Fine mapping quantitative resistances to downy mildew in lettuce revealed multiple sub-QTLs with plant stage dependent effects reducing or even promoting the infection
Boer, E. den; Zhang, N. ; Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Niks, R.E. ; Jeuken, M.J.W. - \ 2013
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 126 (2013)12. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 2995 - 3007.
backcross inbred lines - trait locus qtl - bremia-lactucae - leaf rust - durable resistance - stripe rust - genetic dissection - disease resistance - nonhost resistance - wild lettuce
Previous studies on the genetic dissection of the complete resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew revealed 15 introgression regions that conferred plant stage dependent quantitative resistances (QTLs). Three backcross inbred lines (BILs), carrying an individual 30–50 cM long introgression segment from L. saligna in a cultivated lettuce, L. sativa, background, reduced infection by 60–70 % at young plant stage and by 30–50 % at adult plant stage in field situations. We studied these three quantitative resistances in order to narrow down their mapping interval and determine their number of loci, either single or multiple. We performed recombinant screenings and developed near isogenic lines (NILs) with smaller overlapping L. saligna introgressions (substitution mapping). In segregating introgression line populations, recombination was suppressed up to 17-fold compared to the original L. saligna × L. sativaF2 population. Recombination suppression depended on the chromosome region and was stronger suppressed at the smallest introgression lengths. Disease evaluation of the NILs revealed that the resistance of all three BILs was not explained by a single locus but by multiple sub-QTLs. The 17 L. saligna-derived sub-QTLs had a smaller and plant stage dependent resistance effect, some segments reducing; others even promoting downy mildew infection. Implications for lettuce breeding are outlined.
Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome
Niks, R.E. ; Heyzen, S. van; Szabo, L.J. ; Alemu, S.K. - \ 2013
European Journal of Plant Pathology 136 (2013)2. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 393 - 405.
rust fungi - stripe rust - resistance - nonhost - morphology - genetics - hordei - range
The pathogenicity and identity was studied of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elymus repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus). We focused on the analysis of the host susceptibility of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) to both pathogen samples, in direct comparison with an isolate of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst) and P. striiformis f.sp. hordei (Psh). At the seedling stage 83 % of the barley accessions were susceptible to PcE. At the adult plant stage, cultivated barley was predominantly resistant to this crown rust sample. Morphology, pathogenicity on Hordeum and Bromus and ITS DNA sequence analysis determined that PcE represents a European specimen of P. coronata f.sp. hordei. Sample Psb was pathogenic on 47 % of the cultivated barley at the seedling stage. This is intermediate between the isolates Psh (90 %) and Pst (10 %). Psb and Psh were pathogenic to grasses representing several genera. The host range of the Pst isolate was more narrow. We conclude that Psb is unlikely to represent a genotype of Psh that happened to have colonized B. carinatus, and is likely a distinct form of P. striiformis.
QTLs for resistance to the false brome rust Puccinia brachypodii in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon L.
Barbieri, M. ; Marcel, T.C. ; Niks, R.E. ; Francia, E. ; Pasquariello, M. ; Mazzamurro, V. ; Garvin, D.F. ; Pecchioni, N. - \ 2012
Genome 55 (2012)2. - ISSN 0831-2796 - p. 152 - 163.
agrobacterium-mediated transformation - quantitative trait loci - genetic-linkage map - one major locus - leaf rust - disease resistance - globodera-pallida - powdery mildew - barley genome - stripe rust
The potential of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon L. (Brachypodium) for studying grass–pathogen interactions is still underexploited. We aimed to identify genomic regions in Brachypodium associated with quantitative resistance to the false brome rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii. The inbred lines Bd3-1 and Bd1-1, differing in their level of resistance to P. brachypodii, were crossed to develop an F2 population. This was evaluated for reaction to a virulent isolate of P. brachypodii at both the seedling and advanced growth stages. To validate the results obtained on the F2, resistance was quantified in F2-derived F3 families in two experiments. Disease evaluations showed quantitative and transgressive segregation for resistance. A new AFLP-based Brachypodium linkage map consisting of 203 loci and spanning 812 cM was developed and anchored to the genome sequence with SSR and SNP markers. Three false brome rust resistance QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, and 4, and they were detected across experiments. This study is the first quantitative trait analysis in Brachypodium. Resistance to P. brachypodii was governed by a few QTLs: two acting at the seedling stage and one acting at both seedling and advanced growth stages. The results obtained offer perspectives to elucidate the molecular basis of quantitative resistance to rust fungi
Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley
Aghnoum, R. ; Niks, R.E. - \ 2011
Journal of Plant Physiology 168 (2011)1. - ISSN 0176-1617 - p. 45 - 50.
marker-assisted selection - quantitative trait loci - adult-plant resistance - erysiphe-graminis - puccinia-hordei - spring barley - host-resistance - stripe rust - lines - map
Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal resistance to powdery mildew by cycles of convergent crossing and phenotypic selection between the most resistant and between the most susceptible lines, respectively, from four mapping populations of barley. Phenotypic selection in convergent crossing was highly effective in producing contrasting phenotypes for basal resistance and susceptibility. In ErBgh, almost 90% of infection units failed to form a primary haustorium in the epidermal cells in association with papilla formation, but in EsBgh only 33% of infection units failed to form a primary haustorium. The contrast between ErBgh and EsBgh for successful formation of secondary and subsequent haustoria was much less obvious (69% versus 79% successful secondary haustorium formation). In an earlier investigation, we determined seven QTLs for basal resistance in the four mapping populations. Checking the peak markers of these QTLs indicated that only four out of seven QTLs were confirmed to be present in the selected resistant lines and only four QTLs for susceptibility were confirmed to be present in the selected susceptible lines. Surprisingly, none of the expected QTLs could be detected in the resistant line ErBgh. We discuss some reasons why marker aided selection might be less efficient in raising levels of basal resistance than phenotypic selection. The very resistant and susceptible lines developed here are valuable material to be used in further experiments to characterize the molecular basis of basal resistance to powdery mildew
Quantitative resistance and its components in 16 barley cultivars to yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei
Sandoval-Islas, J.S. ; Broers, L.H.M. ; Mora-Aguilera, G. ; Parlevliet, J.E. ; Osada-Kawasoe, S. ; Vivar, H.E. - \ 2007
Euphytica 153 (2007)3. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 295 - 308.
wheat leaf rust - adult-plant resistance - stripe rust - spring wheat - development stage - latent period - growth stages - epidemics
Sixteen barley cultivars with a susceptible infection type (IT = 7-8) in the seedling stage to an isolate of race 24 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei were planted at two locations in México. Disease severity (DS) parameters were assessed for the flag leaf and for the upper three leaves. The cultivars represented at least five levels of quantitative resistance ranging from very susceptible to quite resistant. ¿Granado¿, ¿Gloria/Copal¿ and ¿Calicuchima-92¿ represented the most resistant group and had an IT of 7 or 8. The cultivar × environment interaction variance, although significant, was very small compared with the cultivar variance. The disease severity parameters were highly correlated. The monocyclic parameter DSm, measured when the most susceptible cultivar had reached its maximum DS, was very highly correlated with the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), r being 0.98. Components of quantitative resistance were evaluated in two plant stages. In the seedling stage small cultivar effects for the latency period were observed, which were not correlated with the quantitative resistance measured in the field. In the adult plant stage the latency period (LP), infection frequency (IF) and colonization rate (CR) were measured in the upper two leaves. The LP was much longer than in the seedling stage and differed strongly between cultivars. The differences in IF were too large, those in CR varied much less. The components showed association with one another. The LP and IF were well correlated with the AUDPC (r = 0.7-0.8).
Resistance to cereal rusts at the plant cell wall - what can we learn from other host-pathogen systems?
Collins, N.C. ; Niks, R.E. ; Schulze-Lefert, P. - \ 2007
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58 (2007)6. - ISSN 0004-9409 - p. 476 - 489.
powdery mildew resistance - barley epidermal-cells - disease resistance - nonhost resistance - puccinia-hordei - arabidopsis-thaliana - stripe rust - gene-expression - tip necrosis - subcellular-localization
The ability of plant cells to resist invasion by pathogenic fungi at the cell periphery (pre-invasion resistance) differs from other types of resistance that are generally triggered after parasite entry and during differentiation of specialised intracellular feeding structures. Genetic sources of pre-invasion resistance such as mlo for barley powdery mildew and Lr34 for resistance to wheat leaf rust have proven to be broad-spectrum in effect and durable in the field. Continued breeding for this type of resistance (often quantitative in effect) is therefore considered an important strategy to protect cereal crops long-term against potentially devastating fungal diseases such as rusts. Considerable progress has been made in characterising genes and processes underlying pre-invasion resistance using mutant analysis, molecular genetics, gene cloning, and the model plant Arabidopsis, as well as comparative functional analysis of genes in Arabidopsis and cereals. This review summarises the current knowledge in this field, and discusses several aspects of pre-invasion resistance potentially pertinent to use in breeding; namely, biological cost of the resistance and effectiveness of individual resistance genes against multiple pathogen types. We show that mutations in Mlo, Ror1, and Ror2 genes known to affect powdery mildew pre-invasion resistance have no detectable effect on partial resistance to barley leaf rust as measured by latency period.