Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A quantitative trait locus on Bos taurus autosome 17 explains a large proportion of the genetic variation in de novo synthesized milk fatty acids
    Duchemin, S.I. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2014
    Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7276 - 7285.
    selection signatures - genotype imputation - dairy-cattle - protein - dgat1 - association - population - parameters - lactation - summer
    A genomic region associated with milk fatty acid (FA) composition has been detected on Bos taurus autosome (BTA)17 based on 50,000 (50K) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. The aim of our study was to fine-map BTA17 with imputed 777,000 (777K) SNP genotypes to identify candidate genes associated with milk FA composition. Phenotypes consisted of gas chromatography measurements of 14 FA based on winter and summer milk samples. Phenotypes and genotypes were available on 1,640 animals in winter milk, and on 1,581 animals in summer milk samples. Single-SNP analyses showed that several SNP in a region located between 29.0 and 34.0 Mbp were in strong association with C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0. This region was further characterized based on haplotypes. In summer milk samples, for example, these haplotypes explained almost 10% of the genetic variance in C6:0, 9% in C8:0, 3.5% in C10:0, 1.8% in C12:0, and 0.9% in C14:0. Two groups of haplotypes with distinct predicted effects could be defined, suggesting the presence of one causal variant. Predicted haplotype effects tended to increase from C6:0 to C14:0; however, the proportion of genetic variance explained by the haplotypes tended to decrease from C6:0 to C14:0. This is an indication that the quantitative trait locus (QTL) region is involved either in the elongation process or in early termination of de novo synthesized FA. Although many genes are present in this QTL region, most of these genes on BTA17 have not been characterized yet. The strongest association was found close to the progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2) gene, which has not yet been associated with milk FA composition. Therefore, no clear candidate gene associated with milk FA composition could be identified for this QTL.
    Mega-heatwave temperatures due to combined soil desiccation and atmospheric heat accumulation
    Miralles, D. ; Teuling, A.J. ; Heerwaarden, C.C. van; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. - \ 2014
    Nature Geoscience 7 (2014). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 345 - 349.
    boundary-layer - land-surface - summer - europe - evaporation - extremes - moisture - impact - wave
    The recent European mega-heatwaves of 2003 and 2010 broke temperature records across Europe1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Although events of this magnitude were unprecedented from a historical perspective, they are expected to become common by the end of the century6, 7. However, our understanding of extreme heatwave events is limited and their representation in climate models remains imperfect8. Here we investigate the physical processes underlying recent mega-heatwaves using satellite and balloon measurements of land and atmospheric conditions from the summers of 2003 in France and 2010 in Russia, in combination with a soil–water–atmosphere model. We find that, in both events, persistent atmospheric pressure patterns induced land–atmosphere feedbacks that led to extreme temperatures. During daytime, heat was supplied by large-scale horizontal advection, warming of an increasingly desiccated land surface and enhanced entrainment of warm air into the atmospheric boundary layer. Overnight, the heat generated during the day was preserved in an anomalous kilometres-deep atmospheric layer located several hundred metres above the surface, available to re-enter the atmospheric boundary layer during the next diurnal cycle. This resulted in a progressive accumulation of heat over several days, which enhanced soil desiccation and led to further escalation in air temperatures. Our findings suggest that the extreme temperatures in mega-heatwaves can be explained by the combined multi-day memory of the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer
    Group size and dispersal ploys: an analysis of commuting behaviour of the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme)
    Haarsma, A.J. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2014
    Canadian Journal of Zoology 92 (2014)1. - ISSN 0008-4301 - p. 57 - 65.
    sonar signal-design - echolocation behavior - prey detection - habitat - summer - flight - water - netherlands - clutter
    Like most bat species, the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825)) lives in roosts more or less in the centre of their foraging habitat and are considered central-place foragers. Commuting routes, or flyways, between roosts and hunting areas have an essential ecological function for bats. We summarize the results of research performed on the commuting routes of pond bats between 2002 and 2009. We give, among others, a description on how bats disperse, how to recognize a commuting route, and details about the effort needed to make a complete survey of one commuting route. Furthermore, we make a relation between number of animals on the route and size of their respective roost. The results suggest pond bats are not completely reliant on waterways for reaching their foraging habitat; they use directional dispersal, following commuting routes over waterways in combination with shortcuts over land. These results provide information that can be used to better understand how bats use their commuting routes. Also, the knowledge can be applied to survey work.
    How much CO was emitted by the 2010 fires around Moscow?
    Krol, M.C. ; Peters, W. ; Hooghiemstra, P. ; George, M. ; Clerbaux, C. ; Hurtmans, D. ; McInerney, D. ; Sedano, F. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Hajj, M. El; Kaiser, J.W. ; Fisher, D. ; Yeshov, V. ; Muller, J.P. - \ 2013
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013). - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 4737 - 4747.
    russian wildfires - emissions - pollution - summer - iasi - assimilation - retrieval - satellite - algorithm - transport
    The fires around Moscow in July and August 2010 emitted a large amount of pollutants to the atmosphere. Here we estimate the carbon monoxide (CO) source strength of the Moscow fires in July and August by using the TM5-4DVAR system in combination with CO column observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). It is shown that the IASI observations provide a strong constraint on the total emissions needed in the model. Irrespective of the prior emissions used, the optimised CO fire emission estimates from mid-July to mid-August 2010 amount to approximately 24 TgCO. This estimate depends only weakly (<15 %) on the assumed diurnal variations and injection height of the emissions. However, the estimated emissions might depend on unaccounted model uncertainties such as vertical transport. Our emission estimate of 22-27 TgCO during roughly one month of intense burning is less than suggested by another recent study, but substantially larger than predicted by the bottom-up inventories. This latter discrepancy suggests that bottom-up emission estimates for extreme peat burning events require improvements.
    Fruitmot in peer
    Helsen, H.H.M. ; Polfliet, M. ; Trapman, M. - \ 2013
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 19
    pyrus communis - peren - cydia pomonella - aantasting - zomer - ziektepreventie - plagenbestrijding - nederland - pyrus communis - pears - cydia pomonella - infestation - summer - disease prevention - pest control - netherlands
    Op appel ontstaat de meeste fruitmotaantasting in de loop van juni of juli. In jaren met een tweede generatie kan er in augustus nog schade bijkomen. Op peer (Conference) treedt in de meeste jaren nauwelijks vroege aantasting op, terwijl vanaf augustus de schade soms sterk toeneemt. Proeven bij PPO in Randwijk lieten zien hoe dit verschil ontstaat. Van fruitmoteieren die op vruchten van Elstar werden gelijmd, leverde grofweg een derde tot de helft een rups, en dus een aangetaste vrucht op. Bij Elstar veranderde de gevoeligheid van de vruchten voor aantasting gedurende het seizoen niet veel. Bij Conference wel: aan het begin van het seizoen overleefden veel minder rupsen dan later in de zomer. De proefresultaten zijn aanleiding om de bestrijdingsstrategie voor fruitmot op Conference aan te passen en rond begin augustus, als de vruchten extra gevoelig zijn, een fruitmotbestrijding uit te voeren.
    Effect van zomerklimaat bij Cymbidium
    Kromwijk, J.A.M. ; Eveleens-Clark, B.A. ; Mourik, N.M. van - \ 2013
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1227) - 72
    sierplanten - cymbidium - zomer - klimaat - impact - vochtigheid - temperatuur - teelt onder bescherming - nederland - ornamental plants - cymbidium - summer - climate - impact - humidity - temperature - protected cultivation - netherlands
    Abstract NL Bij Cymbidium kan in sommige zomers de uitgroei van de bloemtak vertragen of zelfs stil gaan staan, waardoor het gewenste oogsttijdstip niet gehaald wordt. Onderzoek gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw en uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft laten zien dat dit het gevolg is van een te hoge temperatuur. Maximaal 26 oC gaf een betere takstrekking, vroegere productie en nauwelijks bloemschade. Er was bovendien een trend naar meer totaal geoogst gewicht, meer scheuten in het 2e teeltjaar, veelal betere kwaliteit en/of productie en bij de cultivar ‘Esther’ was de houdbaarheid op de vaas beter. Maximaal 26 oC met hoge RV en maximaal licht toe laten gaf bij ‘Esther’ betere resultaten dan maximaal 26 oC met lage RV en een normaal gekrijtte kas, maar bij Earlysue ‘Paddy’ was er geen meerwaarde. Een hoge RV gaf bij gelijkblijvende hoge temperatuur weinig verbetering in de takstrekking en nog steeds veel bloemschade. De bloemtakken lijken vooral in een jong stadium gevoelig voor een te hoge temperatuur. Abstract English During the summer, elongation of the Cymbidium flower stem can be delayed or even stopped, which delays harvest. Research at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (funded by the Horticulture Board) found that this delay is caused by too high temperature. A maximum of 26 oC gave better stem elongation, earlier production, no flower damage, more total harvested weight, and more shoots in the subsequent growing season, than the control without a maximum temperature. Quality and production often improved and the vase-life of ‘Esther’ was longer. A maximum of 26 oC with high humidity and maximal light gave better results for ‘Esther’ than a maximum of 26 oC with low humidity and normal light levels. For Earlysue ‘Paddy’ there was no advantage of high humidity and maximal light levels. A high RV without a maximum temperature gave no improvement in stem elongation and flower damage still occurred. Young flowering stems seem to be more sensitive to high temperature than older stems.
    Resultaten Cymbidium onderzoek - Stand van zaken Cymbidium onderzoek
    Kromwijk, Arca - \ 2012
    cymbidium - plant development - cultivars - flowering - summer - greenhouse horticulture - temperature - environmental control
    Zomerkwaliteit van Lisianthus: De invloed van temperatuur, lichtsom, RV en daglengte tijdens de opkweek op de kwaliteit van Lisianthus in de zomer
    Helm, F.P.M. van der; Steenbergen, P. ; Wekken, J.W. van der - \ 2012
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1149) - 50
    eustoma grandiflorum - sierteelt - teeltsystemen - cultuurmethoden - temperatuur - zomer - gewaskwaliteit - lichtrelaties - klimaatfactoren - eustoma grandiflorum - ornamental horticulture - cropping systems - cultural methods - temperature - summer - crop quality - light relations - climatic factors
    Referaat De kwaliteit van lisiantus kan in de zomer te wensen overlaten. Na een warme periode blijkt de bloem te snel geïnitieerd te zijn, waardoor de plant te kort en te licht blijft. Het was onbekend welke omstandigheden in welke teeltfase dit veroorzaakt. In een door het Productschap Tuinbouw gefinancierd onderzoek heeft Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw de invloed van temperatuur, stralingssom, daglengte en vochtigheid onderzocht. De temperatuur bleek de bloei inductie het meest te beïnvloeden. Een temperatuur van 26 oC gedurende de laatste twee weken van de opkweek resulteerde in 15 gram lichtere en 10 cm kortere takken dan planten die 18 oC hadden gehad. Daglengte bleek ook een effect te hebben, maar veel kleiner en alleen bij hogere temperaturen. Stralingssom en een lage RV hebben de kwaliteit niet beïnvloed. Abstract In summer quality of lisianthus can be disappointing in periods of hot weather. After a period of hot weather the flower is initiated to rapidly and the plant does not gain enough length and weight. It was not clear which circumstances in what time of the crop cycle caused the decrease of quality. In this research the influence of temperature, Light integral, drought stress (RV) and day length in the young plant stage was tested. It appeared that temperature is the most influencing factor regarding the generative development of lisianthus. A temperature of 26°C during the final two weeks of the young plant stage resulted in 15 grams lower freshweight and 10 cm shorter length on average, compared to two weeks of 18°C. An effect of day length was also found, but smaller and only when temperature was high. Possibly two weeks is a too short period for photoperiodic effects. Light integral and drought did not seem to influence final quality of the product, although a small influence on growth period was found.
    Beheersing van fusarium in zomertarwe
    Scholten, O.E. - \ 2010
    Biokennis
    fusarium - schimmel - schimmelbestrijding - zomer - tarwe - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - voedselveiligheid - mycotoxinen - diergezondheid - biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - fusarium - moulds - fungus control - summer - wheat - plant pathogenic fungi - food safety - mycotoxins - animal health - organic farming - arable farming
    Fusariumschimmels veroorzaken in zomertarwe een slechte opkomst van zaaizaad en verlies aan opbrengst. Ook produceren ze mycotoxinen in de korrels. Vooral de mycotoxinen zijn met het oog op voedselveiligheid en diergezondheid een toenemende bron van zorg. Het is dus echt een ketenprobleem. Alle reden om de ziekte beheersbaar te maken. Er zijn diverse aanknopingspunten en ontwikkelingen.
    Literatuurstudie zomerklimaat en knoprui bij Cymbidium
    Eveleens-Clark, B.A. ; Kromwijk, J.A.M. - \ 2010
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / GTB 1043)
    cymbidium - knoppen - afwijkingen, planten - klimaat - zomer - literatuuroverzichten - nederland - cymbidium - buds - plant disorders - climate - summer - literature reviews - netherlands
    Op verzoek van de BCO en landelijke commissie Cymbidium van LTO-Groeiservice zijn twee literatuurstudies uitgevoerd voor Cymbidium. De eerste was gericht op het effect van het zomerklimaat op de uitgroei van de bloemtak, bloeitijdstip en de vorming van nieuwe scheuten. De tweede literatuurstudie was gericht op oorzaken van knoprui tijdens de teelt. Beide literatuurstudies zijn gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw. Hieronder een samenvatting van de conclusies van de literatuurstudies.
    Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves
    Teuling, A.J. ; Seneviratne, S.I. ; Stockli, R. ; Reichstein, M. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2010
    Nature Geoscience 3 (2010)10. - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 722 - 727.
    anemometer (co)sine response - balance closure - climate-change - heat-wave - flux measurements - water-vapor - summer - transpiration - impact - deforestation
    Recent European heatwaves have raised interest in the impact of land cover conditions on temperature extremes. At present, it is believed that such extremes are enhanced by stronger surface heating of the atmosphere, when soil moisture content is below average. However, the impact of land cover on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems during heatwaves. We find that initially, surface heating is twice as high over forest than over grassland. Over grass, heating is suppressed by increased evaporation in response to increased solar radiation and temperature. Ultimately, however, this process accelerates soil moisture depletion and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates the impact of the most extreme heat and/or long-lasting events.
    Zomerbloementelers worstelen met onkruidbestrijding (interview met oa. Annette Bulle)
    Lier, A. van; Bulle, A. - \ 2010
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 65 (2010)34. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 34 - 35.
    snijbloemen - seizoenen - zomer - onkruidbestrijding - herbiciden - zomerbloemen - mechanische bestrijding - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - alternatieve methoden - cut flowers - seasons - summer - weed control - herbicides - summer flowers - mechanical control - authorisation of pesticides - alternative methods
    Het verbod op paraquat heeft een flink gat geslagen in het pakket onkruidbestrijdingsmiddelen voor zomerbloemen. Het middel Basta lijkt perspectief te bieden, maar mechanische onkruidbestrijding heeft dat ook.
    Potential impacts of climate change on tourism; a case study for Spain
    Hein, L.G. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Moreno, A. - \ 2009
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1 (2009)2. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 170 - 178.
    international tourism - demand - vulnerability - simulation - summer - europe - index
    Despite an increased scientific understanding of the magnitude and regional variation in climate change in the coming decades, the societal costs of climate change remain difficult to quantify. This is mainly due to uncertainty surrounding future climate change and economic projections, as well as the complexities of linking physical impacts to economic processes. One of the sectors for which it has been particularly difficult to assess the impacts of climate change is the tourism industry. It is nevertheless likely that tourism will be strongly affected by climate change, as many tourist activities are dependent on weather conditions. This paper reviews recent advances in modeling the impacts of climate change on the tourism sector and presents a case study focusing on the impacts of climate change on tourism in Spain, where the tourism sector is particularly vulnerable to climate change.
    Skill and uncertainty of a regional air quality model ensemble
    Vautard, R. ; Schaap, M. ; Bergström, R. ; Bessagnet, B. ; Brandt, J. ; Builtjes, P.J.H. ; Krol, M.C. - \ 2009
    Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009)31. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 4822 - 4832.
    2003 heat-wave - climate-change - pollution model - western-europe - surface ozone - aerosol - simulations - summer - validation - transport
    Recently several regional air quality projects were carried out to support the negotiation under the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme by predicting the impact of emission control policies with an ensemble of models. Within these projects, CITYDELTA and EURODELTA, the fate of air quality at the scale of European cities or that of the European continent was studied using several models. In this article we focus on the results of EURODELTA. The predictive skill of the ensemble of models is described for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and secondary inorganic compounds, and the uncertainty in air quality modelling is examined through the model ensemble spread of concentrations. For ozone daily maxima the ensemble spread origin differs from one region to another. In the neighbourhood of cities or in mountainous areas the spread of predicted values does not span the range of observed data, due to poorly resolved emissions or complex-terrain meteorology. By contrast in Atlantic and North Sea coastal areas the spread of predicted values is found to be larger than the observations. This is attributed to large differences in the boundary conditions used in the different models. For NO2 daily averages the ensemble spread is generally too small compared with observations. This is because models miss highest values occurring in stagnant meteorology in stable boundary layers near cities. For secondary particulate matter compounds the simulated concentration spread is more balanced, observations falling nearly equiprobably within the ensemble, and the spread originates both from meteorology and aerosol chemistry and thermodynamics
    Geen chemisch alternatief voor paraquat-dichloride : onkruid teistert zomerbloementelers
    Koster, A.T.J. - \ 2008
    cut flowers - summer - weed control - herbicides - control methods - outdoor cropping - authorisation of pesticides - alternative methods - summer flowers
    Use of open-top chambers to study the effect of climate change in aquatic ecosystems
    Netten, J.J.C. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. ; Roijackers, R.M.M. - \ 2008
    Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6 (2008)January. - ISSN 1541-5856 - p. 223 - 229.
    water microcosm communities - nutrient addition - temperature responses - global change - system - phytoplankton - macrophytes - radiation - summer - design
    The aim of this research was to explore the possibility to use inexpensive open-top chambers (OTCs) as passive artificial warming devices in experimental aquatic studies. Our results show that OTCs give a significant temperature increase compared with the control. The measured increase (up to an average of 2.3°C) corresponds with predicted climatic warming. Due to their open top, the light quantity and quality is only minimally reduced. We found that OTCs are especially suited for studying the effect of climate change in small waters as the vertical temperature gradients remain unchanged. They can also easily be transported to remote environments. We discuss other advantages and disadvantages of these devices for aquatic studies and compare them with other warming devices.
    Evaluation of long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models and their ensemble
    Loon, M. van; Vautard, R. ; Schaap, M. ; Bergström, R. ; Bessagnet, B. ; Brandt, J. ; Krol, M.C. - \ 2007
    Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007)10. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 2083 - 2097.
    tropospheric ozone - pollution model - european cities - western-europe - impact - variability - citydelta - summer
    Long-term ozone simulations from seven regional air quality models, the Unified EMEP model, LOTOS-EUROS, CHIMERE, RCG, MATCH, DEHM and TM5, are intercompared and compared to ozone measurements within the framework of the EuroDelta experiment, designed to assess air quality improvement at the European scale in response to emission reduction scenarios for 2020. Modelled ozone concentrations for the year 2001 are evaluated. The models reproduce the main features of the ozone diurnal cycle, but generally overestimate daytime ozone. LOTOS-EUROS and RCG have a more pronounced diurnal cycle variation than observations, while the reverse occurs for TM5. CHIMERE has a large positive bias, which can be explained by a systematic bias in boundary conditions. The other models and the ¿ensemble model¿, whose concentrations are by definition averaged over all models, represent accurately the diurnal cycle. The ability of the models to simulate day-to-day daily ozone average or maxima variability is examined by means of percentiles, root mean square errors and correlations. In general, daily maxima are better simulated than daily averages, and summertime concentrations are better simulated than wintertime concentrations. Summertime correlations range between 0.5 and 0.7 for daily averages and 0.6 and 0.8 for daily maxima. Two health-related indicators are used, the number of days of exceedance of the threshold for the daily maximal 8-h ozone concentration and the SOMO35. Both are well reproduced in terms of frequency, but the simultaneity of occurrence of exceedance days between observations and simulations is not well captured. The advantage of using an ensemble of models instead of a single model for the assessment of air quality is demonstrated. The ensemble average concentrations almost always exhibit a closer proximity to observations than any of the models. We also show that the spread of the model ensemble is fairly representative of the uncertainty in the simulations.
    Zomersterfte spiering in het IJsselmeer en Markermeer
    Leeuw, J.J. de - \ 2007
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES nr. C086/07) - 19
    osmerus - mortaliteit - zomer - vissen - zoetwatervissen - nederland - ijsselmeer - osmerus - mortality - summer - fishes - freshwater fishes - netherlands - lake ijssel
    In het kader van onderzoek naar de achteruitgang van spiering in het IJsselmeer is het fenomeen zomersterfte onderzocht. Dit is een massale vorm van sterfte waarbij het vaak gaat om grote aantallen, die gelijktijdig dood gaan
    Weer bepaalt weidegang : grasgroei en weersomstandigheden schoppen weideplanning in de war : het project Koe & wij
    Nistelrooy, J. van; Vermeer, J. ; Essen, S. van; Boer, G. de - \ 2006
    Veeteelt 23 (2006)13. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 74 - 75.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - rundveevoeding - begrazing - beweidingssystemen - weiden - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - evaluatie - weer - zomer - dairy farming - dairy cows - cattle feeding - grazing - grazing systems - pastures - farm management - evaluation - weather - summer
    4 deelnemers aan het project Koe & wij geven hun weidegang-ervaringen weer tijdens de maand juni
    Groeimaand augustus : snel herstel van verdroogde grasmat en veel regen zorgen voor groot grasaanbod : het project Koe & wij
    Nistelrooy, J. van; Vermeer, J. ; Essen, S. van; Boer, G. de - \ 2006
    Veeteelt 23 (2006)17. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 56 - 57.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - rundveevoeding - beweidingssystemen - weiden - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - evaluatie - weer - zomer - dairy farming - dairy cows - cattle feeding - grazing systems - pastures - farm management - evaluation - weather - summer
    Een overzicht van de natte, maar ook groeizame augustusmaand van 2006. Ondanks de overvloedige regenval zijn de 4 deelnemers van het project Koe & Wij hun koeien blijven weiden
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