Molecular assessment of muscle health and function : The effect of age, nutrition and physical activity on the human muscle transcriptome and metabolom
Hangelbroek, Roland W.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.H. Kersten; C.P.G.M. de Groot, co-promotor(en): M.V. Boekschoten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437103 - 205
muscles - age - nutrition - physical activity - transcriptomes - metabolomes - elderly - creatine - phosphocreatine - vitamin d - atrophy - spieren - leeftijd - voeding - lichamelijke activiteit - transcriptomen - metabolomen - ouderen - creatine - fosfocreatine - vitamine d - atrofie
Prolonged lifespan and decreased fertility will lead to an increased proportion of older adults in the world population (population aging). An important strategy to deal with population aging has been to promote healthy aging; not only to prevent mounting health care costs, but also to maintain independence and quality of life of older populations for as long as possible. Close to the opposite of the healthy aging is frailty. A major component of (physical) frailty is sarcopenia: age-related loss of muscle mass. Decreased muscle size and strength has been associated with a wide variety of negative health outcomes, including increased risk of hospitalization, physical disability and even death. Therefore, maintaining muscle size and strength is very important for healthy aging. Nutrition and physical activity are possible strategies to maintain or even improve muscle function with age.
The effect of nutrition, age, frailty and physical activity on the function of skeletal muscle is complex. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved can provide new insights in potential strategies to maintain muscle function over the life course. This thesis aims to investigate these mechanisms and processes that underlie the effects of age, frailty and physical activity by leveraging the sensitivity and comprehensiveness of transcriptomics and metabolomics.
Chapter 2 and 3 describe the effects of age, frailty and resistance-type exercise training on the skeletal muscle transcriptome and metabolome. Both the transcriptome and metabolome show significant differences between frail and healthy older adults. These differences are similar to the differneces between healthy young men and healthy older adults, suggesting that frailty presents itself as a more pronounced form of aging, somewhat independent of chronological age. These age and frailty related differences in the transcriptome are partially reversed by resistance-type exercise training, in accordance with the observed improvement in muscle strength. Regression analysis revealed that the protocadherin gamma gene cluster may be important to skeletal muscle function. Protocadherin gamma is involved in axon guidance and may be upregulated due to the denervation-reinnervation cycles observed in skeletal muscle of older individuals. The metabolome suggested that resistance-type exercise training led to a decrease in branched-chain amino acid oxidation, as shown by a decrease in amino acid derived carnitines. Lastly, the blood metabolome showed little agreement with the metabolome in skeletal muscle, indicating that blood is a poor read-out of muscle metabolism.
We assessed the effect of knee immobilization with creatine supplementation or placebo on the skeletal muscle transcriptome and metabolome in chapter 4. Knee immobilization caused muscle mass loss and strength loss in all participants, with no differences between creatine and placebo groups. Knee immobilization appeared to induce the HDAC4-myogenin axis, which is primarily associated with denervation and motor neuron diseases. The metabolome showed changes consistent with the decreased expression of energy metabolism genes. While acyl-carnitine levels tended to decrease with knee immobilization, one branched-chain amino acid-derived acyl carnitine was increased after knee immobilization, suggesting increased amino acid oxidation.
Vitamin D deficiency is common among older adults and has been linked to muscle weakness. Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a strategy to improve muscle function among older populations. In chapter 5, supplementation with vitamin D (calcifediol, 25(OH)D) is investigated as nutritional strategy to improve muscle function among frail older adults. However, we observed no effect of vitamin D on the muscle transcriptome. These findings indicate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal muscle may be either absent, weak, or limited to a small subset of muscle cells.
Transcriptomic changes due to different forms of muscle disuse are compared in chapter 6 (primarily knee immobilization and bed rest). The goal was to determine the similarities and differences among various causes of muscle atrophy in humans (primarily muscle disuse). Both knee immobilization and bed rest led to significant changes in the muscle transcriptome. However, the overlap in significantly changed genes was relatively small. Knee immobilization was characterized by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and induction of the HDAC4/Myogenin axis, whereas bed rest revealed increased expression of genes of the immune system and increased expression of lysosomal genes. Knee immobilization showed the highest similarity with age and frailty-related transcriptomic changes. This finding suggests that knee immobilization may be the most suitable form of disuse atrophy to assess the effectiveness of strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss in humans.
The transcriptome and metabolome are incredibly useful tools in describing the wide array of biological systems within skeletal muscle. These systems can be modulated using physical activity (or lack thereof) as well as nutrition. This thesis describes some of these processes and highlights several unexplored genes and metabolites that may be important for maintaining or even optimizing muscle function. In the future, it may be possible to optimize both exercise and nutrition for each individual using these techniques; or even better, cheaper and less invasive alternatives.
Proficiency test for paracitides in salmon muscle
Elbers, I.J.W. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT 2012.018) - 54
zalm - spieren - antiparasitica - voedselveiligheid - analytische methoden - laboratoriumproeven - salmon - muscles - antiparasitic agents - food safety - analytical methods - laboratory tests
The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for the quantitative analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle.
Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle
Elbers, I.J.W. ; Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Stolker, A.A.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2010.010) - 63
antibiotica - antibioticumresiduen - rundvee - voedselveiligheid - spieren - antibiotics - antibiotic residues - cattle - food safety - muscles
The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative confirmatory analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle.
Jumpex, van talent tot topper
Visser, E.K. ; Rijksen, C. - \ 2004
onbekend : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (PV) (Praktijkboek / Animal Sciences Group 41) - 56
paarden - jachtspringen - jonge dieren - selectie - africhten van dieren - persoonlijkheid - spieren - kinematica - prestatieniveau - sporten met dieren - horses - show jumping - young animals - selection - training of animals - personality - muscles - kinematics - performance - animal sports
In de warmbloed paardenfokkerij vindt in toenemende mate selectie plaats in twee hoofd fokrichtingen: één gericht op het fokken van een goed dressuurpaard en één gericht op het fokken van een paard met uitstekende springkwaliteiten. De opfok van de jonge paarden vraagt veel tijd en geld. Het resultaat van deze investering blijft echter lang onzeker. Pas als de paarden gaan presteren blijkt of de verwachtingswaarde wordt waargemaakt. In het JUMPEX project hebben we gekeken naar mogelijkheden om al tijdens de opfokperiode een betere inschatting te kunnen maken van de latere prestaties van springpaarden. Het project is uitgevoerd door de divisies Praktijkonderzoek en Dier & Omgeving van de Animal Sciences Group en de Hoofdafdeling Gezondheidszorg Paard van de Faculteit der Diergeneeskunde. Het project is gefinancierd door het Productschap Vee en Vlees (op advies van de Sectorraad Paarden) en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Voedselkwaliteit. In dit handboek staan de resultaten van het onderzoek. Heeft training op jonge leeftijd zin en of kan al op jonge leeftijd op kenmerken geselecteerd worden? Op basis van resultaten van het JUMPEX onderzoek geeft het handboek praktische adviezen over trainings- en selectiemogelijkheden van springpaarden. Goede instrumenten voor de sector om de kwaliteit van het Nederlandse springpaard verder te verbeteren.
How do birds sing? sound analysis - mechanical modelling - muscular control
Elemans, C.P.H. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Leeuwen, co-promotor(en): Mees Muller; O.N. Larsen. - Wageningen : Ponsen & Looijen - ISBN 9789085041115 - 144
duiven - streptopelia - vogels - liedjes - geluidsproductie - vibratie - mechanica - fysische modellen - spieren - zoölogie - pigeons - streptopelia - birds - songs - sound production - vibration - mechanics - physical models - muscles - zoology - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
Nitroimidazole interlaboratory study 03/01
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Rhijn, J.A. van - \ 2001
Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2001.023)
spieren - dimetridazol - ronidazol - metronidazol - hplc - vloeistofchromatografie - massaspectrometrie - metabolieten - kwaliteitscontroles - analytische scheikunde - muscles - dimetridazole - ronidazole - metronidazole - hplc - liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry - metabolites - quality controls - analytical chemistry
Swimming and muscle structure in fish
Spierts, I.L.Y. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.W.M. Osse; H.A. Akster; J.L. van Leeuwen. - S.l. : Spierts - ISBN 9789090127026 - 221
vis - zwemmen - beweging - kinematica - spieren - spiervezels - lichaamsafmetingen - groei - leeftijd - ontogenie - spierfysiologie - morfologie - fish - swimming - movement - kinematics - muscles - muscle fibres - body measurements - growth - age - ontogeny - muscle physiology - morphology
In this series of studies the relations between swimming behaviour of fish in general and extreme swimming responses in particular (called fast starts or escape responses) and the structure and ontogeny of the muscle system was investigated. Special attention was paid to relate functional differences between anterior and posterior parts of the axial myotomal muscles of fish to differences in their structural design. In the past considerable knowledge has been accumulated concerning the muscular system. There are however still many unsolved questions. What for example is the influence of swimming in different fish species on the ontogeny of their muscles. How is the development of the muscle system reflecting functional demands (e.g. strength of fibre, elastic properties etc.) and what is the relationship between muscle development on a molecular scale and a macro scale? These and other questions will partly be addressed in this study.
Initially the larval muscle system and its function was investigated in general as fish larvae swim in a different hydrodynamic environment, compared to adult fish, characterised by the importance of viscous forces which can not be neglected (Osse, 1990). In contrast to adults, the different muscles during the early stages of life of many fish species (e.g. Rutilus rutilus , Alburnus alburnus , Leuciscus cephalus , Clupea harengus, Clarias gariepinus ) have an aerobic metabolism (El-Fiky et al., 1987). In yolk-sac larvae of Clarias gariepinus for example, at a time when gill development is still insufficient and muscle rely for oxygen supply on diffusion through the body surface, both the superficial red muscle layer as well as the inner 'larval white' muscle mass are aerobic. The superficial red layer initially only consisted of a monolayer. At the moment the gills started to develop the superficial red layer acquired additional fibres along the horizontal septum, resulting in a double layer of red fibres at this location. The differences in metabolism between the red aerobic fibres and the white anaerobic fibres develop during the free-swimming larval stage of e.g. roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) and rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri ) and the adult pattern of muscle fibre type distribution emerges (Hinterleitner et al., 1987). As this development probably occurs in relation to gill development, it is thought that the red layer of yolk-sac larvae has a negligible role in swimming but an important role in respiratory (El-Fiky et al., 1987). Once the adult pattern of muscle fibre type distribution has developed the actual differences between the various muscles can be studied in great detail.
The effects of transmission of forces on the structure and function of different muscle fibre types and at different locations along the body axis were studied during swimming of adult carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.). The connection between muscle fibres and collagen fibres, myotendinous junctions (MTJs), was investigated electron-microscopically. Especially during extreme swimming movements such as escape fast-starts large forces are imposed on the muscular system and mainly on the MTJs. During these life-saving swimming movements large sarcomere strains (relative to sarcomere slack length) occurred. Muscle fibres in the tail region (together with the connective tissue) play an important role in the transmission of force produced by more anterior fibres. Posterior fibres have a longer phase of eccentric activity (active while being stretched) than the anterior fibres and will therefore develop greater forces (van Leeuwen et al., 1990; van Leeuwen, 1995). It was therefore expected that greater forces in these posterior fibres would be accompanied by stronger MTJs (a greater membrane amplification). Posterior (80% of the fork length, FL ) muscle fibres of carp indeed had much larger myotendinous surface areas than anterior fibres (40% FL ) and consequently can transmit larger forces and 'bear' larger loads during swimming. Red muscle fibres of carp had a larger membrane amplification at the MTJs than white fibres. Red fibres are active at lower tail beat frequencies (longer cycle times) than white fibres and for longer periods of time, resulting in a longer duration of the load on the junction of red fibres. Tidball and Daniel (1986) proposed that the degree of membrane amplification at MTJs not only depends on the magnitude but also on the duration of load on the junction. Curtis (1961) and Rand (1964) showed that the mechanical behaviour of cell membranes is dependent on loading time. Cells can survive a certain shear load (caused by applying either a large load for a short time or a small load for a longer time) by reducing the stress on the membrane through an amplification of the membrane area. It was therefore suggested that the larger membrane amplification at the MTJs of carp red muscle fibres may be related to the longer duration of the load on the junction in this fibre type.
Not only the MTJs were subjected to large forces during fast-starts (accompanied by large strain fluctuations). High demands will also be imposed on the muscle system itself and the series elastic elements within the sarcomere unit, such as the titin filaments (Wang et al., 1991). This may be reflected in the type and structure of the elastic elements as different isoforms of titin seem to exist (Wang et al., 1991; Granzier and Wang, 1993a,b). To help elucidate the relation between the possible occurrence of different titin isoforms and the functional properties of different fibre types, the presence of different titin isoforms in red and white anterior and posterior fibres of the axial muscles of adult carp was investigated. Titin is a striated-muscle-specific giant muscle protein that spans the distance from the Z- and M-lines of the sarcomere (Wang, 1985; Maruyama, 1986, 1994; Trinick, 1991). The elastic segment of titin in the I-band is thought to function as a molecular spring that is responsible for maintaining the central positions of the thick filaments in contracting sarcomeres and develops passive tension upon sarcomere stretch (Horowits et al., 1986; Fürst et al. 1988; Wang et al., 1991, 1993; Granzier et al., 1996).
Gel-electrophoresis of single fibres of carp revealed that the molecular mass of titin was larger in red than in white fibres. For both red and white fibres the molecular mass of titin was larger in posterior than in anterior muscle fibres. Thus depending on the fibre type and its location along the body axis different titin isoforms were expressed.
Furthermore the contribution of titin to passive tension and stiffness of red anterior and red posterior fibres was determined in micro-mechanical experiments. It appeared that more passive tension and stiffness was needed to stretch fibres with smaller titin isoforms (red anterior fibres) to a certain sarcomere length than in fibres with larger titin isoforms (red posterior fibres). Continuous swimming is the most frequently used swimming mode in adult carp and is driven by the activity of red muscle. During this type of swimming sarcomere strain is larger in red muscle fibres, which have larger titin isoforms, than in the three-dimensionally folded white muscle tissue, due to differences in distance between the sarcomere and the body axis and differences in fibre arrangement between both types. As during cyclic swimming local curvature increases from anterior to posterior the sarcomere strain is consequently larger in posterior fibres, which have larger titin isoforms. The finding that exactly those fibres that are exposed to the largest sarcomere strains during continuous swimming also possessed the largest titin isoforms led to the suggestion that titin isoform and sarcomere strain are correlated in order to minimise energy loss during cyclic loading of muscle fibres.
However, it was still unknown how large the maximum sarcomere strains actually were during the most extreme swimming responses of adult carp. Therefore a study on the kinematics and muscle dynamics of escape fast-starts of carp was conducted. Adult carp perform escape C- or S-starts, based on the typical body curvature of the fish during these movements. During the Mauthner initiated C-starts (Eaton et al., 1977; Kimmel et al., 1980) adult carp made a large angle of turn directed away from the stimulus (approximately 150°) with a high acceleration at 0.3 FL of up to 54 m s -2. The maximum sarcomere strains (both anteriorly and posterior) were approximately 27% for red fibres and approximately 16.5% for white fibres. During escape S-starts however maximum strain in anterior fibres was more than twice that of posterior fibres with an angle of turn of approximately 70°. This large anterior peak curvature enabled the fish to control the direction of escape better but with lower accelerations at 0.3 FL (approximately 40 m s -2), although little is known about the neuronal mechanisms controlling S-starts. The largest strains occurred in red anterior fibres during S-starts (39%). It was found that during continuous and intermittent swimming the largest strains (red posterior fibres, approximately 5%) were found in fibres with the largest titin isoforms. This enabled these fibres to attain large strain amplitudes with relatively low passive tensions.
It was surprising to find that in all fast-starts both red and white muscle were simultaneously active at a given longitudinal location, whereas only red muscle were active during continuous swimming. Red fibres could contribute to muscle fibre shortening at the beginning of their mechanical response for a very short period of time (before the full response was reached). This implies that red fibres hence could contribute to force generation during these extremely fast swimming modes, although little. Red and white muscle at a given longitudinal location were not necessarily active synchronously and could be uncoupled during escape S-starts. In this way mechanically sub-optimal patterns of force generation can be avoided. In both C- and S-starts both anterior and posterior muscle were active whilst lengthening at a certain moment, thus initially absorbing power which results in significant force- and performance enhancement.
Fish larval swimming on the other hand is very different from adult swimming. Small carp larvae of approximately 6.5-8 mm total length are subjected to relatively low Reynolds-regimes of approximately 200≤Re≤500 and therefore require special features to overcome effects of friction. As superficial red fibres of Cyprinid larvae are mainly used as a respiratory organ (see above), larval swimming behaviour is mainly powered by the inner 'larval white' fibres (El-Fiky et al., 1987). But how exactly are these inner 'larval white' fibres able to generate enough power to overcome these friction effects and reach velocities of over 20 bodylength s -1? As small carp larvae and adults show large differences in their swimming behaviour the sarcomere strain ranges during fast swimming of larvae were investigated, together with their size of titin. During fast swimming of carp larvae all muscle fibres showed maximum sarcomere strains of approximately 20%, whereas their titin appeared to be shorter than any titin isoform found in adult muscle. Apparently the molecular structure of titin changed in the course of ontogeny. This shorter titin isoform (requiring larger stress for the same strain) is thought to help restricting form changes of the swimming larvae and to increase the elastic contribution to the tail beat. Such molecules possibly also increase the resonant frequency of the beating tail and thereby provide the required high frequency for swimming in a relatively low Reynolds-regime.
The present study corroborates the idea that strong relations exist between the structural design of the muscular system, from micro- to macro-level, and its functions, also in diverse levels, in a fish's specific habitat. Starting at a structural level, differences in muscle function during swimming of fish can be used in an effort to explain and possibly predict morphological differences between the various muscle types and even within the same muscle type.
Post-mortem changes in chicken muscle : some key biochemical processes involved in the conversion of muscle to meat
Schreurs, F.J.G. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D. van der Heide; W. de Wit. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789054859710 - 173
kippen - pluimvee - spieren - postmortemveranderingen - conversie - biochemie - kippenvlees - vleeskwaliteit - karkaskwaliteit - stamverschillen - groeitempo - bedwelmen - eiwitten - eiwitmetabolisme - energiemetabolisme - fowls - poultry - muscles - postmortem changes - conversion - biochemistry - chicken meat - meat quality - carcass quality - strain differences - growth rate - stunning - proteins - protein metabolism - energy metabolism
The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact that muscle, and thus protein, accretion is accomplished through a dynamic equilibrium between synthesis and degradation. The cell reaches a certain maximum synthesis capacity. To grow beyond this maximum synthesis capacity the cell has to decrease it degradation. This in its turn is of great influence for meat aging.
The chromatographic properties of a class of proteïnases, important for meat aging, called calpains as well as the development of a method for the quantification of the activity of these enzymes is described.
Furthermore, a number of endogenous proteïnase and inhibitor activities, important for meat aging, was measured in four chicken selection lines differing in both growth rate and protein efficiency. Differences between lines were observed, the fastest growing lines showing the lowest proteolytic capacities of the calpain/calpastatin system while the slower growing animals showed higher proteolytic potentials in their breast muscles.
The highly protein efficient line showed high proteïnase capacity of cathepsin H. Studies on the post mortem course of both the protein and the energy metabolism in the above mentioned selectionlines are described. The slowest growing lines showed the fastest post mortem meat tenderization while the faster growing lines showed slower tenderization, which was not yet completed within 48 hours post mortem. This suggests that increasing growth speed, which is aimed at by the poultry production industry, may at the end lead to meat aging problems and an unacceptable poultry meat quality, especially since the retail sector strives for shorter periods between slaughter and presentation to the customer, based on microbiological considerations.
The development of methods to measure the post mortem proteolytic degradation of the cytoskeletal proteins titin, nebulin, desmin and vinculin using SDS-PAGE and 'Western blotting' are described. Possible candidate fragments of the different cytoskeletal proteins were identified to serve as markers for monitoring the course of meat aging.
|Bruikbaarheid van elektromyografie in ergonomisch onderzoek met speciale referentie naar de lage - rugmusculatuur = Applicability of electromyography in ergonomic research with special reference to low back muscles
Dieen, J.H. van - \ 1993
Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Rapport / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen 92-15) - ISBN 9789054060321 - 55
rug - chemische analyse - diagnose - diagnostische technieken - spieren - spierziekten - skeletspierstelsel - lichamelijke activiteit - fysica - ruggengraatziekten - back - chemical analysis - diagnosis - diagnostic techniques - muscles - muscular diseases - musculoskeletal system - physical activity - physics - spinal diseases
|Biologie, mechanica en sport
Osse, J.W.M. ; Ingen Schenau, G.J. van; Voogt, P. ; Heuvel, C.M. van den - \ 1992
Amsterdam : Biologische Raad (Biologische Raad reeks ) - ISBN 9789069840727 - 164
spieren - skeletspierstelsel - beweging - voortbeweging - muscles - musculoskeletal system - movement - locomotion
Myosatellite cells in muscle of growing carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Koumans, J.T.M. - \ 1992
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.W.M. Osse; H.A. Akster. - S.l. : Koumans - ISBN 9789054850649 - 159
cyprinidae - karper - spieren - groei - cyprinidae - carp - muscles - growth
Myosatellite cells are small spindle shaped myogenic cells situated between the sarcolemma and the basal lamina that surrounds every muscle fibre. Based on information from mammals and birds, myosatellite cells are considered to play an important role in postlarval muscle growth in fish. Myosatellite cells are not only thought to provide the extra nuclei needed in the outgrowth of already existing muscle fibres (hypertrophy) but are also thought to provide new additional fibres (hyperplasia). The investigations described in this thesis showed that although the percentage of muscle nuclei that are myosatellite nuclei decreased with increasing length of the fish, the total number of myosatellite cells present in white axial muscle of carp remained about the same. However, the total number of myosatellite cells was so low, that it is very improbable that these cells are the only source of the additional muscle nuclei in hypertrophy. We developed a method to isolate and culture myosatellite cells from axial muscle of carp. Our in vitro studies showed that isolated carp myosatellite cells can differentiate into myotubes. These studies also showed that the population of myosatellite cells contains subpopulations that differ in their differentiational stage. The relative size of these experimentally defined subpopulations changed with increasing length of the fish. In young carp of about 5 cm standard length, muscle growth probably depends mainly on postmitotic myogenic cells that are formed in an earlier stage of growth. The correlation of the changes in the relative size of the subpopulations of myosatellite cells with the decrease in the occurrence of hyperplasia indicates that hyperplasia and hypertrophy are dependent on separate populations of myogenic cells. To prove this theory, markers that enable the identification of these cells will have to be found. We used isolated carp myosatellite cells as an antigen to produce monoclonal antibodies against markers specific for (subpopulations of) these cells. Such antibodies would also enable the (immuno- histochemical) lightmicroscopical identification of myosatellite cells in situ. The criteria for the in situ identification of these cells now still necessitates the use of transmission electron- microscopy. However, non of the antibodies we produced reacted with myosatellite cells only. In future investigations, the use of molecular biological techniques (eg. probes against genes of the MyoD family) probably will be of great use to increase our knowledge of the regulation of muscle growth in fish. This knowledge is not only important in comparative biology, but can also be of advantage in the field of fish-farming as justified optimisation of processes requires its thorough knowledge.
|CAF : een door calcium geactiveerd protease in spierweefsel : een literatuuroverzicht en enige ervaringen met de bepaling van het enzym = CAF : a calcium activated protease of muscle tissue : a review and some experience with the enzyme assay
Garssen, G.J. ; Boxtel, H.L. van - \ 1986
Zeist : IVO "Schoonoord (I.V.O.-rapport B-284) - 31
dierlijke producten - enzymen - enzymologie - fermentatie - vlees - vleeswaren - spieren - malsheid - textuur - animal products - enzymes - enzymology - fermentation - meat - meat products - muscles - tenderness - texture
|Energierijke verbindingen en hun metabolieten in een drietal runderspieren post mortem
Wal, P.G. van der; Hulshof, H.G. ; Dekker, T.P. - \ 1977
Zeist : I.V.O.S. (Rapport / Instituut voor veeteeltkundig onderzoek "Schoonoord" no. C-329) - 13
dierfysiologie - lichaamssamenstelling - rundvee - karakteristieken - chemie - metabolisme - spieren - fysiologie - eigenschappen - animal physiology - body composition - cattle - characteristics - chemistry - metabolism - muscles - physiology - properties
Physical working capacity in a tropical country
Staudt, F.J. - \ 1975
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Celos bulletins no. 30) - 7
samenstelling - menselijke hulpbronnen - spieren - lichamelijke activiteit - suriname - arbeidscapaciteit - composition - human resources - muscles - physical activity - suriname - work capacity
|Werking van (voortbewegings) spieren
Anonymous, - \ 1975
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en documentatie no. 3841)
bibliografieën - spierfysiologie - spieren - zoötechniek - bibliographies - muscle physiology - muscles - zootechny
Hormones and the structural and biochemical properties of the flight muscles in the Colorado beetle
Kort, C.A.D. de - \ 1969
Wageningen : Veenman (Mededelingen / Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 69-2) - 63
chrysomelidae - spieren - energiemetabolisme - metabolisme - hormonen - endocrinologie - chrysomelidae - muscles - energy metabolism - metabolism - hormones - endocrinology
|Verslag van het Symposium physiology and biochemistry of muscle as a food, 2nd : gehouden van 13 tot 17 juli 1969 te Madison, Wisconsin
Sybesma, W. - \ 1969
Zeist : I.V.O. (Rapport / Instituut voor veeteeltkundig onderzoek "Schoonoord" no. C 131) - 21
vlees - vleeswaren - spieren - zenuwstelsel - reflexen - zoölogie - meat - meat products - muscles - nervous system - reflexes - zoology
Arbeidsfysiologisch onderzoek in de landbouw : verslag van een viertal arbeidsfysiologische metingen bij: 1. Transport van zakken en kisten. 2. Bieten opeenzetten. 3. Bieten rooien. 4. Machinaal melken
Streef, G.M. ; Loon, J.H. van; Vos, H.W. - \ 1959
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Gestencilde mededeling / Instituut voor landbouwtechniek en rationalisatie, Wageningen 1959, no. 8) - 46
werk - spieren - energiegebruik - lichamelijke activiteit - landbouw - fysieke belasting - work - muscles - energy consumption - physical activity - agriculture - physical pressure