Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    The allo-octoploid strawberry: simply complex
    Dijk, Thijs van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Eric van de Weg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579637 - 185
    fragaria ananassa - strawberries - polyploidy - microsatellites - linkage mapping - genome analysis - quantitative trait loci - genetic mapping - flowering - plant breeding - fragaria ananassa - aardbeien - polyploïdie - microsatellieten - koppelingskartering - genoomanalyse - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - genetische kartering - bloei - plantenveredeling

    The garden strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is a fruit species that was developed through human intervention less than 300 years ago. Currently, it is the most important soft fruit in both production as well as value and renowned for its deliciousness. There are many challenges in growing such a delicate fruit, many of which have been overcome through improved cultivation techniques and breeding. The perishability of the product is, however, not the only challenge faced by strawberry breeders. In terms of genome composition, strawberry appears to have accumulated a wonderful array of obstacles to genetic studies. It is a vegetatively propagated allo-octoploid outbreeder, and only few crop species are worse of in this respect. Many of the molecular genetic ground work is therefore performed in its diploid ancestor, the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca, which was sequenced in 2011. However, since nearly all strawberries that are eaten are octoploid, genetic research can’t linger at the wild diploids forever. In this thesis we developed new tools and analysis methods for genetic studies in the allo-octoploid strawberry and subsequently applied these methods in the detection of marker-trait associations.

    The purpose of Chapter 2 was to develop a method to interpret the complex peak patterns generated by microsatellites in octoploid strawberry in such a way that we ended up with as much information as one would expect to retrieve from a microsatellite in a diploid system. This information could then be used to generate high quality linkage maps for the different sub-genomes and allow for easy alignment and comparison. We named the method MADCE, which stands for Microsatellite Allele Dose & Configuration Establishment. In the MADCE methodology, we first need to determine the dose of each allele present in an individual. For this we used the signal of fluorescent microsatellite peaks in relation to the total fluorescent signal generated by all peaks for that microsatellite. We then used the disomic inheritance of strawberry to establish the allelic configuration of each different homoeologue (subgenome). The repulsion of alleles from the same subgenome in offspring allowed us to form subgenomic pairs of alleles. We found that in single cross mapping populations, the deployment of our method was fairly easy due to the high number of offspring that can be used to establish repulsion between alleles. However, for pedigreed breeding germplasm this was another matter, as generally only few offspring were available. For this we added some additional tricks to the MADCE method, although some uncertainty about the configuration would remain for problematic lines and alleles.

    In Chapter 3 we used the MADCE method from Chapter 2 to generate a genome wide linkage map for the Holiday x Korona (HxK) mapping population. This linkage map was to be used in subsequent experiments for QTL discovery as well as provide the strawberry community with a highly detailed map consisting not only of marker distances, but allele and haplotype configuration of the parents Holiday and Korona as well. The haplotype information revealed that inbreeding (homozygosity) levels in Holiday were similar to the levels expected from its pedigree, but that inbreeding levels of Korona were more than three times higher than expected, which could be resultant from selection pressure enacted by breeders. Selection pressure could also be causal to our discovery that the kinship between the two cultivars was twice as high as expected from their shared ancestry. Another discovery was a large inversion on one of the subgenomes of linkage group 2 (D). Up until the publication of our linkage map this inversion had not been reported in other linkage maps. Another innovation was our attempt at giving a biological or evolutionary meaning to the denomination of the linkage groups by arranging them according to similarity to the diploid ancestor F. vesca, based on F. vesca derived primer amplification efficiencies. The HxK map has been used in several (ongoing) research projects outside of our research group and has contributed to the development of the 90k Axiom SNP array for cultivated strawberry.

    In Chapter 4 we performed a QTL mapping study for disease resistance against the problematic pathogen Phytophthora cactorum, which causes crown rot in strawberry plants. In this study we used two different mapping populations: the Holiday x Korona (HxK) population from the previous chapter as well as E1998-142 x Elsanta (ExEls), developed more specifically for the purpose of finding resistance against P. cactorum. The HxK and ExEls populations were phenotyped over three years (2008, 2010 and 2011) under different seasons and conditions. The correlation between years for was quite low for both populations (ranging from 0.18 to 0.47), indicating a large environmental effect on disease pressure. Results from the QTL analysis showed that most QTLs were small in effect and only just above the statistical significance threshold. Only for ExEls we uncovered two QTLs with relatively high significance levels, but none were significant in all three years. Because of the high environmental influence, and the desire to have QTLs that are robust over environments, we used the average of all three years (AOTY) as an additional phenotype. When we used the AOTY trait, the QTL on LG7D became stronger than for any of the individual years. Whereas for the LG7C QTL the significance dropped to just below threshold levels. These results indicated that removing environmental noise through averaging over experiments is a good way to uncover the most reliable and therefore more valuable to a breeding program.

    In Chapter 5 we investigated the genetics behind two different flowering habits that are grown commercially worldwide: seasonal flowering habit (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) These varieties initiate flowering under long days, and can therefore produce fruit for a much longer period: throughout the summer and early fall. Evidence from literature and practical breeding suggested that PF is under dominant control. We decided to treat PF as a qualitative trait and divided two small mapping populations into PF and SF individuals. After screening several microsatellites, we found one locus that completely cosegregated with the PF trait at the bottom of LG4D. At the moment of mapping, a paper was published which mapped the same trait to the same location. We found that there were two very clear candidate genes within our QTL interval, FaCDF2 and FaFT2, which were homologous to genes that are major factors in the flowering pathway of Arabidopsis and many other plant species. We then sequenced the FaCDF2 gene from a number of distinct PF and SF cultivars. This resulted in the discovery of two quite distinct allelic variants, one of which was present in all PF cultivars. However this variant was also present in some of the SF cultivars, indicating that either FaCDF2 is not the causal gene, or that other loci can have a qualitative effect on the switch from SF to PF. We then performed microsatellite haplotyping on hundreds of cultivars and this revealed that all PF varieties of all origins carry the same haplotype in the PF QTL region, and that there weren’t any recombinations between the candidate genes FaCDF2 and FaFT2, which are 250kb apart on the physical genome. This makes it still undecided which of these two candidate genes are causal to the PF trait. Another interesting result from the haplotyping was that the complete PF haplotype was present with moderate frequency in SF varieties as well. Not only does this suggest a common origin, it also complicates the establishment of a theory for the mechanisms behind perpetual flowering in cultivated strawberry. So far we have not been able to establish whether the PF haplotype that is present in SF cultivars is functionally distinct from the PF haplotype in PF cultivars. All we know is that it does not confer perpetual flowering in these SF cultivars, and further experiments would be needed to find out the exact mechanism behind perpetual flowering.

    In the general discussion (Chapter 6), the results of this thesis were placed in the broader context of science in general and plant breeding in particular.

    Consultancy genereren basiskennis fotosynthese aardbei
    Kaiser, E. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1411) - 22
    aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - fotosynthese - energiebesparing - licht - kooldioxide - strawberries - fragaria ananassa - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - photosynthesis - energy saving - light - carbon dioxide
    To save electricity and CO2 during strawberry production, more knowledge about the photosynthesis of greenhouse-grown strawberry plants is necessary. This was tackled by measuring light- and CO2-dependent photosynthesis responses and by conducting a literature study in which several parameters of leaf-level photosynthesis were compared. From measurements conducted between middle of March and middle of May 2016 it was concluded that the rate of photosynthesis and electron transport was comparable between young and old leaves, while stomatal conductance in young leaves was always higher. Light- and CO2- saturated photosynthesis rates were higher in older leaves. Furthermore, a decrease of photosynthesis rates was visible in April, which may have been caused by acclimation of leaf biochemistry to elevated CO2 concentrations in the greenhouse. Conclusions from the literature study were that light saturation was reached at ~1000 μmol m-2 s-1 and that CO2 saturation was reached at ~1100 μmol mol-1. Average photosynthesis rates at these conditions were 18 and 35 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The average quantum yield of photosynthesis was ~0.06 μmol CO2 μmol-1 PAR, which is comparable to other, fast growing greenhouse crops (e.g. cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper). Large knowledge gaps about the course of photosynthesis during complete growing seasons remain.
    Jaarrond duurzame en intensieve aardbeienteelt met minder stroom : Deskstudie naar mogelijkheden besparing op elektriciteit
    Janse, J. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapport GTB 1397) - 28
    fragaria ananassa - aardbeien - fruitteelt - energiegebruik - led lampen - elektriciteit - fragaria ananassa - strawberries - fruit growing - energy consumption - led lamps - electricity
    The opportunities to significantly reduce the electricity consumption in an illuminated strawberry cultivation
    has been analysed in a desk study. Special energy-efficient LED lamps can be used to steer plant growth and
    development. By replacing HPS-lamps by the latest LEDs with an energy efficiency of 2.7 μmol/W, the power
    consumption can be reduced by more than 30%. It seems possible to reduce this consumption in illuminated
    strawberries by another 10% in a greenhouse with high light transmission in the winter months and using
    artificial lighting more in relation to different growth stages. Light colour (spectrum) affects the growth,
    production and quality of strawberries. A high amount of red light stimulates production and blue light enhances
    the sugar and vitamin C content.
    The light and energy consumption can be further decreased by improved space utilization and by reducing the
    leaf/fruit ratio. Gas savings are possible by minimizing the use of the minimum heating pipe and closing the
    energy screen during cold weather. However, this requires special attention with respect to the prevention of
    fungal diseases and maintaining fruit quality.
    De bijdrage van (wilde) bestuivers aan een hoogwaardige teelt van peren en aardbeien : nieuwe kwantitative inzichten in de diensten geleverd door bestuivende insecten aan de fruitteeltsector in Nederland
    Groot, G.A. de; Knoben, Nieke ; Kats, R.J.M. van; Dimmers, W.J. ; Zelfde, M. van 't; Reemer, M. ; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2716) - 67
    pyrus communis - peren - fragaria ananassa - aardbeien - bestuiving - bestuivers (dieren) - apidae - honingbijen - bombus - syrphidae - wilde bijenvolken - nederland - pyrus communis - pears - fragaria ananassa - strawberries - pollination - pollinators - apidae - honey bees - bombus - syrphidae - wild honey bee colonies - netherlands
    Energie-extensieve teelten klimaatneutraal met hoog-isolerende kassen
    Zwart, H.F. de; Garcia Victoria, N. ; Kromwijk, J.A.M. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Gastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1398) - 40
    glastuinbouw - extensieve productie - antirrhinum - aardbeien - slasoorten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - energiebesparing - ontvochtiging - isolatietechnieken - verwarming - belichting - licht - lichtdoorlating - biologische grondontsmetting - greenhouse horticulture - extensive production - antirrhinum - strawberries - lettuces - sustainability - energy saving - dehumidification - isolation techniques - heating - illumination - light - light transmission - biological soil sterilization
    In this study an analysis is presented on the perspectives of highly insulated greenhouses for extensively heated
    greenhouse crops. Three crops were used as an example, ranging from Antirrhinum, with a yearly heating
    demand of 4 m³ of natural gas equivalents per m² to strawberry, with 13 m³ of gas consumption per m² per
    year.
    If Antirrhinum would be grown in a double glazed, highly insulated greenhouse with an energy recuperating
    dehumidification system, the remaining heat demand will be almost zero. Growing strawberries in such a
    greenhouse reduces the gas consumption for heating down to 7 m³/(m² year). When generating this heat
    with a heat pump, only 21 kWh/(m² year) will be needed for heating. In all greenhouse sectors, a tendency
    towards an intensified production by using artificial illumination can be seen. Illumination has a much higher
    impact on energy consumption than heating, so insulation of greenhouses for extensively heated crops is of less
    importance than improving the transmissivity or developing better lighting systems.
    Besides energy for heating and lighting, greenhouses use a substantial amount of energy for soil disinfection.
    Here savings can be achieved by using biological disinfection, substrate systems or ozonized water.
    This project was funded by the research program ‘Kas als Energiebron’, the joined action and innovation program
    of the ministry of Economic affairs and LTO Glaskracht Nederland.
    De consument wil smaak...maar welke smaak?
    Verkerke, W. ; Labrie, C.W. - \ 2016
    Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie 2016 (2016)01. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 20 - 22.
    tuinbouw - tomaten - paprika's - meloenen - aardbeien - smaak - consumentenpanels - smaakonderzoek - marketing - modellen - horticulture - tomatoes - sweet peppers - melons - strawberries - taste - consumer panels - taste research - marketing - models
    Marktgericht produceren begint bij de smaak. Maar van welke smaak houdt de consument? Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw ontwikkelde een meetmodel voor de smaak van tomaten, paprika's en meloenen en werkt nu aan de aardbei. Bovendien brengt het de smaak van consumententypen in kaart. "Als je de smaakvoorkeur van consumenten kent, dan kun je pas écht produceren voor de markt."
    Lekkere en gezondere aardbeien met extra blad- of vruchtbelichting : 12% meerproductie in het najaar
    Janse, Jan ; Hanenberg, Maike - \ 2015
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cultural methods - agricultural research - illumination - led lamps - crop production - strawberries - all-year-round production - vitamins - varieties - taste - keeping quality

    Bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw in Bleiswijk kijken onderzoekers in het Informatie Demonstratie Centrum (IDC) Smaak hoe ze met blad- en vruchtbelichting jaarrond kasaardbeien lekkerder en gezonder kunnen maken in combinatie met een goede houdbaarheid en hogere productie.

    Optreden van suzuki-fruitvlieg in zachtfruit in 2014 : Technische rapportage van de waarnemingen
    Helsen, H.H.M. ; Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2015
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 20
    fruitteelt - gewasbescherming - drosophila suzukii - kersen - monitoring - bewaarziekten - pruimen - aardbeien - frambozen - bramen - bessen - fruit growing - plant protection - drosophila suzukii - cherries - monitoring - storage disorders - plums - strawberries - raspberries - blackberries - berries
    In 2014 trad in alle belangrijke zachtfruitgewassen schade op door suzuki-fruitvlieg. Daarbij was opvallend dat telers de beginnende aantasting vaak niet opmerkten. Deels hing dit samen met de onbekendheid van telers in 2014 met het schadebeeld. Verder bleek uit de waarnemingen in kersenboomgaarden, dat lokvallen geen betrouwbaar hulpmiddel waren om de aanwezigheid van lage aantallen suzuki-fruitvliegen vast te stellen. De lage initiële aantastingsniveaus leidden enkele generaties later vaak tot een explosie van suzuki-fruitvlieg in het gewas. Een vroegtijdige herkenning van de aanwezigheid van suzuki-fruitvlieg is dan ook belangrijk. De ontwikkeling van betere technieken voor monitoring is daarom een must. Daarnaast is instructie van telers belangrijk. In het project is hieraan veel aandacht besteed, onder meer in de vorm van instructiebijeenkomsten en de verspreiding van instructiemateriaal
    Disease suppression in cropping systems
    Postma, Joeke - \ 2015
    strawberries - small fruits - plant protection - fungus control - phytophthora cactorum - suppression - mycorrhizas - composts - biological control - biochar
    Phosphorus mobilization and biocontrol of plant pathogens combined in one strain – results of a fungus and a bacterial inoculant
    Postma, J. ; Nijhuis, E.H. - \ 2015
    aardbeien - tomaten - potproeven - gewasbescherming - grondverbeteraars - compost - biochar - schimmelbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - glastuinbouw - mycorrhizae - fosfor - strawberries - tomatoes - pot experimentation - plant protection - soil amendments - composts - biochar - fungus control - biological control - greenhouse horticulture - mycorrhizas - phosphorus
    How two important crops, strawberry and tomato grown in potting soil, benefit from microbial inoculants.
    Problemen met verdeling meststoffen en middelen moet je voorkomen
    Velden, P. van; Blok, C. - \ 2015
    Onder Glas 12 (2015)5. - p. 28 - 29.
    glastuinbouw - kleinfruit - aardbeien - waterverdelingssystemen - watervoorziening - druppelbevloeiing - mengmeststoffen - modellen - controle - greenhouse horticulture - small fruits - strawberries - water distribution systems - water supply - trickle irrigation - compound fertilizers - models - control
    Gericht water geven is sterk afhankelijk van de mogelijkheden op je bedrijf. Wanneer het tegen zit stapelen wel zes gietbeurten zich op in de druppelslang. Dat gebeurt zowel in grote als in kleine systemen, toonde Chris Blok aan. Met de aanleg van een nieuw watergeefsysteem kun je daar al rekening mee houden.
    LED light improves strawberry flavour, quality and production
    Hanenberg, M.A.A. ; Janse, J. ; Labrie, C.W. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2015
    glastuinbouw - aardbeien - fruitteelt - belichting - led lampen - proeven op proefstations - lichtregiem - kwaliteit na de oogst - smaakonderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - strawberries - fruit growing - illumination - led lamps - station tests - light regime - postharvest quality - taste research
    Various quality parameters of strawberries can be improved by the application of extra LED lighting on the plants and fruits during cultivation. This is the finding of the demonstration of IDC Flavour in Bleiswijk in the autumn of 2014. The demonstration was performed with two common cultivars, Elsanta and Sonata. Three different illumination treatments were applied during cultivation.
    Risico op verspreiding van Xanthomonas tijdens CATT aardbeiplanten
    Evenhuis, B. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Kastelein, P. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Mendes, O. ; Verstappen, E.C.P. ; Otma, E. ; Kruistum, G. van; Verschoor, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (Applied Plant Research) Business Unit AGV (PPO 3250293000) - 30
    aardbeien - plantenvermeerdering - xanthomonas fragariae - gecontroleerde omgeving - nematoda - gewasbescherming - plagenbestrijding - plantenparasitaire nematoden - meloidogyne hapla - pratylenchus penetrans - biologische bestrijding - strawberries - propagation - xanthomonas fragariae - controlled atmospheres - nematoda - plant protection - pest control - plant parasitic nematodes - meloidogyne hapla - pratylenchus penetrans - biological control
    Risico tijdens CATT op overdracht van Xanthomonas zeer gering De belangrijkste conclusie uit het onderzoek naar de overdracht van Xanthomonas van plant naar plant tijdens CATT is dat dit risico uitermate klein is. Bij latent geïnfecteerd plantmateriaal werden geen aanwijzingen gevonden voor de verspreiding van Xanthomonas tijdens CATT. Dit suggereert dat in een partij zonder symptomatische planten het risico op verspreiding van Xanthomonas nagenoeg afwezig is. Werd zwaar besmet symptomatisch plantmateriaal blootgesteld aan CATT dan werd af en toe met de Bio-TaqMan een aanwijzing voor besmetting van doelplanten gevonden. Dit leidde overigens in geen van deze gevallen tot het daadwerkelijk isoleren van de Xanthomonas bacterie. Ook werd geen symptoomontwikkeling in de doelplanten waargenomen, nadat deze waren uitgeplant en nageteeld. Dit geeft aan dat hoewel verspreiding tijdens CATT niet geheel uit te sluiten is, het risico van infectie van Xanthomonas-vrije planten zeer klein is.
    Uniformiteit van uitgangsmateriaal bij aardbei : Leidt het selecteren van stekken tot een meer uniforme productie?
    Dieleman, J.A. ; Clemens, S. ; Meinen, E. - \ 2015
    tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - aardbeien - gewasproductie - stekken - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - strawberries - crop production - cuttings
    In de aardbeienteelt kunnen verschillen in productie tussen planten groot zijn. Planten die 70 vruchten produceren kunnen naast planten staan die maar 20 vruchten geven. Mogelijk speelt het uitgangsmateriaal een rol in de grote variatie in productie. Zou het mogelijk zijn door uniforme stekken te selecteren een gelijkmatiger productie te krijgen?
    Extra smaak door extra led-belichting
    Reinders, U. ; Janse, J. ; Hanenberg, M. - \ 2015
    Kas techniek (2015)1. - p. 30 - 33.
    glastuinbouw - kastechniek - aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - belichting - led lampen - smaak - landbouwkundig onderzoek - teeltsystemen - rassen (planten) - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - strawberries - illumination - led lamps - taste - agricultural research - cropping systems - varieties
    Extra led-belichting maakt aardbeien smaakvoller. Dat blijkt uit een demonstratie bij het Informatie en Demonstratie Centrum (IDC) Smaak in Bleiswijk. Ook bevatten de vruchten meer vitamine C en is de productie hoger. Naast antwoorden roept de demonstratie ook vragen op, zoals welke processen precies aan de goede werking ten grondslag liggen.
    EUBerry – verhoging van duurzaamheid en consumptie kleinfruit : samenvatting activiteiten DLO Wageningen UR : PT Eindrapport EUBerry 2011-2014
    Kruistum, G. van; Evenhuis, A. ; Groot, M.J. ; Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit PPO-agv - 31
    europese unie - kleinfruit - geïntegreerde bestrijding - residuen - teeltsystemen - voeding en gezondheid - consumptie - gewaskwaliteit - aardbeien - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - marketing - european union - small fruits - integrated control - residues - cropping systems - nutrition and health - consumption - crop quality - strawberries - sustainability - marketing
    Doel van dit EU-project is de bevordering van de consumptie van kwalitatief hoogwaardig vers kleinfruit door geïntegreerde gewasbescherming en residuarme teelt, verbeterde teelttechnieken en aandacht voor gezondheidsaspecten.
    CATT: a New and Non-Chemical Pest and Nematode Control Method in Strawberry Planting Stock
    Kruistum, G. van; Evenhuis, B. ; Hoek, J. ; Kastelein, P. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2014
    aardbeien - biologische bestrijding - gewasbescherming - plantenparasitaire nematoden - nematoda - plantenvermeerdering - vegetatieve vermeerdering - phytonemus pallidus - meloidogyne hapla - xanthomonas fragariae - strawberries - biological control - plant protection - plant parasitic nematodes - nematoda - propagation - vegetative propagation - phytonemus pallidus - meloidogyne hapla - xanthomonas fragariae
    As an alternative to MeBr fumigation a 48h Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) was developed and scaled up by Wageningen UR in cooperation with the Dutch plant propagating association Plantum. This results in an excellent de-infestation and 99.8 % mortality of the strawberry tarsonemid mite (Phytonemus pallidus). This non-chemical and sustainable method provides a healthy production of highly qualified strawberry runners in the field. From 2009 CATT is up scaled to a commercial level and widely applied by Dutch nurseries. In 2011 this CATT method was successfully modified to eradicate also the root knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla (>99.7% mortality), which was not effectively controlled by MeBr fumigation. For an effective killing of the root knot nematodes, temperature must be raised to 40 ºC. In several experiments the optimum conditions for a high mortality of both tarsonemids and nematodes was studied. This leads into an adapted CATT of 20 hours at a temperature of 35 ºC and 50 % CO2 followed by 20 hours at a temperature of 40 ºC. In 2012 this adapted CATT was successfully upgraded and tested under field conditions. Additional research in 2013 leads to the conclusion that cross infection of plants by the bacterial Q-disease Xanthomonas fragariae during CATT treatment is unlikely
    Echte meeldauw in aardbei
    Evenhuis, A. ; Topper, C.G. ; Wilms, J.A.M. - \ 2014
    aardbeien - vollegrondsteelt - gewasbescherming - meeldauw - sphaerotheca - schimmelbestrijding - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - strawberries - outdoor cropping - plant protection - mildews - sphaerotheca - fungus control - cultural control
    Echte meeldauw wordt veroorzaakt door Sphaerotheca macularis. De schimmel kent weinig andere waardplanten. Biologie van de schimmel, weersomstandigheden en aardbeiplant bepalen kans op infectie. Hierop zijn waarschuwingssytemen gebaseerd.
    Sporulatie en beheersing echte meeldauw in aardbei : bouwstenen voor beslissing ondersteunend systeem (BOS) voor de beheersing van meeldauw in aardbei
    Evenhuis, A. ; Topper, C.G. ; Wilms, J.A.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit AGV - 47
    aardbeien - fragaria ananassa - gewasbescherming - meeldauw - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - vruchtrot - teeltsystemen - alternatieve methoden - fungiciden - sporulatie - biologische processen - strawberries - fragaria ananassa - plant protection - mildews - decision support systems - fruit rots - cropping systems - alternative methods - fungicides - sporulation - biological processes
    Echte meeldauw in aardbei kan zowel het blad als de vrucht aantasten. In de praktijk wordt de schimmel bestreden door regelmatige inzet van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Het is gewenst om die inzet te beperken tot het noodzakelijke. Dit is zowel economisch en milieutechnisch aantrekkelijk. In het algemeen kunnen waarschuwingssystemen helpen om het tijdstip van de inzet van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen te optimaliseren. Voor echte meeldauw zijn er een aantal beslissingsondersteunende systemen (BOS) op de markt (PlantPLus van Dacom Plant service en Aardbei bericht van Agrovision). In de teelt van aardbei wordt een advies gegeven voor vruchtrot en een advies voor meeldauw. Ervaring leert dat het advies voor meeldauw toch lastig is door wisselende weersomstandigheden en daar komt nog bij de aardbeien geteeld op stellingen, al of niet met regenkapje, te maken hebben met een ander microklimaat dan aardbeien geteeld in de vollegrond. Voor meeldauw geldt dan ook nog dat de biologie van deze schimmel minder goed bekend is dan die van Botrytis cinerea (vruchtrot). Het project is er op gericht om een de biologie van echte meeldauw in aardbei verder te ontrafelen. Deze kennis kan gebruikt worden om de bestrijdingsstrategie voor echte meeldauw in aardbei te ontwikkelen, gebaseerd op de biologie van de schimmel, de weersomstandigheden en de vitaliteit van het gewas. Veel gegevens over kieming, infectie en kolonisatie van aardbeiblad zijn beschreven in de literatuur.
    Naar een meer duurzame, gezonde en natuurlijke teelt van zachtfruit : Verslag van een verkenning naar meer duurzame, milieuvriendelijke en gezonde teelt van zachtfruit op bedrijfsniveau
    Wijk, C.A.P. van; Heijerman-Peppelman, G. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 45
    fruitteelt - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - gewasbescherming - rode aalbessen - kruisbessen - aardbeien - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bemesting - teeltsystemen - fruit growing - integrated farming systems - plant protection - red currants - gooseberries - strawberries - sustainability - fertilizer application - cropping systems
    Verkenning naar meer duurzame, milieuvriendelijke en gezonde teelt van zachtfruit op bedrijfsniveau.
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