycotina - voedselgewassen - fungiciden - indicatorplanten - resistentie tegen pesticiden - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - gewasbescherming - toxische stoffen - chemische factoren - moniliaceae - sphaeropsidales - cereals - chemistry - deuteromycotina - food crops - fungicides - indicator plants - pesticide resistance - plant pathogenic fungi - plant protection - toxic substances - chemical factors - moniliaceae - sphaeropsidales
    Since the introduction of the systemic fungicides in the sixties, the phenomenon of resistance to these compounds has become a serious problem in the control of fungal plant diseases. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge about the consequences of fungicide applications in cereals with respect to the emergence of fungicide resistant strains of Septorianodorum , the causal agent of glume blotch of wheat, and of Cercosporellaherpotrichoides , the causal agent of eyespot of wheat, barley and rye.

    CHAPTER 3.

    An accurate and reproducible inoculation method was used to inoculate wheat seedlings with spore suspensions of S. nodorum . The effect of postinfectional applications of the systemic fungicides carbendazim and edifenphos with respect to the development of symptoms and the length of the latent period was studied. Both fungicides suppressed the development of symptoms and elongated the duration of the latent period, the extent to which depending on the concentration of each fungicide used.

    CHAPTER 4.

    It is suggested that alternate or combined use of two systemic fungicides with a different mode of action can reduce the enrichment of specific resistant forms in a fungal population. To verify these statements, model experiments were carried out under controlled conditions.

    During 9 passages on living wheat plants, inoculated with spore suspensions of S. nodorum , the fungicides carbendazim and edifenphos were applied either alone or as a mixture in each passage, or applied alternately from passage to passage. After 9 passages, disease control by either fungicide alone was reduced. This tendency was not so pronounced in that variant where the fungicides were applied alternately and nearly absent in that variant where a mixture was applied.

    Comparable results were obtained in experiments on agar media. A stable edifenphos resistant strain was selected in that variant, where S. nodorum in each passage was cultured on plates with edifenphos.

    With C. herpotrichoides , experiments were carried out on agar media only, using carbendazim and nuarimol. Here, a strong effect of the alternate exposure of the fungus to these two compounds was present. since the fungus was hardly able to grow on plates with a moderate dosis of carbendazim, after first being cultured on plates with nuarimol.

    CHAPTER 5.

    The effect of field applications of thiophanate methyl and edifenphos on the frequency of resistant spores in field isolates of S. nodorum was examined, during five vegetation periods between 1973 and 1977. Two types of carbendazim resistant strains were present in S. nodorum . Weakly carbendazim resistant strains were inhibited at 5 μg/ml carbendazim in vitro and occured at a frequency of about 1: 7x10 6in populations from unsprayed plots. Highly carbendazim resistant strains occurred at a frequency of about 100 times that low and were hardly inhibited at 1000 μg/ml carbendazim in vitro . In each year, there was a significant increase in the frequency of weakly carbendazim resistant spores after thiophanate methyl applications in the field. but the absolute figures remained rather low. In no case, an isolate with more than 1:10 4weakly resistant spores was found.

    There was no clear yearly increase in the frequency of highly carbendazim resistant spores after thiophanate methyl application.

    Edifenphos resistant spores were present in field isolates of S. nodorum . Their frequency- about 1:10 7in isolates from unsprayed plots-, increased significantly after edifenphos application in the field, but the absolute figures remained rather low.

    During three years, field trials were carried out with C. herpotrichoides to examine the effect of carbendazim application in the field on the frequency of carbendazim resistant spores in field isolates. Their frequency in isolates from unsprayed plots was about 1: 7x10 8. This frequency increased after carbendazim applications, but mostly on an insignificant scale only.

    CHAPTER 6.

    Fungicide sensitive and resistant strains of S. nodorum were compared with respect to their mycelial growth rate, their sporulation capacity and their pathogenicity on agar medium and/or living wheat plants.

    Weakly carbendazim resistant strains showed a significantly faster mycelial growth on agar media with carbendazim, than sensitive ones, but were almost completely inhibited at 5 μg/ml carbendazim. This growth reduction was accompanied
    by an increase in the number of spores, produced per mm 2mycelium.

    Highly carbendazim resistant strains were able to grow and produce spores at 1000 μg/ml carbendazim in vitro . Resistant strians were present with a mycelial growth and spore production equal to that of sensitive ones. Pathogenicity tests with sensitive and highly carbendazim resistant strains on living wheat plants showed the same tendency, as far as the development of symptoms and sporeproduction is concerned.

    Edifenphos resistant strains of S. nodorum were compared with sensitive ones in tests on agar media and on wheat plants. Resistant strains were strongly inhibited at 200 μg/ml edifenphos in vitro . Edifenphos resistant strains were present with an equal fitness as sensitive ones, when grown in the absence of edifenphos, on agar media and on living wheat plants.

    The tests with C. herpotrichoides were performed with sensitive mother strains and the corresponding carbendazim. resistant daughter strains. These resistant strains were able to grow and produce spores even at 1000 μg/ml carbendazim in vitro . They produced more spores per mm 2mycelium when cultured in the presence of carbendazim than in its absence. The properties of carbendazim resistant strains in vitro and in vivo did not differ very much from those of sensitive strains, in the absence of the fungicide.

    CHAPTER 7.

    The competitive ability of resistant strains was studied by inoculating wheat plants with different mixtures of resistant and sensitive spores. Carbendazim resistant strains of S. nodorum and C. herpotrichoides could maintain themselves in the mixed population for three passages on wheat plants, even in the absence of any fungicide selection pressure.

    In case of a postinfectional fungicide application, only carbendazim resistant strains could be reisolated.

    Edifenphos resistant strains disappeared from the respective populations in the absence of the fungicide, due to a smaller relative reproduction ratio.

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