Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality
Kiskini, Alexandra - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Gruppen, co-promotor(en): P.A. Wierenga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436793 - 141
sugarbeet - sugarbeet tops - biorefinery - bioprocess engineering - proteins - isolation techniques - physiological age - suikerbieten - suikerbietenloof - bioraffinage - bioproceskunde - eiwitten - isolatietechnieken - fysiologische leeftijd

Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the research was divided into three sub-aims: 1) to determine whether there is variability in the chemical composition of the leaves due to pre-harvest conditions (plant age), 2) to evaluate the variability of the techno-functionality of leaf soluble protein concentrate (LSPC) due to system conditions and 3) to extend current product and process synthesis approaches to enable the design of biorefining process. To address the first aim, SBL collected at different time points were used. Despite a small variation in the chemical composition of the leaves of different plant ages, a large effect of the plant age on the quality of LSPC was observed. In particular, LSPC from old plants was brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase - PPO - activity), whereas LSPC from young plants was yellow. Based on these data, samples extracted with sodium disulfite (to inhibit PPO-mediated browning) were used for further experiments. The obtained LSPC consisted mainly of protein (69.3% w/w db (N∙5.23)) and carbohydrates (5.1% w/w db; half of which was charged carbohydrates). The main protein present in LSPC was Rubisco. The emulsion and foam properties of LSPC were studied as a function of protein concentration (Cp), pH and ionic strength (I). The minimal Cp of LSPC needed to form a stable emulsion (Ccr) was comparable to that of other widely used plant proteins, such as soy protein isolate. A critical ζ-potential (ζcr ~ 11 mV) was identified, below which flocculation occurs. At pH 8.0 and high I (0.5 M) the Ccr was higher than at low I (0.01 M), which relates to a higher protein adsorbed amount at the interface (Γmax). The foam ability (FA) of LSPC increased with Cp at all conditions tested. The FA was related to the soluble and not to the total Cp in the bulk. Interestingly, the minimal Cp; i.e.CcrFA needed to reach highest FA was constant as a function of pH. At high I (0.5 M) LSPC had higher FA than at low I (0.01 M), which was related to the faster adsorption of proteins at the interface. A minimum Cp was required to form stable foams. At pH 3.0 and 5.0 the foam stability of LSPC was higher than at pH 8.0. This was postulated to be due to formation of aggregates (between proteins or between proteins and charged carbohydrates). From these data it was shown that the techno-functional properties of LSPC could be linked to the molecular and interfacial properties of the dominant proteins in the concentrates. Thus, predictions for the techno-functional properties of impure systems, such as LSPC, can be made using only the known molecular properties of the dominant proteins and a small set of experiments. The knowledge acquired through the previous studies was used to adapt an existing methodology; namely the product-driven-process synthesis (PDPS) methodology, to extend its use in biorefinery. The adapted PDPS contained 4 novel steps, which facilitated its use in biorefinery. To illustrate how this new approach can be used in practice, a case study of a sugar beet leaves biorefinery was presented.

Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients
Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.M. Boom, co-promotor(en): A.J. van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431378 - 188
sugarbeet - leaves - thylakoids - cellulosic fibres - food - surface proteins - food crops - protein extraction - suikerbieten - bladeren - thylakoïden - cellulosevezels - voedsel - oppervlakte-eiwitten - voedselgewassen - eiwitextractie

Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich nutritional profile (e.g. dietary fibres, minerals and secondary metabolites) and consist of complex biological structures (e.g. chloroplastic membranes) that can be explored as novel fractions that ultimately broaden the use of leaves. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore green leaves as a food source, with emphasis on neglected leaf fractions. This thesis describes a processing approach that aims at separating/generating enriched- functional fractions rather than pure components, and highlights the implications for value creation out of green leaves. The extraction of leaf membrane proteins is investigated using a proteomics extraction method, while the properties of other valuable leaf components (complexes and fibres) are analysed for techno-functional applications. Furthermore, the feasibility of leaves as a food source is studied at an industrial scale, considering large scale processing and options for leaf stabilisation.

The extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves is evaluated in Chapter 2 by using a traditional heat coagulation method. The heat treatment is thought to precipitate the insoluble proteins together with fibres, chlorophyll and other components, resulting in a green curd. Therefore, the distribution of soluble and insoluble proteins was followed along the extraction process to discern the effect of the heating step on protein fractionation. This study showed that both soluble and insoluble protein distribute almost evenly over the leaf fractions juice, pulp, supernatant and final pellet. The even distribution of the proteins was attributed to the anatomy of leaves and their biological function, which is predominantly the enzymatic activity related to photosynthesis instead of protein storage, which occurs in other plant tissues. This chapter further concludes that striving for high purity severely compromises the yield, and consequently results in inefficient use of the leave proteins.

Chapter 3 describes the application of proteomic analytical extraction protocols to analyse the fractionation behaviour of leaf proteins. This analysis lead to the translation into food- grade processes based on four fundamental extraction steps: (1) tissue disruption, (2) enzymatic inhibition, (3) removal of interfering compounds, and (4) protein fractionation and purification. Part of these extraction steps can be translated into food-grade alternatives, while the processing conditions determine the potential properties for food of the final products. Nevertheless, it was concluded that harsh and/or non-food grade conditions were required to isolate the leaf membrane proteins with high purity. Those results were explained by the fact that membrane proteins are heterogeneous w.r.t. charge, hydrophobicity, post- translational modification and complexation, leading to non-selective behaviour when compared with a single pool of proteins.

Given the large challenges in isolating membrane proteins from leaves, we studied another approach in which green leaves are considered as a source of naturally structured elements that have relevant techno-functional properties for food products, like the chloroplastic membranes (i.e. thylakoid membranes) and cellulose-rich fibres. Chapter 4 describes the properties of thylakoid membranes and their emulsifying mechanism. These membranes showed surface active properties and their adsorption kinetics were typical for large molecules or soft particles. The thylakoid fragments can effectively stabilise emulsion droplets, even though aggregation was observed already during emulsion preparation and increased with increased thylakoid concentration. Both composition and structure make thylakoid membranes suitable as a biobased material for food and pharma applications.

To continue exploring valuable fractions from leaves, Chapter 5 reports on the interfacial behaviour of cellulose-rich particles obtained from leaf pulp. Cellulosic particles were produced from the pulp obtained after leaf pressing. The particles spontaneous adsorption onto the oil-water interface and interfacial behaviour similar to that of solid particles. Addition of cellulosic particles to oil-in-water emulsions resulted in stable emulsions above a particle concentration of 0.1 w/v%, although phase separation was observed. The particle fines (0.04 – 1.0 µm) stabilised the droplet interface, while large particles formed a network in the continuous phase and rendered a top (green) phase in the emulsions. Finding applications for leaf side streams, like leaf pulp, broadens the options for total leaf processing and contributes to resource use optimisation.

A sustainability assessment of leaf processing is discussed in Chapter 6, considering the challenges that may appear at industrial scale. The seasonal availability of sugar beet plants implies the need of processing large amounts of biomass within a short time due to their high moisture content (85 - 90%) and their sensitivity to spoilage. Processing options were evaluated on their resource use efficiency in terms of energy requirement and exergy indicators. A decentralised process constitutes a good option compared to freezing, since solid side streams can be directly returned the land, leaving nutrients to the soil, and reducing transportation loads. With a decentralised process, freezing of the leaves becomes unnecessary; the leaf juice is transported while chilled, resembling the transportation of fresh milk that is also chill-transported from the farm to a central factory.

Chapter 7 concludes this thesis with a general discussion of the main findings. An integrated process for leaf valorisation is described, which combines the production of functional fractions with the production of bulk products such as protein-rich and fibre-rich fractions. A compilation of data on protein yield and protein purity of fractions obtained from protein crops (e.g. soy, lupine beans, pulses) and from photosynthetic active tissues (e.g., leaves, algae, duckweed) is included. Protein crops reach 50 - 60% protein yield with a protein purity of ~ 90%, whereas leaves and other photosynthetic active tissues reach similar protein purity (60 – 80 w/w% protein) but at much lower yields (10%). We hypothesize that the low yields are due to the small length scale in which protein is structured inside the leaves and the lack of protein storage anatomy in these tissues. Therefore, we conclude that leaf valorisation requires non-conventional approaches that go beyond higher extraction yields but that consider a complete use of the biomass.

Biobased Economy: Suikerbieten, basis voor bioplastic
Haveren, J. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - productontwikkeling - suikerbieten - biomassaconversie - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - product development - sugarbeet - biomass conversion
Veel van onze producten, zoals plastics en andere materialen, zijn gebaseerd op niet-hernieuwbare, fossiele grondstoffen. Die grondstoffen -aardolie, aardgas en steenkool- raken langzaam maar zeker op. Suikerrijke biomassa, zoals suikerbieten, kan een goede duurzame bron zijn voor deze materialen. Jacco van Haveren, onderzoeker aan Wageningen University & Research, vertelt over de mogelijkheden.
Geïntegreerde onkruidbestrijding in suikerbieten : "Hoe houden we de bieten in de toekomst schoon?"
Huiting, H.F. ; Bom, M. - \ 2016
Lelystad : Wageningen Plant Research (Wageningen Plant Research Rapport 3750336300) - 23 p.
beta vulgaris var. saccharifera - suikerbieten - geïntegreerde bestrijding - onkruidbestrijding - sugarbeet - integrated control - weed control
Onkruidbestrijding in suikerbieten is momenteel goed uitvoerbaar met een aantal bespuitingen met het lage doseringensysteem (LDS), maar dit beeld lijkt te gaan veranderen, door eisen aan driftreductie, mogelijke inperkingen aan herbicide-toelatingen, en Europese richtlijnen. Daarom is een aantal onkruidbestrijdingsstrategieën in suikerbieten met elkaar vergeleken, met als randvoorwaarde een schoon eindresultaat, en met minder inzet van actieve stof. In een demo in twee herhalingen zijn acht onkruidbestrijdingsstrategieën vergeleken op werking en mate van driftbeperking. Dit betrof spuittechnieken en combinaties van chemische en mechanische onkruidbestrijding.
Reststromen suikerketen
Smit, A.B. ; Janssens, S.R.M. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-013b) - 12 p.
suikerbieten - suikerfabrieksafval - agro-industriële bijproducten - reststromen - agro-industriële ketens - afvalhergebruik - voedselindustrie - voedselproductie - biobased economy - sugarbeet - sugar factory waste - agroindustrial byproducts - residual streams - agro-industrial chains - waste utilization - food industry - food production
De teelt en verwerking van suikerbieten leidt tot producten en diverse reststromen of bijproducten. In deze notitie worden de bestaande bijproducten en reststromen en hun huidige bestemmingen in kaart gebracht. Nagegaan is in hoeverre het geheel (het huidige gebruik) duurzaam is en of er mogelijkheden zijn om het economisch rendement te verbeteren.
Sugar beet has more to offer
Horsman, Karin ; Haveren, Jacco van - \ 2015
biobased economy - sugarbeet - biomass - feedstocks - biobased materials - sugars - lignin - fibres
The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia: a quick scan
Jongeneel, R.A. ; Smit, A.L. ; Bakker, Tom ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-149) - ISBN 9789086157280 - 25 p.
sugarbeet - processing - arable farming - ethanol production - biofuels - economic viability - slovenia - cap - european union - biobased economy - suikerbieten - verwerking - akkerbouw - ethanolproductie - biobrandstoffen - economische haalbaarheid - slovenië - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - europese unie
This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail after the liberalisation of the EU’s sugar policy in 2017, direct processing of sugar beets is a profitable activity. This result is conditional on a number of requirements.
Bladbemesting suikerbieten : veldproef in suikerbieten op proefbedrijf Kooijenburg
Russchen, H.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 28 p.
bladbemesting suikerbieten - arable farming - sugarbeet - foliar application - field tests - experimental farms - sandy soils - boron fertilizers - molybdenum fertilizers - magnesium fertilizers - plant protection - akkerbouw - suikerbieten - toediening op blad - veldproeven - proefboerderijen - zandgronden - boriummeststoffen - molybdeenmeststoffen - magnesiummeststoffen - gewasbescherming
Voor de suikerbietenteelt heeft Yara de bladmeststof Brassitrel Pro in het pakket en heeft de experimentele product F3521 ontwikkeld. De doelstelling van het proefveldonderzoek is om de meerwaarde van de bladmeststoffen Brassitrel Pro en F3521 in de bietenteelt aan te tonen en te vergelijken met gangbare bladmeststoffen Bortrac en Molytrac.
Achtergrondinformatie Praktijkdag Suikerbieten & Cichorei 2 juli 2015, Vredepeel
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2015
Vredenpeel : PPO - 17
akkerbouw - suikerbieten - cichorei - wortelgewassen - proeven op proefstations - zandgronden - organische meststoffen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - mechanische bestrijding - herbiciden - onkruidbestrijding - gewasbescherming - bladschimmels - rhizoctonia - rassenproeven - bemesting - arable farming - sugarbeet - chicory - root crops - station tests - sandy soils - organic fertilizers - soil fertility - mechanical control - herbicides - weed control - plant protection - phylloplane fungi - variety trials - fertilizer application
Deze Praktijkdag aandacht voor: Investeren in organische stof loont. Mechanische onkruidbestrijding. Bladschimmelbeheersing suikerbieten. Proefveld rhizoctoniaresistente suikerbietenrassen. Stikstof- en fosfaatbemesting in relatie tot het 5e actieprogramma. Nitraatrichtlijn. Stel de juiste diagnose van ‘zieke’ planten. Vooruitgang door nieuwe rassen bij cichorei. Onkruidbeheersing. Opbrengstverhoging. en Spuittechniek
Voorstel voor een co-existentie monitoringsprogramma t.b.v. het naast elkaar bestaan van genetisch gemodificeerde (GG) en niet-GG teelten in toekomstige praktijksituaties. 3. Suikerbiet
Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Kok, E.J. ; Scholtens, I.M.J. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 36
akkerbouw - veldgewassen - suikerbieten - vermenging - kruisbestuiving - genetische modificatie - uitkruisen - transgene planten - nederland - arable farming - field crops - sugarbeet - mixing - cross pollination - genetic engineering - outcrossing - transgenic plants - netherlands
Beschrijving van een voorstel voor een concreet co-existentiemonitoringprogramma (CMP) voor suikerbiet dat is aangepast aan de specifieke gewaseigenschappen van suikerbiet. De gemaakte keuzen t.b.v. een pragmatische invulling van het voorgestelde CMP worden in de opvolgende hoofdstukken toegelicht op basis van de huidige stand van zaken in het wetenschappelijk onderzoek aan (trans)genverspreiding in suikerbiet. Er is nog geen ervaring met een CMP in suikerbiet, noch is er een (Europese) standaard voor. Voor het bereiken van een zo pragmatisch mogelijke aanpak wordt zoveel mogelijk aangesloten bij al bestaande evaluatiepraktijken in de suikerbietenteelt
Bieten bijbemesten na opkomst
Verstegen, Harry - \ 2015
arable farming - sugarbeet - sugar content - fertilizer application - crop growth stage - boron fertilizers - boron - manganese - deficiency diseases - magnesium
Meer ethanol uit suikerbieten halen
Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
Boerderij 100 (2015)25. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 70 - 70.
akkerbouw - suikerbieten - ethanol - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rentabiliteit - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - arable farming - sugarbeet - sustainability - profitability - biobased chemistry
Wageningen UR en adviesbureau DSD testen in proeffabriek Chembeet in Lelystad hoe meer ethanol uit suikerbieten is te halen. Het doel van het onderzoek is na te gaan of uit suikerbieten op een rendabele manier grondstoffen kunnen worden gehaald voor de chemische industrie.
Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides
Leijdekkers, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen; Henk Schols. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572430 - 162
suikerbieten - bietenpulp - oligosacchariden - versuikering - bioraffinage - voer - fermentatie - sugarbeet - beet pulp - oligosaccharides - saccharification - biorefinery - feeds - fermentation


This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering detection and multidimensional mass spectrometry (HILIC-ELSD-MSn) was developed as a versatile technique for the characterization of a wide range of neutral and acidic plant cell wall derived oligosaccharides. It was shown that the separation capacity of HILIC for acidic oligosaccharides outperforms other techniques. HILIC-MSn enabled efficient sequence elucidation of oligosaccharides in complex mixtures.

The enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp was optimized to release the maximum amounts of monomeric galacturonic acid and arabinose with limited concomitant degradation of cellulose, using conditions that are feasible for industrial upscaling. The oligosaccharides that were obtained after hydrolysis were characterized, thereby enabling recognition of enzyme activities additionally needed for the full degradation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides.

The in vitro fermentation characteristics of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The fate of the different classes of SBPOS, the production of short-chain fatty acids and the changes in human fecal bacterial populations during in vitro fermentation were described. Several modifications in the microbiota composition that are potentially beneficial to host health were observed.

HILIC was also coupled to traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry to enable the simultaneous separation and characterization of complex mixtures of various isomeric pectic oligosaccharides. The developed method was used to characterize isomeric sugar beet rhamnogalacturonan I derived oligosaccharides carrying a glucuronic acid substituent, thereby identifying novel structural features of sugar beet pectin.

Kans op schade door hoog doseren
Hoek, H. - \ 2014
Boerderij 99 (2014)34. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 57 - 57.
akkerbouw - maïs - aardappelen - suikerbieten - gewasbescherming - herbiciden - schade - opbrengst - toepassingsdatum - doseringseffecten - mechanische bestrijding - arable farming - maize - potatoes - sugarbeet - plant protection - herbicides - damage - outturn - application date - dosage effects - mechanical control
Te hoge dosering van herbiciden kunnen soms leiden tot opbrengstderving. Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek door PPO-agv en CLM. Ze adviseren het LDS-systeem te combineren met een goede middelenkeuze en mechanische onkruidbestrijding, om het risico op gewasschade te beperken. Dat is ook nog eens goed voor de waterkwaliteit.
Detection of volunteer potato plants
Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Steen, S.P. van der; Hofstee, J.W. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2014
precisielandbouw - akkerbouw - opslag (planten) - sensors - suikerbieten - cultuurplanten als onkruiden - proeven op proefstations - precision agriculture - arable farming - volunteer plants - sugarbeet - crop plants as weeds - station tests
Within different experimental fields sugar beets and volunteer potato plants have been detected.
Micro-sprayer for application of glyphosate on weed potato plants between sugar beets
Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Hofstee, J.W. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2014
precisielandbouw - akkerbouw - suikerbieten - gewasbescherming - cultuurplanten als onkruiden - onkruidbestrijding - opslag (planten) - aardappelen - sensors - chemische bestrijding - precision agriculture - arable farming - sugarbeet - plant protection - crop plants as weeds - weed control - volunteer plants - potatoes - chemical control
Within different experimental fields sugar beets and volunteer potato plants have been detected.
Investeren in aanvoer van organische stof loont : Velddag bodem en bemesting PPO Vredepeel
Haan, J.J. de - \ 2014
Boerderij 99 (2014)42. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 52 - 52.
akkerbouw - bemesting - organische stof - gewasopbrengst - proeven op proefstations - veldgewassen - veldproeven - snijmaïs - aardappelen - preien - suikerbieten - excursies - bodemvruchtbaarheid - zandgronden - dierlijke meststoffen - kunstmeststoffen - arable farming - fertilizer application - organic matter - crop yield - station tests - field crops - field tests - maize - potatoes - leeks - sugarbeet - field trips - soil fertility - sandy soils - animal manures - fertilizers
Jaarlijkse aanvoer van organische stof aan bouwland zorgt op langere termijn voor hogere gewasopbrengsten. Janjo de Haan vertelt over de meerwaarde op lange termijn van het toedienen van dierlijke mest op kunstmest in het project Bodemkwaliteit op zandgrond tijdens de velddag bodem en bemesting op het PPO-proefbedrijf Vredepeel.
Kennis als gereedschap om schade te beperken
Raaijmakers, E. ; Rozen, K. van; Everaarts, T. - \ 2014
Akker magazine 10 (2014)5. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 18 - 19.
akkerbouw - gewasbescherming - deroceras reticulatum - plantenplagen - naaktslakken - tipulidae - elateridae - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - plagenbestrijding - kennis van boeren - dieridentificatie - bodempathogenen - suikerbieten - arable farming - plant protection - plant pests - slugs - cultural control - pest control - farmers' knowledge - animal identification - soilborne pathogens - sugarbeet
Slakken, emelten en ritnaalden zijn al op veel percelen suikerbieten waargenomen. Ze veroorzaken plantwegval. Hierdoor moesten enkele telers hun percelen zelfs overzaaien. Ieder jaar zorgen bodemplagen voor schade. Met meer kennis hierover heeft een teler meer gereedschappen in handen om schade te beperken en de opbrengst te verhogen.
Houd uw bieten in de gaten
Raaijmakers, E. ; Visser, J.H.M. - \ 2014
Akker magazine 10 (2014)4. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 26 - 27.
akkerbouw - suikerbieten - gewasbescherming - meloidogyne - waardplanten - vroegtijdige diagnose - arable farming - sugarbeet - plant protection - host plants - early diagnosis
In 2013 is bij IRS-Diagnostiek bij 14 van de 411 onderzochte suikerbietenmonsters de diagnose wortelknobbelaaltjes gesteld. De meeste monsters kwamen binnen vanaf begin mei tot eind juni. Dit is de periode dat schade door deze aaltjes het gemakkelijkst te zien is in een suikerbietenperceel. Houd uw bieten dus in de gaten! Meer informatie over aaltjes is te vinden op , en
Later zaaien voorkomt emeltschade
Rozen, K. van; Raaijmakers, E. - \ 2014
Boerderij 99 (2014)25. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 63 - 63.
suikerbieten - tipulidae - larven - zaaitijd - gewasbescherming - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - plantenplagen - insectenplagen - akkerbouw - sugarbeet - larvae - sowing date - plant protection - cultural control - plant pests - insect pests - arable farming
Emelten, de larven van de langpootmug, kunnen in bieten flinke schade geven. Later zaaien kan in sommige gevallen de schade beperken.
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