Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment
Yong, Y. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1293 - 1312.
greenhouse-gas emissions - dietary crude protein - slurry application techniques - carbon-dioxide emissions - fatty-acid concentration - dairy-cattle buildings - growing-finishing pigs - sugar-beet pulp - gaseous emissions - deep-litter
Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3, CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3, CH4 and N2O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24–65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26–199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of livestock production on global emissions of NH3 and GHG
Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples
Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Rademaker, C. ; Paton, N.D. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2014
Poultry Science 93 (2014)7. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1782 - 1792.
sugar-beet pulp - gastrointestinal-tract - oat hulls - nonstarch polysaccharides - growth-performance - poultry houses - low-viscosity - chickens - ammonia - diets
Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation.
Waste Not, Want Not: Mild and Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Uronic Acids
Klis, F. van der; Frissen, A.E. ; Haveren, J. van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2013
ChemSusChem 6 (2013)9. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 1640 - 1645.
acetalized galactaric acid - sugar-beet pulp - renewable resources - gold catalysts - polyesters - decarboxylation - glucose - chemicals - pectin - fdca
And isn't it uronic: A mild, highly efficient and selective catalytic oxidation of pectin-derived uronic acids to the corresponding aldaric acids is reported. Fast, quantitative conversions (>99%) of the starting materials are achieved with high selectivity (>97%) at room temperature, using supported gold catalysts and air as oxidizing agent
Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?
Meeuwse, P. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Tramper, J. ; Rinzema, A. - \ 2013
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 7 (2013)5. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 512 - 524.
solid-state fermentation - fatty-acid production - gamma-linolenic acid - sugar-beet pulp - mortierella-isabellina - oleaginous fungi - chemostat model - scale-up - validation - cultures
In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different bioreactors for submerged and solid-state fermentation in our evaluation. Using existing kinetic models, we predict lipid yields on substrate between 5% and 19% (w/w), depending on the culture system. According to the same models, improvement of the yield to 25–30% (w/w) is possible, for example by genetic modifi cation of the micro-organisms. The net energy ratio of the non-optimized systems varies between 0.8 and 2.5 MJ produced per MJ used; energy use for pre-treatment and for oxygen transfer are most important. For the optimized systems, the net energy ratio increases to 2.9–5.5 MJ produced per MJ used, which can compete very well with other biofuels such as bioethanol or algal biodiesel. This shows that, although quite some work still has to be done, microbial lipids have the potential to be tomorrow’s source of biodiesel. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Structural features and water holding capacities of pressed potato fibre polysaccharides
Ramasamy, U. ; Kabel, M.A. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2013
Carbohydrate Polymers 93 (2013)2. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 589 - 596.
cell-wall material - sugar-beet pulp - solanum-tuberosum - nonstarch polysaccharides - aspergillus-aculeatus - nmr characterization - purification - xyloglucan - methylation - conversion
Pressed potato fibre (PPF) has a high water holding capacity (WHC) affecting its processing as an animal feed. The aim of this study was to characterize cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) in PPF and investigate their WHC. This was done via sequential extractions. Half of all CWPs were recovered in the hot buffer soluble solids extract as pectins (uronic acid and rhamnose) and galactans wherein most pectins (76%) from PPF were water soluble. Most likely, the network of CWPs is loosened during processing of potatoes. PPF showed a WHC of 7.4 expressed as the amount of water held per g of dry matter (mL/g). Reconstituting hot buffer soluble solids with buffer insoluble solids in water gave a WHC comparable to that of PPF. Removal of alkali soluble solids, which mainly comprised xyloglucans, lowered the WHC of the final residue. The results indicated that interactions between CWPs could affect the WHC of PPF.
The ferulic acid esterases of Chrysosporium lucknowense C1: Purification, characterization and their potential application in biorefinery
Kuhnel, S. ; Pouvreau, L.A.M. ; Appeldoorn, M.M. ; Hinz, S.W.A. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2012
Enzyme and Microbial Technology 50 (2012)1. - ISSN 0141-0229 - p. 77 - 85.
sugar-beet pulp - plant-cell walls - aspergillus-niger - maize bran - feruloylated oligosaccharides - structural-characterization - wheat bran - degradation - classification - arabinoxylans
Three ferulic acid esterases from the filamentous fungus Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 were purified and characterized. The enzymes were most active at neutral pH and temperatures up to 45 °C. All enzymes released ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid from a soluble corn fibre fraction. Ferulic acid esterases FaeA1 and FaeA2 could also release complex dehydrodiferulic acids and dehydrotriferulic acids from corn fibre oligomers, but released only 20% of all ferulic acid present in sugar beet pectin oligomers. Ferulic acid esterase FaeB2 released almost no complex ferulic acid oligomers from corn fibre oligomers, but 60% of all ferulic acid from sugar beet pectin oligomers. The ferulic acid esterases were classified based on both, sequence similarity and their activities toward synthetic substrates. The type A ferulic acid esterases FaeA1 and FaeA2 are the first members of the phylogenetic subfamily 5 to be biochemically characterized. Type B ferulic acid esterase FaeB2 is a member of subfamily 6.
Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.
Oosterveld, A. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2003
Carbohydrate Polymers 54 (2003)2. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 183 - 192.
rich pectic polysaccharides - sugar-beet pulp - chemical characterization - hot-water - arabinose - green
Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results were compared with the composition of the same batch of green arabica coffee beans. Although part of our results were already reported in rather fragmented studies, this study gives a more complete overview of the amount and composition of unextractable polymers, extractable polymers, oligomers, monomers, and their conversion into (non-sugar) degradation products as a function of their degree of roast. It was found that most carbohydrates in the roasted coffee bean were present as polysaccharides (extractable or unextractable). The fact that only a small part of the carbohydrates in the extracts were recovered as oligomer and even less as monomers, showed that oligomers and especially monomers were converted very rapidly into Maillard and pyrolysis products. Cellulose remains unextractable and its solubility was not affected by the degree of roast. Galactomannans were also mainly present as unextractable polymers in green beans, but were solubilized to a large extent with increasing degrees of roast. The arabinogalactans in the roasted bean were highly soluble at the extraction conditions used. The arabinose as present as side-chains in the arabinogalactans were found to be more susceptible to degradation at more severe roasting conditions than the galactans. Also evidence was found that populations of arabinogalactans with very different ara:gal ratios exist in the roasted beans as well as in the green beans.
Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.
Oosterveld, A. ; Harmsen, H. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2003
Carbohydrate Polymers 52 (2003)3. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 285 - 296.
rich pectic polysaccharides - sugar-beet pulp - hot-water - arabinose
Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proportions of 1¿4-linked mannans, of which on average 1 in every 23 mannopyranose residues was branched with single unit galactose side-chains at O-6. A part of these galactomannans could be extracted relatively easy with water and EDTA. These galactomannans were found to have a relatively high degree of branching (gal:man1:8) and a relatively low molecular weight in comparison to the remaining galactomannans (gal:man1:15–24). Additionally, 1¿3-linked galactans, heavily branched at O-6 with side-chains containing arabinose and galactose residues, were present in the green coffee beans, as well as smaller amounts of pectins, cellulose, and xyloglucans. Roasting resulted in a loss of 8% of the dry weight. This could be partly explained by the relatively high percentage of sugars which was lost during the roasting process, most probably as a result of conversion into, e.g. Maillard and pyrolysis products. After roasting the extractability of polysaccharides was increased significantly. A decrease in the degree of branching as well as a decrease in molecular weight of arabinogalactans, galactomannans, and xyloglucans was observed after roasting.
The Aspergillus niger faeB gene encodes a second feruloyl esterase involved in pectin and xylan degradation and is specifically induced in the presence of aromatic compounds
Vries, R.P. de; vanKuyk, P.A. ; Kester, H.C.M. ; Visser, J. - \ 2002
Biochemical Journal 363 (2002)2. - ISSN 0264-6021 - p. 377 - 386.
sugar-beet pulp - cell-wall polysaccharides - p-coumaroyl esterase - acid esterases - purification - expression - oligosaccharides - enzymes - cloning - tubingensis
The faeB gene encoding a second feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus niger has been cloned and characterized. It consists of an open reading frame of 1644 bp containing one intron. The gene encodes a protein of 521 amino acids that has sequence similarity to that of an Aspergillus oryzae tannase. However, the encoded enzyme, feruloyl esterase B (FAEB), does not have tannase activity. Comparison of the physical characteristics and substrate specificity of FAEB with those of a cinnamoyl esterase from A. niger [Kroon, Faulds and Williamson (1996) Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 23, 255-262] suggests that they are in fact the same enzyme. The expression of faeB is specifically induced in the presence of certain aromatic compounds, but not in the presence of other constituents present in plant-cell-wall polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan or pectin. The expression profile of faeB in the presence of aromatic compounds was compared with the expression of A. niger faeA, encoding feruloyl esterase A (FAEA), and A. niger bphA, the gene encoding a benzoate-p-hydroxylase. All three genes have different subsets of aromatic compounds that induce their expression, indicating the presence of different transcription activating systems in A. niger that respond to aromatic compounds. Comparison of the activity of FAEA and FAEB on sugar-beet pectin and wheat arabinoxylan demonstrated that they are both involved in the degradation of both polysaccharides, but have opposite preferences for these substrates. FAEA is more active than FAEB towards wheat arabinoxylan, whereas FAEB is more active than FAEA towards sugar-beet pectin.