Greening Leviathan : the rise of the environmental state?
Duit, Andreas ; Feindt, Peter H. ; Meadowcroft, James - \ 2016
Environmental Politics 25 (2016)1. - ISSN 0964-4016 - p. 1 - 23.
environmental policy - environmental politics - environmental state - Green state - state
‘Bringing the state back in’ to research on comparative, inter-, and trans-national environmental politics and policy will contribute to better understanding of the limits and prospects of contemporary approaches to environmental politics and the overall evolution of contemporary states once environmental issues become central. The rationale for the state as an analytical perspective in environmental policy and politics is explained, and an empirically oriented concept of the environmental state is introduced, along with a tentative sketch of its evolution in historical perspective. A research agenda on the environmental state is mapped out, centring around variation and convergence in environmental states across space and time; the political/economic dynamics of contemporary environmental states; and inter-linkages among environmental problems, the constitution of political communities, and the functioning of the public power. In conclusion, the ways in which the contributions to this volume address that research agenda are introduced.
Impacts of Rainfall Variability and Expected Rainfall Changes on Cost-Effective Adaptation of Water Systems to Climate Change
Pol, T.D. van der; Ierland, E.C. van; Gabbert, S.G.M. ; Weikard, H.P. ; Hendrix, E.M.T. - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Management 154 (2015). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 40 - 47.
hydrologic design - future changes - flood damage - precipitation - model - risk - netherlands - management - extremes - state
Stormwater drainage and other water systems are vulnerable to changes in rainfall and runoff and need to be adapted to climate change. This paper studies impacts of rainfall variability and changing return periods of rainfall extremes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change given a predefined system performance target, for example a flood risk standard. Rainfall variability causes system performance estimates to be volatile. These estimates may be used to recurrently evaluate system performance. This paper presents a model for this setting, and develops a solution method to identify cost-effective investments in stormwater drainage adaptations. Runoff and water levels are simulated with rainfall from stationary rainfall distributions, and time series of annual rainfall maxima are simulated for a climate scenario. Cost-effective investment strategies are determined by dynamic programming. The method is applied to study the choice of volume for a storage basin in a Dutch polder. We find that 'white noise', i.e. trend-free variability of rainfall, might cause earlier re-investment than expected under projected changes in rainfall. The risk of early re-investment may be reduced by increasing initial investment. This can be cost-effective if the investment involves fixed costs. Increasing initial investments, therefore, not only increases water system robustness to structural changes in rainfall, but could also offer insurance against additional costs that would occur if system performance is underestimated and re-investment becomes inevitable.
Power Holders and Social Dynamics of Participatory Development and Reconstruction: Cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo
Kyamusugulwa, P.M. ; Hilhorst, D. - \ 2015
World Development 70 (2015). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 249 - 259.
community-driven development - collective action - elite capture - governance - weber,max - state - peru
One of the challenges of participatory development and reconstruction programs is how and where to engage with power holders. This paper analyses the dynamics of power relations within a community-driven reconstruction program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It shows that, in some circumstances, elite control can be a way of ensuring the provision of pubic goods and that conflict between elites can benefit project outcomes. The paper concludes that in this and similar contexts, development programs should consider bringing elites into the equation of governance and invest in understanding better the working and accountability of existing institutions for development.
Contesting control : land and forest in the struggle for Loita Maasai self-government in Kenya
Kronenburg García, A.J.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): S.W.J. Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572720 - 311
landgebruik - autonomie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - grondrechten - bosbezit - bosbeheer - governance - leiderschap - pachtstelsel - regering - staat - interventie - kenya - land use - autonomy - rural communities - land rights - forest ownership - forest administration - governance - leadership - tenure systems - government - state - intervention - kenya
Contesting Control: Land and Forest in the Struggle for Loita Maasai Self-government in Kenya
Angela Kronenburg García
Contesting Control is about the Loita Maasai in Kenya who, faced with increasing outside interventions and pressure from neighbouring communities, the state and other agencies, have been struggling to maintain access and control over the land they inhabit and the forest they use. They have been on the losing side in territorial struggles with neighbouring Purko Maasai and (non-Maasai) Sonjo. However, with regard to the state, NGOs and environmental organizations, the Loita have successfully navigated policies and projects and retained access and control of their land and forest. Interventions have, nevertheless, changed the way people engage with the land and forest and with each other on these issues. This study investigates the (in)direct effects of interventions and how they have articulated with existing relations, practices, processes and struggles in Loita. It considers the state-led land adjudication programme of the 1960s that sought to convert Kenya’s pastoral lands into privately owned group ranches, the attempt by Narok County Council to turn the Naimina Enkiyio Forest into a nature reserve for tourism in the 1990s, and a forest co-management project carried out by IUCN in the early 2000s. This volume captures the process of property-in-the-making and socio-political change among the Loita Maasai as they struggle for autonomy and self-government.
Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949
Wang, F. ; Mu, X. ; Li, R. ; Fleskens, L. ; Stringer, L.C. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 2015
Science of the Total Environment 508 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 166 - 177.
sustainable land management - impact - framework - science - erosion - china - state
Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), China. The problems, rural poverty, severe soil erosion, great sediment loads and high flood risks, are analyzed over the period of 1949–present using the Driving force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR) framework as a way to organize analysis of the evolution of SWC policy. Three stages are identified in which SWC policy interacts differently with institutional, financial and technology support. In Stage 1 (1949–1979), SWC policy focused on rural development in eroded areas and on reducing sediment loads. Local farmers were mainly responsible for SWC. The aim of Stage 2 (1980–1990) was the overall development of rural industry and SWC. A more integrated management perspective was implemented taking a small watershed as a geographic interactional unit. This approach greatly improved the efficiency of SWC activities. In Stage 3 (1991 till now), SWC has been treated as the main measure for natural resource conservation, environmental protection, disaster mitigation and agriculture development. Prevention of new degradation became a priority. The government began to be responsible for SWC, using administrative, legal and financial approaches and various technologies that made large-scale SWC engineering possible. Over the historical period considered, with the implementation of the various SWC policies, the rural economic and ecological system improved continuously while the sediment load and flood risk decreased dramatically. The findings assist in providing a historical perspective that could inform more rational, scientific and effective natural resource management going forward.
Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues
Bock, B.B. - \ 2015
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 22 (2015)5. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 731 - 745.
european-union - mobilities - areas - state - work - eu - challenges - migration - politics - family
This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy documents demonstrates that few rural development plans address gender issues, and generally only by including some separate projects for women. Little is done to address the systemic features of gender inequality and to realise inclusive developments that address the needs of all social groups. The de-politicisation of rural gender issues results in policy makers ticking the obligatory gender box without envisioning any real change in the agenda or process of rural development policy making. I argue that a more fruitful way to go forward is to re-politicise gender in rural development and to tease out at the local level how changing gender relations and rural development coincide.
How democratic innovations realise democratic goods. Two case studies of area committees in the Netherlands
Mattijssen, T. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Buijs, A.E. - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 58 (2015)6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 997 - 1014.
governance networks - changing-role - legitimacy - participation - management - citizen - state - partnerships - framework - policy
Participatory planning is becoming increasingly integral to governance. Numerous planning innovations are developed which aim to increase democratic legitimacy and improve decision making. This paper critically reflects on a typical Dutch innovation: the area committee. Based on two individual case studies, we investigate whether area committees realise democratic legitimacy in existing planning practices. Analytically, we focus on four democratic goods: inclusiveness, popular control, considered judgement and transparency. Based on the interdependencies between area committees and government structures we discuss the potential and dilemmas for the area committee to contribute to the democratic legitimacy of environmental policy and rural development.
Trade networks and the practical norms of taxation at a border crossing between South Sudan and Nothern Uganda
Twijnstra, R.W. ; Hilhorst, D.J.M. ; Titeca, K. - \ 2014
Journal of Eastern African Studies 8 (2014)3. - ISSN 1753-1055 - p. 382 - 399.
africa - state - governance
This article provides an ethnographic insight into how the daily realities of state performance along the South Sudanese most Southern border of Magwi County are an outcome of negotiations between traders and state officials. It is argued that the ‘practical norms’ of taxation, meaning the actual rules that govern the actions of state officials, are largely framed by the way in which state officials and traders are embedded in different networks. The analysis distinguishes between regional trade networks of accumulation based on associative ties that appropriate elements of state performance and SPLM/A authority into their business practices, and local trade networks of survival based on communal ties that relate to state performance more through the informal institutions of kinship and subsistence security. It is demonstrated that the types of network ties and their embedded institutional content that connect traders and state officials yield very different practical norms with different implications for South Sudan's state-building process ‘from below’.
Extending one-dimensional models for deep lakes to simulate the impact of submerged macrophytes on water quality
Sachse, R. ; Petzoldt, T. ; Blumstock, M. ; Moreira, S. ; Pätzig, M. ; Rücker, J. ; Janse, J.H. ; Mooij, W.M. ; Hilt, S. - \ 2014
Environmental Modelling & Software 61 (2014). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 410 - 423.
shallow eutrophic lakes - phytoplankton biomass - nutrient dynamics - phosphorus - ecosystem - growth - state - fish - zooplankton - vegetation
Submerged macrophytes can stabilise clear water conditions in shallow lakes. However, many existing models for deep lakes neglect their impact. Here, we tested the hypothesis that submerged macrophytes can affect the water clarity in deep lakes. A one-dimensional, vertically resolved macrophyte model was developed based on PCLake and coupled to SALMO-1D and GOTM hydrophysics and validated against field data. Validation showed good coherence in dynamic growth patterns and colonisation depths. In our simulations the presence of submerged macrophytes resulted in up to 50% less phytoplankton biomass in the shallowest simulated lake (11 m) and still 15% less phytoplankton was predicted in 100 m deep oligotrophic lakes. Nutrient loading, lake depth, and lake shape had a strong influence on macrophyte effects. Nutrient competition was found to be the strongest biological interaction. Despite a number of limitations, the derived dynamic lake model suggests significant effects of submerged macrophytes on deep lake water quality.
Effects of climate and nutrient load on the water quality of shallow lakes assessed through ensemble runs by PCLake
Nielsen, A. ; Trolle, D. ; Bjerring, R. - \ 2014
Ecological Applications 24 (2014)8. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1926 - 1944.
ecosystem model pclake - danish lakes - phosphorus - state - eutrophication - restoration - equifinality - uncertainty - sensitivity - management
Complex ecological models are used to predict the consequences of anticipated future changes in climate and nutrient loading for lake water quality. These models may, however, suffer from nonuniqueness in that various sets of model parameter values may yield equally satisfactory representations of the system being modeled, but when applied in future scenarios these sets of values may divert considerably in their simulated outcomes. Compilation of an ensemble of model runs allows us to account for simulation variability arising from model parameter estimates. Thus, we propose a new approach for aquatic ecological models creating a more robust prediction of future water quality. We used our ensemble approach in an application of the widely used PCLake model for Danish shallow Lake Arreskov, which during the past two decades has demonstrated frequent shifts between turbid and clear water states. Despite marked variability, the span of our ensemble runs encapsulated 70–90% of the observed variation in lake water quality. The model exercise demonstrates that future warming and increased nutrient loading lead to lower probability of a clear water, vegetation-rich state and greater likelihood of cyanobacteria dominance. In a 6.0°C warming scenario, for instance, the current nutrient loading of nitrogen and phosphorus must be reduced by about 75% to maintain the present ecological state of Lake Arreskov, but even in a near-future 2.0°C warming scenario, a higher probability of a turbid, cyanobacteria-dominated state is predicted. As managers may wish to determine the probability of achieving a certain ecological state, our proposed ensemble approach facilitates new ways of communicating future stressor impacts.
Payment for Environmental Services and Power in the Chamachán Watershed, Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2014
Human Organization 73 (2014)4. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 351 - 362.
ecosystem services - neoliberalism - governance - pimampiro - security - issues - rights - andes - chile - state
Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a globally expanding concept used to address environmental degradation. PES advocates argue that conservation of ecosystems can and should be enhanced by voluntary transactions among environmental service providers and buyers. PES policy and interventions instruments, however, are not neutral development tools entering voids. Apart from being manufactured by scientific, policy and development networks with particular market-environmentalist visions, values and interests, PES also deeply interacts with the contradictions and unequal power structures of those local societies where the policy tool is introduced. This paper shows how comprehending the historic and current struggles over natural resources among stakeholders who provide and demand ‘environmental services’ is fundamental to understanding PES workings and outcomes. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the Chamachán watershed, Northern Ecuadorian Highlands, we analyze the dynamics and entwining of ‘visible’, ‘hidden’ and ‘invisible’ power mechanisms in shaping PES and natural resource control. Our findings show how power asymmetries among stakeholders pervaded negotiations and agreements. The paper highlights the political character of market-based conservation efforts and the power plays that surround PES interventions.
Detection of marine neurotoxins in food safety testing using a multielectrode array
Nicolas, J. ; Hendriksen, P.J.M. ; Kleef, R.G.D.M. van; Groot, A. ; Bovee, T.F.H. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Westerink, H.S. - \ 2014
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 58 (2014)12. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 2369 - 2378.
microelectrode arrays - neuronal networks - sodium-channels - state - palytoxin - ouabain - toxins - mouse - cells - acts
Scope At the European level, detection of marine neurotoxins in seafood is still based on ethically debated and expensive in vivo rodent bioassays. The development of alternative methodologies for the detection of marine neurotoxins is therefore of utmost importance. We therefore investigated whether and to what extent a multielectrode array (MEA) approach can be used as an in vitro alternative for screening of marine neurotoxins potentially present in seafood. Methods This MEA approach utilizes rat cortical neurons comprising a wide range of ion channels/pumps and neurotransmitter receptors targeted by marine neurotoxins. We tested the effects of neurotoxic model compounds, pure marine neurotoxins, and extracts from contaminated seafood on neuronal activity of rat cortical neurons cultured on commercial 48-well plates to increase throughput. Conclusion We demonstrate that the MEA approach has a sensitivity of 88% (7/9 model compounds, 6/6 pure marine neurotoxins, and 2/2 marine neurotoxins present in seafood extracts were correctly identified) and a good reproducibility compared to existing in vitro alternatives. We therefore conclude that this MEA-based approach could be a valuable tool for future food safety testing.
Should I take this seriously? A simple checklist for calling bullshit on policy supporting research
Kampen, J.K. ; Tamas, P. - \ 2014
Quality and quantity: international journal of methodology 48 (2014)3. - ISSN 0033-5177 - p. 1213 - 1223.
social-science research - state - relevance
We propose a simple checklist for the users of policy supporting research in order to decide whether a piece of research begs further study or can be dismissed right away. The checklist focusses on the quality of the research question (is it a research question, and is the research question answerable); the kind of knowledge along with the order, level and quality of data needed for answering the RQ; the methods of analysis used; the degree to which the research results support the conclusions; and whether the conclusions provide an answer to the research question.
The New Face of Debt-Peonage in the Bolivian Amazon: Social Networks and Bargaining Instruments
Cano Cardona, W. ; Jong, W. de; Boot, R.G.A. ; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2014
Human Ecology 42 (2014)4. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 541 - 549.
rubber boom - forest communities - state
The debt-peonage system is an agreement between patrons and laborers in different economic activities worldwide. A common feature is social exploitation of laborers that generate profits to the patrons. In recent literature it has been argued that debt-peonage can be an economically sound arrangement that secures the needs of actors. The paper evaluates to what extent traditionally strong debt-peonage in forest-dwelling communities in the Bolivian Amazon, has developed in a way that better secures the needs and economic interest of multiple actors. Case studies in sixteen communities yielded qualitative information on debt relations between peasants, traders and former patrons. Debt-peonage changed from a mechanism to provide and keep workforce indebted to new social relationships, equitable commercial links, opportunity to access work capital and production chain diversification. This rapid shift was caused by important changes in land and forest regulations.
Spectral composition of light sources and insect phototaxis, with an evaluation of existing spectral response models. Journal of Insect Conservation
Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Donners, M. ; Boekee, K. ; Tichelaar, I. ; Geffen, K.G. van; Groenendijk, D. ; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Insect Conservation 18 (2014)2. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 225 - 231.
artificial-light - compound eyes - color-vision - moths - attraction - pollution - drosophila - diptera - state - trap
Artificial illumination attracts insects, but to what extent light attracts insects, depends on the spectral composition of the light. Response models have been developed to predict the attractiveness of artificial light sources. In this study we compared attraction of insects by existing light sources used for streetlights as well as newly developed environment friendly alternatives, and used this data to test the predictive ability of the existing response models. Light sources differed in overall attractiveness to insects and relative attractiveness was dependent on insect order. The attraction patterns predicted by the two models correlated weakly with the number of insects attracted when the only light source rich in UV, a mercury vapour light, was included in the tested spectra. When the mercury vapour light, which is going to be banned in Europe, was not included in the test no correlation was found between predicted and observed attraction patterns. We conclude that currently existing attraction response models are insufficiently sensitive to evaluate new light sources.
Participation, politics and technology : agrarian development in post-neoliberal Bolivia
Córdoba Blandón, D.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Kees Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570665 - 170
participatie - politiek - landbouwontwikkeling - technologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - staat - overheidsbeleid - liberalisme - politieke bewegingen - bolivia - participation - politics - agricultural development - technology - rural development - state - government policy - liberalism - political movements - bolivia
The election of Morales – an indigenous and cocalero leader – and his Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) party became the most important political milestone in Bolivia’s recent history. The MAS promised to represent the most excluded sectors of the country, challenging the foundations of liberal democracy and the economic development model promoted during neoliberalism. This research analyses how did a highly politicized programme like that proposed by MAS in Bolivia come to implement rural development projects once in government? What are the differences between MAS proposal on participation and other visions of more technical and instrumental views on participation and rural development? Does MAS proposal on participation lead to alternative development or postneoliberal options? This thesis concludes that despite the MAS government’s efforts to politicize participation and agrarian development, in practice, and outside the heated moments of politically charged participation by social movements, the relationship between reaching technical efficiency and social justice is largely contingent; there is no one-to-one relationship between politics and technology. Concrete interventions in agrarian development have technical aspects where both versions of participation have to collaborate. This has brought contradictions within the MAS government as the necessity to work with the World Bank and implement participatory development to realize rural development interventions.
Molecular dynamics simulation of energy migration between tryptophan residues in apoflavodoxin
Nunthaboot, N. ; Tanaka, F. ; Kokpol, S. ; Visser, N.V. ; Amerongen, H. van; Visser, A.J.W.G. - \ 2014
RSC Advances : An international journal to further the chemical sciences 4 (2014). - ISSN 2046-2069 - p. 31443 - 31451.
time-resolved fluorescence - azotobacter-vinelandii - anisotropy decay - force-field - flavodoxin - proteins - water - pathway - system - state
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over a 30 ns trajectory have been carried out on apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii to compare with the published, experimental time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy results of F¨orster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between the three tryptophan residues. MD analysis of atomic coordinates yielding both the time course of geometric parameters and the time-correlated second-order Legendre polynomial functions reflects immobilization of tryptophans in the protein matrix. However, one tryptophan residue (Trp167) undergoes flip-flop motion on the nanosecond timescale. The simulated time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of tryptophan residues in apoflavodoxin implying a model of two unidirectional FRET pathways is in very good agreement with the experimental time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy, although the less efficient FRET pathway cannot be resolved and is hidden in the contribution of a slow protein motion.
Assessing forest governance from a ‘Triple G’ perspective: Government, governance, governmentality
Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 49 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 17 - 22.
management - tanzania - regime - india - state
This paper aims to assess the emergence of the concept of forest governance in the field of forest policy analysis. This assessment is mainly theoretical in nature. The various meanings and main criticisms of forest governance will be dealt with. In so doing, the paper applies the so-called ‘Triple G’ perspective (government, governance, governmentality). Firstly, the paper explains theemergence of the forest governance concept fromthe shortcomings of forest government, or ‘state forestry’ (overexploitation, policy failure, corruption). In a next step, it also criticises the concept of forest governance, now using a governmentality perspective. This latter view assumes that control by the state and self-governance by people go hand in hand. It thus challenges one of the key assumptions inmany governance studies, namely that the state has substantiallywithdrawn fromthe forest sector and that forest politics has been relocated from the state to the market and to society.
The Legitimacy of Certification Standards in Climate Change Governance
Plaza Esteban, C. de la; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Jong, W. de - \ 2014
Sustainable Development 22 (2014)6. - ISSN 0968-0802 - p. 420 - 432.
global environmental governance - sustainable development - institutional design - forest governance - co-benefits - carbon - market - redd+ - state - accountability
This article explores the role of two private steering mechanisms, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), in REDD+, the climate change mitigation policy that aims to avoid deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. It does so by analyzing input and output legitimacy of the two certification standards at the global level, and at national and local levels in Peru. The findings show an increasing interest among REDD+ actors in using these standards, and a relatively large number of Peruvian REDD+ projects that are certified by the FSC or CCBA. The findings also suggest intrinsic linkages between input and output legitimacy of the FSC and CCBA within single governance levels and across different scales. The article also demonstrates the added value of studying the legitimacy of policy instruments, such as the FSC and CCBA, in a specific context such as REDD+. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Disciplined Mobility and the Emotional Subject in Royal Dutch Lloyd’s Early Twentieth Century Passenger Shipping Network
Ong, C.E. ; Minca, C. ; Felder, M. - \ 2014
Antipode 46 (2014)5. - ISSN 0066-4812 - p. 1323 - 1345.
west coast path - geography - biosecurity - migration - transport - heritage - bodies - spaces - labor - state
This paper examines the disciplined mobility and emotional geographies of “between-deck” passengers in Royal Dutch Lloyd's early Twentieth Century passenger shipping network. Specifically, it is concerned with the ways in which the network was established and with the efforts made to maintain it. It is found that such a disciplinary network furthers the firm's goal of shipping healthy and productive bodies for corporate profits and that transhipment facility Lloyd Hotel in Amsterdam was integral to the performance and maintenance of such a transnational disciplinary network. The key consequence of such disciplined mobility was the creation of an emotional passenger-migrant subject shaped in relation to the power of corporate, cultural and other authorities in maritime travel and migration. In identifying this historic network of disciplined mobility and its emotional subject, this paper seeks to reveal the emotional geographies relating to mobile subjectivities and the power relations associated with their historically significant travels.