Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digeston in milk-fed calves
    Gilbert, M.S. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Berends, H. ; Pantophlet, A.J. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2015
    Animal 9 (2015)2. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 249 - 257.
    small-intestinal disappearance - abomasal glucose - maize starch - amylase - steers - oligosaccharide - digestibility - secretion - replacers - infusion
    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to determine which enzyme limits starch digestion and to assess the maximum capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves. A within-animal titration study was performed, where lactose was exchanged stepwise for one of four starch products (SP). The four corn-based SP differed in size and branching, therefore requiring different ratios of starch-degrading enzymes for their complete hydrolysis to glucose: gelatinised starch (a-amylase and (iso)maltase); maltodextrin ((iso)maltase and a-amylase); maltodextrin with a-1,6-branching (isomaltase, maltase and a-amylase) and maltose (maltase). When exceeding the animal’s capacity to enzymatically hydrolyse starch, fermentation occurs, leading to a reduced faecal dry matter (DM) content and pH. Forty calves (13 weeks of age) were assigned to either a lactose control diet or one of four titration strategies (n=8 per treatment), each testing the stepwise exchange of lactose for one SP. Dietary inclusion of each SP was increased weekly by 3% at the expense of lactose and faecal samples were collected from the rectum weekly to determine DM content and pH. The increase in SP inclusion was stopped when faecal DM content dropped below 10.6% (i.e. 75% of the average initial faecal DM content) for 3 consecutive weeks. For control calves, faecal DM content and pH did not change over time. For 87% of the SP-fed calves, faecal DM and pH decreased already at low inclusion levels, and linear regression provided a better fit of the data (faecal DM content or pH v. time) than non-linear regression. For all SP treatments, faecal DM content and pH decreased in time (P
    Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis
    Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N. ; Strathe, A.B. ; Jayasundara, S. ; Wagner-Riddle, C. ; Dijkstra, J. ; France, J. ; Kebreab, E. - \ 2013
    Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5161 - 5173.
    controlled-release capsules - reduce methane emissions - enteric methane - nitrogen-utilization - milk-production - cows - steers - diets - performance - mitigation
    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19 ± 4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6 ± 3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (–12 ± 6 g/d) and beef steers (–14 ± 6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (–0.23 ± 0.14) and beef steers (–0.33 ± 0.16). Monensin treatment period length did not significantly modify the monensin effects in dairy cow or beef steer studies. Overall, monensin had stronger antimethanogenic effects in beef steers than dairy cows, but the effects in dairy cows could potentially be improved by dietary composition modifications and increasing the monensin dose.
    Genetische variatie in de Nederlandse populatie Brandrode runderen : analyse en beleidsadvies
    Hulsegge, B. ; Windig, J.J. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Wageningen UR (CGN rapport 27) - 22
    brandrode - rundveerassen - stieren - inteelt - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - zeldzame rassen - deep red cattle - cattle breeds - steers - inbreeding - animal genetic resources - rare breeds
    Het Brandrode rund is een zeldzaam Nederlands runderras. In 2007 heeft CGN de populatie Brandrode runderen geanalyseerd. In vervolg op het onderzoek uit 2007 is afgesproken dit onderzoek te herhalen met de data van 2012. Het doel van het onderzoek van 2007 was het in kaart brengen van de situatie van het Brandrode rund en het aandragen van bouwstenen voor een goed genetisch beheer. Op verzoek van het stamboek heeft CGN de situatie opnieuw geanalyseerd men aanvullende gegevens uit 2012 en zijn adviezen geformuleerd voor het fokbeleid. In dit verslag worden de uitkomsten van de analyse en het daarop gebaseerd beleidsadvies en paringsadvies beschreven.
    Gradients in fracture force and grazing resistance across canopy layers in seven tropical grass species
    Jacobs, A.A.A. ; Scheper, J.A. ; Benvenutti, M.A. ; Gordon, I.J. ; Poppi, D.P. ; Elgersma, A. - \ 2013
    Grass and Forage Science 68 (2013)2. - ISSN 0142-5242 - p. 278 - 287.
    foraging behavior - nutritive-value - cattle - sward - pastures - density - growth - steers - stems
    In reproductive swards, stems can act as a barrier that affects the grazing behaviour of ruminant livestock. The barrier effect of stems is closely associated with both the force required to fracture the stems and the density of these stems (in combination, these make up grazing resistance), and these factors need to be considered when making predictions about the forage intake of ruminants grazing reproductive pastures. Differences in grazing resistance between sward canopy layers of different grass species are thought to affect bite dimensions, but data are scarce. In this study, we assessed the grazing resistance for three canopy layers of seven tropical grass species. Species differed significantly in grazing resistance for every canopy layer, with a general ranking order for grazing resistance, in ascending order: Cenchrus ciliaris (‘American' buffel), Digitaria milanjiana (‘Jarra’ finger grass), Setaria surgens (annual pigeon grass), Setaria sphacelata (‘Narok’ setaria), Dichanthium sericeum (Queensland bluegrass), Chloris gayana (‘Callide’ Rhodes grass). In the top canopy layer, grazing resistance did not appear to create a barrier for any of the species, but in the bottom canopy layer, it did for all species. Species also differed in the relative contribution of fracture force and density to grazing resistance. The results highlight the importance of managing the grazing systems to minimize the barrier effect of the stems, which can be done by controlling the phenological stage of the pasture and the grass species and animal size used in the system.
    Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows
    Pilachai, R. ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C. ; Aiumlamai, S. ; Wachirapakom, C. ; Everts, H. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2012
    Livestock Science 150 (2012)1-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 135 - 142.
    subacute ruminal acidosis - induced lactic-acidosis - inflammatory response - cattle - fermentation - endotoxin - degradation - performance - steers - fluid
    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry cows were randomly assigned to the four experimental rations in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Each period consisted of a 14-d run-in/wash out period, followed by a 7-d experimental period. During the run-in/wash out period, the cows were offered 5.4 kg DM of concentrate containing 4.6% cassava meal and rice straw was provided ad libitum. During the 7 day of each experimental period, cows were offered 10.5 kg DM of concentrate containing either 4.6% or 18.3% or 32.4% or 46.2% cassava meal and 1.5 kg of rice straw. Irrespective of dietary treatments, rumen total VFA and lactate concentrations were significantly affected by sampling day, which were significantly higher on day 1 versus days 3 and 7 of the experimental periods. Mean postprandial rumen pH was reduced to values
    Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic
    Alkoiret, I.T. ; Akouedegni, G.C. ; Toukourou, Y. ; Bosma, R.H. ; Mensah, G.A. - \ 2011
    Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 10 (2011)21. - ISSN 1680-5593 - p. 2879 - 2884.
    barley straw - soybean-meal - passage - cattle - sheep - digestibility - nitrogen - growth - energy - steers
    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were complemented with a concentrate CC (50% dried brewer’s grains, 30% cassava chips, 15% dried cassava leaves, 2.5% dicalcium phosphate, 1.5% sodium chloride and 1% premix). Those of 2nd and 3rd groups received, respectively the concentrates CSC and SBM with the same composition as CC except that 20% of cassava chips were replaced by cottonseed cake in CSC and soybean meal in SBM. Protein supplementation had a significant effect (p0.05).
    Stand van zaken biologische fokkerij
    Nauta, W.J. - \ 2010
    BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2010)20. - 4 p.
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - stieren - kunstmatige inseminatie - dierveredeling - natuurlijke paring - inteelt - fokwaarde - organic farming - dairy farming - steers - artificial insemination - animal breeding - natural mating - inbreeding - breeding value
    In Nederland wordt gestaag gebouwd aan het opzetten van een volwaardige biologische melkveefokkerij. Vorig jaar zijn daarvoor weer stappen gezet met onderzoek, simulaties van een fokprogramma en de inzet van de eerste BioKI stier Opneij Wytze P. De kennis en ervaringen van de Praktijknetwerken Bio-KI en Fundamentfokkerij Fries Hollands Vee en het onderzoek van het Louis Bolk Instituut en Livestock Research van Wageningen UR zijn samengebracht in dit BioKennisbericht.
    Effect of qualitative feed restriction on energy metabolism and nitrogen retention in sheep
    Kamalzadeh, A. ; Koops, W.J. - \ 2009
    South African Journal of Animal Science = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Veekun 39 (2009)1. - ISSN 0375-1589 - p. 30 - 39.
    compensatory growth - body-composition - weight - steers - lambs - efficiency - nutrition - hay
    Periodic restrictions in feed quality and quantity is an important phenomenon in regions where animal production should bridge the gap between periods of forage production separated by a dry season. Eighteen Swifter male lambs, weaned at the age of ca. three months, were used to quantify effects of feed quality restriction and realimentation on changes in energy and nitrogen metabolism. The diet consisted of grass straw (17 MJ of gross energy [GE] and 46 g crude protein [CP] per kg dry matter [DM]) on an ad libitum basis and 35 g/kg(0.75)/d mixed concentrates (16.5 MJ of GE and 173 g CP per kg DM). At the age of ca. 3.5 months the animals were randomly divided into six blocks, based on live weight, according to a randomized complete block design. Within each block, the animals were randomly assigned to two restricted treatments (RI and R2) and an unrestricted control (C) treatment. Treatments R1 and R2 were subjected to feed quality restriction by withholding the concentrate for 3 and 4.5 months, respectively. A modified linear model was developed to study the effects of restriction and realimentation. The comparison between treatments was made by analyzing the data of the RI and R2 animals as deviations from the control animal in each block. During the restriction period, restricted animals lost weight and showed negative energy (EB) and nitrogen balances (NB), whereas their intake of low quality roughage increased significantly. During the realimentation period (5 and 6 months for the RI and R2 animal, respectively), the R1 and R2 animals grew significantly faster than the control animals. The realimented animals persisted in ingesting significantly more low quality roughage and their EB and NB were significantly greater that those of the control animals. The R2 animals needed a longer period of realimentation because of a longer period of restriction. The expression of compensatory growth was mainly related to a sustained higher grass straw (low quality roughage) intake during the realimentation periods, and a significantly greater efficiency of metabolizable energy intake. The maintenance requirement of realimented animals was significantly lower only during the initial stages of realimentation compared with the controls. It seemed as if a three months feed restriction period in weaned sheep was better than 4.5 months
    Hoornloos fokken nog in de kinderschoenen
    Poelsma, B. - \ 2009
    Boerderij 94 (2009)23. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 37 - 37.
    rundveehouderij - rundveerassen - stieren - onthoornen - fokkerijmethoden - cattle husbandry - cattle breeds - steers - dehorning - animal breeding methods
    De vraag naar hoornloos gefokte stieren groeit gestaag. CRV startte in 2009 een fokprogramma. Animal Sciences Group (ASG) deed onderzoek
    4de Themadag: Eigen stier er bij, waarom dat nou? 3 december 2009 te Dronten
    Nauta, W.J. - \ 2009
    Dronten : Louis Bolk Instituut - 3 p.
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - stieren - veredelen - genetische diversiteit - rassen (dieren) - organic farming - dairy farming - steers - breeding - genetic diversity - breeds
    Op 3 december werd de 4de themadag van het Netwerk Stier bijde Koe georganiseerd op de Warmonderhof in Dronten. Op deze dag, waar totaal 45 veehouders, studenten en andere geïnteresseerden naar toe kwamen, werd van verschillende kanten belicht waarom het fokken met eigen stieren belangrijk is voor de melkveehouderijsector.
    Fokken met biologische stieren
    Vrolijk, M. ; Nauta, W.J. - \ 2009
    BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2009)12. - 4
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - dierveredeling - stieren - rundvee - organic farming - dairy farming - animal breeding - steers - cattle
    Robuuste koeien. Dat staat bovenaan het wensenlijstje van veel biologische melkveehouders. Veel melkveehouders kruisen daarom hun koeien met ‘ouderwetse’ rassen. De Themawerkgroep Fokkerij van het bedrijfsnetwerk biologische melkveehouderij probeert daarnaast een eigen biologische KI-programma te ontwikkelen
    Genomics revolution
    Calus, M.P.L. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2009
    Veepro Magazine 71 (2009). - p. 4 - 6.
    rundveehouderij - rundveeteelt - genetica - rundveerassen - stieren - cattle husbandry - cattle farming - genetics - cattle breeds - steers
    Genomic selection is the talk of the day in the breeding world. The Netherlands is in the lead. The use of tens of thousands of markers is creating a revolution in breeding. When they are just over 12 months old, young bulls can already be used as proven bulls
    Final report ox-cart testing activities animal draught power research & development project
    Dogger, J.W. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : IMAG (Nota / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen P-552) - 40
    karren - trekkracht - experimenten - handgereedschap - werktuigen - onderzoek - stieren - trailers - carts - draught - experiments - hand tools - implements - research - steers
    Veldbonenkuil als voeder voor rundvee. 1. Inkuilverliezen, dier verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde
    Hof, G. ; Lenaers, P.J. ; Boer, H. ; Deinum, B. - \ 1982
    Bedrijfsontwikkeling 13 (1982). - ISSN 0303-4127 - p. 343 - 346.
    tuinbonen - kuilvoer - stieren - vicia faba - faba beans - silage - steers
    Om het inzicht in de waarde van veldbonensilage als rundveevoeder te verbreden, werden twee kuilen, varierend in oogststadium, onderzocht op inkuilverliezen, kuilkwaliteit en de dier-verteerbaarheid
    Weiden en vetweiden van twee - en driejarige ossen
    Sevenster, S. - \ 1962
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Verslagen / Instituut voor biologische en scheikundig onderzoek van landbouwgewassen 1962, no. 28) - 13
    diervoedering - stieren - rundvee - begrazing - afmesten - animal feeding - steers - cattle - grazing - finishing
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