Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia.
Vaessen, T. ; Verwer, C. ; Demies, M. ; Kaliang, H. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 2011
Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23 (2011)2. - ISSN 0128-1283 - p. 196 - 203.
mbalmayo-forest-reserve - southern cameroon - species richness - differing levels - rain-forest - diversity - isoptera - disturbance - indonesia - sumatra
VAESSEN T, VERWER C, DEMIES M, KALIANG H & VAN DER MEER PJ. 2011. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia. In this study we assessed the species density and relative abundance of termites in peat land in Sarawak, Malaysia. Termites were sampled in near-natural peat swamp forest, logged-over peat swamp forest, young oil palm plantation and a cleared and burned site. Species density and relative abundance were calculated for each site. Both species density and relative abundance differed significantly between sites. Near-natural peat swamp forest had the highest termite density, followed by logged-over peat swamp forest, young oil palm plantation and the cleared site. In contrast, the relative abundance of termites was highest in the young oil palm plantation due to the omnipresent genus Schedorhinotermes. Most of the species found in the cleared site and young oil palm plantation did not occur at the other sites. We conclude that ongoing forest degradation and conversion in tropical peat land result in shifting termite assemblages and declining species density. Species that originally occur at low densities in peat swamp forests are typically lost as a result of peat swamp forest conversion.
Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo
Slik, J.W.F. ; Balen, S. van - \ 2006
Biodiversity and Conservation 15 (2006)14. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 4425 - 4451.
central brazilian amazonia - species composition - surface fires - el-nino - landscapes - wildfires - sumatra
Our current understanding of bird community responses to tropical forest fires is limited and strongly geographically biased towards South America. Here we used the circular plot method to carry out complete bird inventories in undisturbed, once burned (1998) and twice burned forests (1983 and 1998) in East Kalimantan (Indonesia). Additionally, environmental variables were measured within a 25 m radius of each plot. Three years after fire the number of birds and bird species were similar for undisturbed and burned forests, but species diversity and turnover were significantly lower in the burned forests. The bird species composition also differed significantly between undisturbed and burned forests, with a strong decline of closed forest preferring bird species accompanied by a strong increase in degraded forest preferring species in burned forests. These differences were strongly related to differences in environmental conditions such as shifts in vegetation cover and layering and differences in ground and understorey vegetation structure. We also found significant shifts in body mass distribution, foraging height and feeding guilds between the bird communities in unburned and burned forests. Surprisingly, repeated burning did not lead to increasing impoverishment of the avifauna, and both once and twice burned forests still contained most of the bird species that were also present in undisturbed forest, even though their densities were considerably lowered
Toerbeurtrijstbouw : individuele en collectieve rechten in de landbouw van Kerinci in Sumatra, Indonesië
Ven, J.W. van de - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. von Benda-Beckmann. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044727 - 209
eigendomsrechten - gemeenschappelijk bezit - overerving van eigendom - landbouwgrond - voedselgewassen - rijst - boeren - boerengezinnen - indonesië - sumatra - property rights - common property resources - inheritance of property - agricultural land - food crops - rice - farmers - farm families - indonesia - sumatra
In Kerinci, on the
In Kerinci the standard mode of exploitation of inherited rice fields is gilir ganti or time-sharing. In essence, this means that heirs and co-owners of an inherited estate do not grant each other permanent, but only temporary rights of exploitation to rice fields. Time-shares to use the plots are distributed among each other instead of the plots in their entirety. In Kerinci such an individual time-share to use a certain plot of land to grow rice is called a giliran . A giliran always lasts for one year and runs from September to September. The time interval between the years that an individual heir is allowed to take his or her turn to one or more plots of the inherited estate is determined by the total amount of plots that make up the estate as well as by the total number of heirs. When there are many heirs and only a few plots of sawah , individual heirs will have to wait several years before they can take their turn, but when sawah are abundant the interval between the turns may be brief. For the next generation of heirs, the inherited giliran are equally distributed among the heirs in another set of time-shares.
Since inheritance in Hiang is a post mortem affair, the actual owners of the time-shares always belong to the oldest living generation. Long before actual inheritance, the giliran and other fields of the properties to beinherited,are therefore often already used by the children and grandchildren of the owner. An arrangement between giliran -owners and giliran -users practised most widely in this respect is a type of sharecropping by which costs and yields are split evenly ( bagi dua ). As time-share owners tend to anticipate the future, they often arrange for a settlement with their (grand)childrenthat mimics the model of time-sharing and that creates a shadow system of rotation on the level of use. In addition, private arrangements between brothers and sisters occur on the level of giliran -owners. When, for instance, a brother is relatively well-off, it is not unusual for him to grant temporarily the use of his giliran to a sister, albeit without altering his inheritance position and that of his children. Borrowing a giliran is a strategy to bridge or to shorten the interval between two time-shares of poorer siblings. When all brothers and sisters need their giliran for survival they can deviate privately from the giliran schedule by pooling and sharing their giliran with one or two other siblings. In this way, production costs and rice yields are distributed more evenly over time. If the logic of the inheritance of giliran were continued indefinitely, Kerinci farmers would after three or four generations end up with giliran that have been used for 30 or 40 years. In practice, however, giliran of such a long duration do not exist in Kerinci. In Hiang the running time of giliran differs between three and six years, while the most common running time is three years. This is a consequence of the practice of selling and buying giliran within the circle of close relatives. The widespread practice of selling and buying giliran is one of the cornerstones of the system of gilir ganti , since it prevents time-shares from becoming too fragmented over generations. There are several ways to transfer giliran between heirs. They can decide, for example, to sell giliran inherited from father or mother to one or all of their parents' offspring. They can also decide that only one of the children will replace father or mother, and that only he or she will inherit the entire giliran . In that case, other heirs will have to be compensated either in money or through the exchange of other inherited assets. The most common strategy to transfer giliran among heirs, however, is for brothers and sisters holding together new inherited property to buy and sell each other's giliran in due course, which results in a gradual reduction of heirs and giliran holders. Furthermore, it must be noted that rice fields belonging to the individual property of the deceased father or mother may also enter the system of gilir ganti should the heirs so decide. Following the inflow of individual fields in the inherited estate, new time-shares may be created next to the inherited giliran of each generation. Following this mix of old and new giliran and due to the practice of selling and buying time-shares, the inherited properties in Kerinci that are exploited in the gilir ganti mode, are typically of an ad hoc nature as they are centredaroundclusters of sibling groups of one generation. In terms of property flows, then, the property of a certain generation is only related to the inherited estates of previous generations by the less economically valuable, but sometimes ideologically and strategically highly appreciated 'old' giliran .
The social effects of the continuation of inherited property estates and the exploitation system of time-sharing are twofold. First, inherited estates provide for a social security and livelihood system within families. Second, since most farming families in Kerinci are still owners and users of giliran in the gilir ganti system, most families also still have access to rice production. The overall effect of gilir ganti in Kerinci is that many families stay in rice cultivation as - part-time - owners of rice fields. As participants in the system of gilir ganti these families also have relatively easy access to sharecropping and other labour relations that provide for alternative means to grow rice when there is no giliran to be used. From this perspective gilir ganti is the single most important social institution of food security in Kerinci. Further, it can be argued that the continuation of gilir ganti in Kerinci does not hamper but, instead, facilitates the commercial management of agriculture. After all, growing rice in a regime of time-shares and commercial production do not exclude each other. On the contrary, by keeping more farming families in rice cultivation through gilir ganti , these families are able to take more commercial risks in the producton of tree crops.
The second category of collective property, the common property of the village territory, is characterized by a very different historical trajectory in Kerinci. In some villages in Kerinci, such as Hiang, the traditional village lands are still covered with forests. In most villages, however, theseforesthave already been transformed into dry fields ( ladang ) and orchards ( kebun ). This does not imply that there is a shortage of forests in Kerinci as approximately 60% of the territory of the Kerinci district still consists of forests. These forests surround the agrarian
Forest Gardens as an 'intermediate' land-use system in the nature-culture continuum: Characteristics and future potential
Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2004
Agroforestry Systems 61-62 (2004)1. - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 123 - 134.
agroforestry system - management - domestication - indonesia - sumatra - areas - trees - nepal
Forest gardens are reconstructed natural forests, in which wild and cultivated plants coexist, such that the structural characteristics and ecological processes of natural forests are preserved, although the species composition has been adapted to suit human needs. These agroforests include a range of modified and transformed forests, and form an integral part of local land-use systems. They lie between natural forests and tree-crop plantations in terms of their structure and composition, and low intensity of forest extraction systems and the high intensity plantation systems in terms of their management intensity. Their management is characterized by combined use of silvicultural and horticultural operations, and spatial and temporal variations. These ecologically sustainable systems are often dynamic in species composition in response to changing socioeconomic conditions. Evolved over a long period of time as a result of local community's creativity, forest gardens have still received little attention in agroforestry research, just as in the case of the more intensively domesticated homegardens. The study of forest gardens offers good opportunities for obtaining a better understanding of the 'nature-analogous' agroforestry systems and for developing multifunctional agroforestry systems combining production and biodiversity values.
Biological nitrogen fixation of soybean in acid soils of Sumatra, Indonesia
Waluyo, S.H. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): W.M. de Vos; L. 't Mannetje; L.T. An. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082954 - 151
glycine max - sojabonen - bodembiologie - stikstoffixatie - stikstofbindende bacteriën - rhizobium - bradyrhizobium - inoculatie - entstof - biochemische technieken - dna-fingerprinting - stamverschillen - stammen (biologisch) - zaadbehandeling - omhullen - zure gronden - bodemaciditeit - bekalking - sumatra - indonesië - glycine max - soyabeans - soil biology - nitrogen fixation - nitrogen fixing bacteria - rhizobium - bradyrhizobium - inoculation - inoculum - biochemical techniques - dna fingerprinting - strain differences - strains - seed treatment - pelleting - acid soils - soil acidity - liming - sumatra - indonesia
The aim of this study is to improve soybean cultivation in transmigration areas, especially in Sitiung, West Sumatra. However, these soils are very acid, and have a high P-fixing capacity. To reduce the amounts of fertilisers, normally 5 - 7 ton lime ha -1 and 100 kg P as TSP, seed, pelleted with lime (60 kg ha -1 ) and TSP (10 kg ha -1 ), was introduced. In this way only 2 ton lime ha -1 are required.
Soybean can fix nitrogen (BNF) in symbiosis with ( Brady ) Rhizobium bacteria. However, these acid soils in general, have low numbers of ( Brady ) Rhizobium . By inoculating the soils with ( Brady ) Rhizobium , BNF of soybean, and yield, were considerably improved.
A study was made of the indigenous ( Brady ) Rhizobium population in view of the following:
Using molecular techniques, indigenous strains derived from soil samples from old soybean areas (Java) and from new soybean areas (Sumatra) were classified in more detail. Most likely B. japonicum is the dominant strain in Java while in Sumatra B. elkanii is more present. A Sinorhizobium fredii -like strain was isolated from one soil sample from Java.
Peasant women and access to land : customary law, state law and gender-based ideology : the case of the Toba-Batak (North Sumatra)
Simbolon, I.J. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): F. von Benda-Beckmann. - S.l. : Simbolon - ISBN 9789054858874 - 324
bezit - land - grondeigendom - sociale klassen - boeren - grondbeleid - economie - pachtstelsel - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - positie van de vrouw - vrouwen - sumatra - vrouwenbeweging - feminisme - vrouw en samenleving - property - land - land ownership - social classes - farmers - land policy - economics - tenure systems - physical planning - land use - zoning - woman's status - women - sumatra - women's movement - feminism - woman and society
This study is about opportunities, constraints and strategies regarding access to land of peasant women who live in the changing Toba-Batak patrilineal community of North Sumatra. Their access to land is seen in the wider context of the ongoing pressure of land scarcity due to individualization, statization and privatization of communal land. The study challenges the adequacy of ongoing research on peasant women's access rights to land in developing countries. It challenges first, the adequacy of feminist theories in handling cross-cultural aspects of power and gender relation; secondly, the adequacy of peasantry theories to deal with peasant women; and thirdly, the adequacy of legal theories in understanding the complexity of plural normative orderings in developing countries.
All in all, the study challenges the assumption that individual private property and control over land under the state legal framework is the ultimate way to secure the well being and empowerment of women. The objectives of the study are threefold. First, to show how different normative and institutional frameworks order the allocation of land resources. Secondly, to understand how colonial, religious, state, economic and political frameworks affect women, by underpinning local patterns of inequality. Thirdly, to assess the possibilities for differential access rights to land by peasant women and men.
The study attempts to answer two sets of questions. The first sets of questions relates to changing familial and inter-lineage relation to land and its impact on women. How have the Toba-Batak conceptualised access rights to land over time? What changes have been brought about by the German missionaries, Dutch colonial administration and post-colonial state? Do women benefit from the plural normative orderings in acquiring access rights to land? The second set of questions relates to the pressure on communal land and its impact on women. What is the importance and function of communal land in Toba-Batak society? How does control over communal land shift to the state and private investors? What are the implications of the diminishing of communal land to local villagers? What kind of overt and covert resistance do they reveal? How do they strategize their access to land in relations to the state's increasing control over land?
Following chapter one which provides the overall background of the study, chapter two introduces the situation of the Toba-Batak changing society in colonial times where the inception of legal pluralism has started to occur. The first western influence, Protestant Christianity, introduced quot;a process of individualization and secularization" to the Toba-Batak society . The christianization of the Toba-Batak had, to a great extent, smoothed the path for the Dutch to gain a strong foothold. Both the Germans and the Dutch had, in different ways, introduced the idea of incorporating leadership beyond the traditional spatial-lineage areas, characterized by a rigid hierarchical power structure. But it was the power of the state (in this case colonial rule) that was becoming more and more central to the further process of change, even though this power had been under continuous attack both by the (German) missionaries and the Toba-Batak themselves.
The western colonial influence affected all areas of life, including those related to land and the position of women. Land tenure was selectively detached from its relation to the sacred nature of adat and from the essence of the adat community as "an association of worship whose members every once in a while strengthened the union among themselves or the union with the ancestors through celebrations". The efforts to ideologically detach land matters from the sacred nature of the adat created room to re-negotiate new relations to land, both internally within lineage relations and externally with outside actors. The changing internal relations may concern gender, as was the case with the education of female students and various more gender-neutral colonial jurisprudence. The promotion of the principle of gender equality into the Toba-Batak rigid, patrilineal society is, therefore, to be seen in the wider process of the "de-sacralization of adat". Likewise, the changing external land relations may be concerned with the emerging of (new) outside actors in accessing, managing and allocating the local land, a process in which the (colonial)state, individual Bataks and non-Bataks and private companies come into the picture.
Chapter three demonstrates how contemporary Toba-Batak society is affected by the increasing power of the (post-colonial) state, especially during the New Order period. The Toba-Batak has become one local part of the wider Indonesian state that tries to develop its national economy. A major attempt to pursue the unification and centralisation project of the state is through the expansion of state modern bureaucracy and administration down to village level while neutralizing the adat principles and authorities which are often considered inconsistent with (universal) national ideals of justice (cf., Wignjosoebroto 1994 and 1997). Contrary to the patrilineal and highly patriarchal Toba-Batak adat , the Indonesian Constitution incorporates the principle of gender equality for all citizens. With the strengthening of state power, there are competing rights and rules pertaining to land, deriving from different sets of authority: the state and the adat . This multiplicity of rights and rules governing the land is not situated in a vacuum, but in the context of a dynamic process of land concentration vis-a-vis land scarcity. State intervention in the process of statization and privatization has been driven by contradictory forces between national economic ambition on the one hand, and the urgency for a more sustainable local resource management on the other.
Chapter four and five result from the field-work in North Sumatra. Chapter four deals with the issue of access rights to land in a relatively normal daily life situation of internal village and lineage relations, based on a village study conducted in Siraja Hutagalung. Because of the pressure of land scarcity, the basic traditional practice of acquiring land through clearing an empty land or forest no longer occurs. This results in the two categories of acquiring access rights to land, namely the "generational and affinal transactions" which are heavily gender-biased and "reciprocal and economic transactions" which are geared towards fulfilling the function of an equitable distribution of basic livelihood, augmenting economic benefits and confirming each other's political position within the kinship and residential unit. Gender-based arrangement in accessing rights to land is the foremost and the only traditional way to keep the land within the restricted boundaries of the patrilineage.
Chapter five provides an analysis of the ongoing conflicts on communal land that presently mark the relationships between the local people, the state authorities and private enterprise. The chapter demonstrates how the different notions of Toba-Batak's and women's access rights to (communal)land from different levels of normative orders and institutions are challenged, contested, conceded and reconfirmed. The discussion is located in the wider context of the changing political-economy because of the incorporation into the national economy. Three cases presented, namely Dolok Martalitali, Sugapa and Parbuluan, indicate how peasant men and women are affected by, and at the same time react to, the ongoing statization and privatization process of land under the state legal framework.
In chapter six I return to conclude the various factors of change among the Toba-Batak which affect the "layered structure of property regimes" (Benda-Beckmann, forthcoming). The multifold function attributed to land proves to be the most important factor in explaining the attitude of Toba-Batak peasant women towards the rule of patrilineality in accessing rights to land within inter-lineage and familial relations. The current shift of allocation rights over communal land from the adat community to the state has noticeably marginalised the residing local people and the adat community both in the initial process of land transfer and in the subsequent process of deciding its use and exploitation. The findings of the study support the argument that the state development policy and practice often place more emphasis on the economic function of land while neglecting other functions a communal land might have for the local people. For women, it is the temporal dimension of the socio-economic security aspect of communal land affecting their reproductive task which is at stake in the process of land expropriation.
I discuss some theoretical implications of the study. Rather than looking at kinship as a clear-cut and self-evident factor of hindering gender-equality or enabling it, the empirical study on Toba-Batak society has suggested that kinship simultaneously functions as both enabling and hindering factor for women's access rights to land under different circumstances. I am of the opinion that there is no such thing as gender solidarity among Toba-Batak women because their identity is shaped more by their kinship affiliation and position of seniority within kinship ranks rather than simply by gender. On the other hand, it is the resistance of peasant women against any outside intervention that makes the Toba-Batak struggle over communal land into a basic struggle over both resources and meanings as well as a struggle that shapes the borderline between the local groups' interests and that of the private investors vis-a-vis the state.
The study also indicates that legal pluralism is a fact while the claim that state law is the only law is rather mythical. Based on this, the study concludes that gender-equality claim that state legal structures and norms directly cause and determine action for the betterment of women is highly questionable. The introduction of state law into matters related to land tends to detach land rights from wider social relationships, thereby neutralizing the restriction to endow land to women as well as the alienation of land to outsiders. These are seen in principal as opposing their Toba-Batak adat of patrilineality. On the other hand, in the cases relating to the expropriation of communal, the state law and judiciary system are seen as threatening rather than defending the interests of peasant women and the local community against the interests of private investors.
|Potential for sago palm in buffer zones in Aceh Selatan, Indonesia
Diemont, W.H. ; Schuiling, D.L. - \ 1995
Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 18
sago - metroxylon sagu - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beplanten - zetmeelproducten - industrie - productie - marketing - indonesië - sumatra - sago - metroxylon sagu - natural resources - planting - starch products - industry - production - marketing - indonesia - sumatra
|The rehabilitation and upgrading program in Aceh, Indonesia : lessons for design and management of tertiary irrigation units
Jaspers, F. ; Jurriens, R. - \ 1993
Wageningen : ILRI - 97
ontwikkelingsprojecten - irrigatiesystemen - irrigatie - waterbeheer - regionale ontwikkeling - herstel - waterbouwkunde - indonesië - sumatra - development projects - irrigation systems - irrigation - water management - regional development - rehabilitation - hydraulic engineering - indonesia - sumatra
|Low-external-input alternatives to shifting cultivation in S. Sumatera : brief description of an Indonesian - Dutch project on environment and development
Noordwijk, M. van; Guritno, B. - \ 1992
Haren (Gr.) : DLO-Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid (Nota / DLO-Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid 251) - 24
alternatieve landbouw - tussenteelt - tussenplanting - gemengde teelt - meervoudige teelt - biologische landbouw - zwerflandbouw - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - sumatra - alternative farming - intercropping - interplanting - mixed cropping - multiple cropping - organic farming - shifting cultivation - subsistence farming - sumatra
|N-management in the humid tropics : report of field visits to Ketapang (Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia) in August 1988 and January 1989, including observations on roots and water infiltration
Noordwijk, M. van - \ 1989
Haren (Gr.) : IB (Nota / Instituut voor Bodemvruchtbaarheid 208) - 28
bacteriën - indonesië - stikstof - stikstofkringloop - rizosfeer - bodem - bodemwater - subtropen - tropen - sumatra - bacteria - indonesia - nitrogen - nitrogen cycle - rhizosphere - soil - soil water - subtropics - tropics - sumatra
Soils, vegetation, fauna and nature conservation of the Berbak Game Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia
Silvius, M.J. ; Simons, H.W. ; Verheugt, W.J.M. - \ 1984
Arnhem : R.I.N. (RIN contributions to research on management of natural resources no. 1984-3) - 146
wildparken - natuurreservaten - plantenecologie - bossen - vegetatie - bosbouw - houtteelt - ecosystemen - planten - wildreservaten - wildbescherming - jachtdieren - natuurbescherming - bescherming - samenleving - bodemtaxonomie - bodemclassificatie - bodemtypen - zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bodemkunde - sumatra - natuur - wildlife parks - nature reserves - plant ecology - forests - vegetation - forestry - silviculture - ecosystems - plants - game reserves - wildlife conservation - game animals - nature conservation - protection - society - soil taxonomy - soil classification - soil types - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - soil science - sumatra - nature
|Early experiments in agroforestry; colonial tobacco cultivation with tree fallows in Samatra, Indonesia
Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1983
International Tree Crops Journal 2 (1983). - p. 313 - 321.
geschiedenis - sumatra - nicotiana - zwerflandbouw - tabak - agroforestry - history - sumatra - nicotiana - shifting cultivation - tobacco - agroforestry
|An evaluation of the small holders coffee area in development area III, Aceh, North Sumatra, Indonesia
Buurman, P. - \ 1981
[S.l.] : [s.n.] (Reports consultancy under IDAP/JTA 9a-21)
coffea - koffie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - indonesië - grondvermogen - landevaluatie - bodemkunde - bodemgeschiktheid - sumatra - coffea - coffee - farm management - indonesia - land capability - land evaluation - soil science - soil suitability - sumatra
Red-yellow podzolic soils from the Lampung and south Sumatra provinces (Sumatra, Indonesia)
Sudihardjo, J.D. ; Buurman, P. - \ 1975
In: Third ASEAN soil conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 26th November-5th December, 1975 : theme "soil science for agricultural development" Kuala Lumpur : Government of Malaysia - p. 121 - 131.
sumatra - krasnozems - podzolgronden - podzolen - terra rossa - sumatra - krasnozems - podzolic soils - podzols - terra rossa
Richtlijnen voor een ontwikkelingsplan voor de Oostkust van Sumatra
Waal, R. van de - \ 1959
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A.J. van Lier. - Wageningen : [s.n.] - 142
plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale economie - economische situatie - geografie - regio's - reizen - beschrijvingen - landbouw - indonesië - sociale wetenschappen - richtlijnen (directives) - sumatra - economische planning - economische productie - rural planning - rural development - socioeconomics - economic situation - geography - regions - travel - descriptions - agriculture - indonesia - social sciences - directives - sumatra - economic planning - economic production
Suggestions were made to improve the agricultural situation resulting from the Second World war. The former estate agriculture on the East Coast of Sumatra, established in 1865 by westerners in a sparsely populated and isolated area, occupied 1,000,000 ha in 1940 mainly under tobacco, rubber, oil palms and fibre- plants, but was replaced by foodstuffs during the Japanese occupation, as rice was no longer imported. The Bureau for Land Utilization, established in 1948 in Djakarta, tried to indicate the most efficient integrated use of the land by regional, social, economic and physical planning, in contrast to former incidental actions. An insight was gained into the scope of soil and climate, while some structural defects also came to light of which the chief were the pluralistic structure of society, the legal regulations on tenure, the one-sided production and the presence of cultivated areas as a foreign element, also in a physical sense. The one-sided production appeared from the export of raw materials from estate agriculture and import of manufactured goods and foodstuffs. The area grew only 50 % of its rice. The development plan must increase both individual prosperity and regional economic stability and promote the agricultural industries and service establishments.
Systematische grondkaarteering van Zuid-Sumatra
Idenburg, A.G.A. - \ 1937
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.H. Edelman. - Arnhem : G.W. van der Wiel - 168
cartografie - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - bodemtaxonomie - bodemclassificatie - bodemtypen - bodemkunde - sumatra - indonesië - thematische cartografie - nederlands indië - mapping - soil surveys - maps - soil taxonomy - soil classification - soil types - soil science - sumatra - indonesia - thematic mapping - netherlands east indies
This systematic soil survey covers an area of about 50,000 sq.km, that consists of marshes, coastal plains, hills and mountains. Soils were classified as dry-land soils, marsh soils and peat soils, and subdivided as Residual and Sedimentary soils. Most soils are derived from liparitic, dacitic and andesitic volcanic rocks. All soils are influenced by recent fertile volcanic ash, which had rejuvenated these soils. Only 8 % of the area was cultivated; most land was covered with tropical rain- forest.
The soil map shows 65 soil mapping units. The principle soils are different Lateritic soils, especially Yellowish-Brown Lateritic soils, Reddish-Brown Lateritic soils, Alluvial soils and swampy marine Hydromorphic soils. Of all soil mapping units descriptions were made of typical soil profiles, the parent material, the chemical, physical and mineral characteristics and an evaluation was given of their agricultural value.
Bloei en bloeislaging van de robusta koffie op Sumatra's Westkust
Deenen, W.J. - \ 1936
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.E. van der Stok. - Wageningen : Veenman - 120
koffie - bloei - sumatra - nederlands indië - coffee - flowering - sumatra - netherlands east indies
As an insight into flowering and fruit yield the percentage of flowers yielding fruits was estimated. To allow for variation between branches, many flowers must be taken. The extent of flowering of robusta coffee depended on the relation between vegetative and generative growth, both showing a maximum and a minimum, while factors favouring one were often adverse-for the other. The physiological condition of the trees strongly influenced fruit setting. Stephanoderes hampei F. may penetrate berries 3-5 months old. Consequently rotting and damage may lead to a considerable fall. This fall depended much on the condition of the tree and not on the number of S.hampei. Falling was also favoured by sunny and dry periods.
A good regular shading promoted flowering and fruit production, due mainly to a better water supply preventing yellowing and dying of the leaves. Too much shading may be harmful to the generative growth, so pruning must lead to more light during wetter months. For a better water supply the humus content of the soil could be improved. The percentage fruit set of primary, secondary, upper, medium and low branches showed that 'topping', preventing water shortage in dry periods, was not harmful for fruit set. Lower trees also facilitate the control of S.hampei and the harvesting.
De bevolkingskoffiecultuur op Sumatra : met een inleiding tot hare geschiedenis op Java en Sumatra
Huitema, W.K. - \ 1935
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.E. van der Stok. - Wageningen : Veenman - 238
coffea - koffie - indonesië - java - sumatra - nederlands indië - coffea - coffee - indonesia - java - sumatra - netherlands east indies
The history of government-owned coffee plantations formed three periods: under the Dutch East Indian Company and the Commissaries General, during the 'Cultuurstelsel' (Culture system), and after 1905. The history of indigenous coffee cultivation formed two periods: during the 'dwangstelsel' (forced-labour system) and since 'dwangstelsel'.
The present coffee areas, their climate and their relevant geomorphology, geology, pedology and plant-sociology were described. The native methods for Coffea robusta L. and Coffea arabica L. were each discussed. Agricultural problems deserving special attention were selection methods, shading, intensive measures (weeding, pruning, stumping, soil fertilization, green-manuring, wind protection, the control of Stephanoderes hampei which attacks beans, harvesting method, other bean constituents, seed inspection, and reforestation.
It was concluded that the native coffee growing was still in the beginning of its development. Although scientific research already started some decades earlier, many problems remained to be solved, also for the European enterprises. The management analyses made by the Division of Agricultural Economy in 1930 would be of great help in elucidating problems concerning indigenous plantations and in planning further improvements. Extension had to give further assistance.
Indische bergcultuurondernemingen voornamelijk in Zuid-Sumatra : gegevens en beschouwingen
Hoedt, T.G.E. - \ 1930
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C. Kielstra. - Wageningen : Veenman - 243
landbouw - grote landbouwbedrijven - beplantingen - gebergten - tropen - subtropen - indonesië - sumatra - nederlands indië - agriculture - large farms - plantations - mountains - tropics - subtropics - indonesia - sumatra - netherlands east indies
Highland crops was here used of tropical perennial crops (cinchona, coffee, rubber, tea), cultivated mainly in mountain districts. These crops were grown on estates, owned by western companies and managed by European staff. The organization of the highland plantation industry in Java and Sumatra, particularly South Sumatra, concerned with economic and technical interests of the estates was described in detail.
Attention was paid to natural, economic, social and legal conditions under which European planters had to work.
Particularly discussed problems were labour supply, important because the estates could not recruit sufficient labour from the local thin population, which disliked plantationwork. For that reason labour had to be imported from dense populated centres in Java. Importation was allowed only if estates issued labour contracts to future plantation coolies according to Government regulations (Coolie Ordinance).
Besides financial and social conditions labour contracts could include penal sanctions to prevent desertion of estates by coolies. Contracts without such penal sanctions were also possible (Free Coolie Ordinance). Merits and consequences of both kinds of contracts were critically discussed.
Agricultural development and results were discussed with the help of numerous figures. A map shows the position of estates, road and rail communications and distances to seaports.
Microscopical, physical and chemical studies of limestones and limestonesoils from the East Indian Archipelago
Baren, J. van - \ 1928
Wageningen : Veenman (Mededelingen van de Landbouwhogeschool te Wageningen dl. 32, verh. 7)
carbonaten - krijtkalk - kalksteen - mergel - gesteenten - sediment - verwering - mineralogie - chemische analyse - fysische eigenschappen - microscopie - foto's - java - sumatra - madura - tabellen - nederlands indië - carbonates - chalk - limestone - marl - rocks - sediment - weathering - mineralogy - chemical analysis - physical properties - microscopy - photographs - java - sumatra - madura - tables - netherlands east indies