Common pool resources with support
Ansink, Erik ; Weikard, Hans Peter - \ 2020
Natural Resource Modeling 33 (2020)1. - ISSN 0890-8575
cartel games - coalition formation - common pool resources - support
We examine the role of support for coalition stability in common pool resource games such as fisheries games. Some players may not want to join a coalition that jointly manages a resource. Still, because they benefit from spillovers, they may want to support the coalition with a transfer payment to set incentives for others to join. We find that the impact of support on equilibria of this game is limited to games with three or five players. Recommendations for Resource Managers. Coalitions may be able to effectively manage common pool resources such as fisheries but such coalitions are often not stable due to free-rider incentives. We explore the impact of a transfer scheme that can improve this coalition stability which would lead to larger and more effective coalitions. Our results show that this new transfer scheme works only for cases where the number of players is small.
Counseling Online and Over the Phone: When Preclosing Questions Fail as a Closing Device
Stommel, W. ; Molder, H. te - \ 2015
Research on Language and Social Interaction 48 (2015)3. - ISSN 0835-1813 - p. 281 - 300.
support - repair - chat
In this article, we present an analysis of closings in two counseling media: online, text-based exchanges (usually referred to as “chat” sessions) and telephone calls. Previous research has found that the participant who initiated a conversation preferably also initiates its termination with a possible preclosing. Advice acknowledgments, lying in the epistemic domain of the client, are devices that may work as preclosings. However, in text-based chat clients regularly refrain from advice acknowledgment. While counselors use various practices to elicit advice acknowledgment in the context of potential advice resistance, hoaxing, and/or seemingly long pauses, these questions do not always succeed as “closing devices.” This offers an explanation for counselors’ perception of online chatting as more difficult than calling. The data are in Dutch with English translation.
An exposure-effect approach for evaluating ecosystem-wide risks from human activities
Knights, A.M. ; Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2015
ICES Journal of Marine Science 72 (2015)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1105 - 1115.
baltic sea - fisheries management - environmental-change - coastal ecosystems - marine ecosystems - human impact - new-zealand - food webs - support - climate
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is promoted as the solution for sustainable use. An ecosystem-wide assessment methodology is therefore required. In this paper, we present an approach to assess the risk to ecosystem components from human activities common to marine and coastal ecosystems. We build on: (i) a linkage framework that describes how human activities can impact the ecosystem through pressures, and (ii) a qualitative expert judgement assessment of impact chains describing the exposure and sensitivity of ecological components to those activities. Using case study examples applied at European regional sea scale, we evaluate the risk of an adverse ecological impact from current human activities to a suite of ecological components and, once impacted, the time required for recovery to pre-impact conditions should those activities subside. Grouping impact chains by sectors, pressure type, or ecological components enabled impact risks and recovery times to be identified, supporting resource managers in their efforts to prioritize threats for management, identify most at-risk components, and generate time frames for ecosystem recovery.
Evaluation of ecosystem-based marine management strategies based on risk assessment
Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Knights, A.M. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Paijmans, A.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2015
Biological Conservation 186 (2015). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 158 - 166.
fisheries management - new-zealand - vulnerability - support - areas - south - pressure - context - threats - number
This study presents a comprehensive and generic framework that provides a typology for the identification and selection of consistently defined ecosystem-based management measures and allows a coherent evaluation of these measures based on their performance to achieve policy objectives. The performance is expressed in terms of their reduction of risk of an adverse impact on the marine ecosystem. This typology consists of two interlinked aspects of a measure, i.e. the “Focus” and the “Type”. The “Focus” is determined by the part of the impact chain (Driver–Pressure–State) the measure is supposed to mitigate or counteract. The “Type” represents the physical measure itself in terms of how it affects the impact chain directly; we distinguish Spatio-temporal distribution controls, Input and Output controls, Remediation and Restoration measures. The performance of these measures in terms of their reduction in risk of adverse impacts was assessed based on an explicit consideration of three time horizons: past, present and future. Application of the framework in an integrated management strategy evaluation of a suite of measures, shows that depending on the time horizon, different measures perform best. “Past” points to measures targeting persistent pressures (e.g. marine litter) from past activities. “Present” favors measures targeting a driver (e.g. fisheries) that has a high likelihood of causing adverse impacts. “Future” involves impacts that both have a high likelihood of an adverse impact, as well as a long time to return to pre-impacted condition after the implementation of appropriate management, e.g. those caused by permanent infrastructure or persistent pressures such as marine litter or specific types of pollution.
Free and open-access satellite data are key to biodiversity conservation
Turner, W. ; Rondinini, C. ; Pettorelli, N. ; Mora, B. ; Leidner, A.K. ; Szantoi, Z. ; Buchanan, G. ; Dech, S. ; Dwyer, J. ; Herold, M. ; Koh, L.P. ; Leimgruber, P. ; Taubenboeck, H. ; Wegmann, M. ; Wikelski, M. ; Woodcock, C. - \ 2015
Biological Conservation 182 (2015). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 173 - 176.
landsat imagery - cover change - science - opportunities - challenges - support - system
Satellite remote sensing is an important tool for monitoring the status of biodiversity and associated environmental parameters, including certain elements of habitats. However, satellite data are currently underused within the biodiversity research and conservation communities. Three factors have significant impact on the utility of remote sensing data for tracking and understanding biodiversity change. They are its continuity, affordability, and access. Data continuity relates to the maintenance of long-term satellite data products. Such products promote knowledge of how biodiversity has changed over time and why. Data affordability arises from the cost of the imagery. New data policies promoting free and open access to government satellite imagery are expanding the use of certain imagery but the number of free and open data sets remains too limited. Data access addresses the ability of conservation biologists and biodiversity researchers to discover, retrieve, manipulate, and extract value from satellite imagery as well as link it with other types of information. Tools are rapidly improving access. Still, more cross-community interactions are necessary to strengthen ties between the biodiversity and remote sensing communities.
Multiple interests across European coastal waters: the importance of a common language
Ramos, J. ; Soma, K. ; Bergh, Ø. ; Schulze, T. ; Gimpel, A. ; Stelzenmuller, V. ; Mäkinen, T. ; Grati, F. ; Fabi, G. ; Gault, J. - \ 2015
ICES Journal of Marine Science 72 (2015)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 720 - 731.
multicriteria decision-analysis - natural-resource management - sea use management - stakeholder analysis - criteria analysis - marine - support - typology - land
Different marine and coastal activities have diverse economic, environmental, and socio-cultural objectives, which can lead to conflict when these multidimensional activities coincide spatially or temporally. This is sometimes driven by a lack of understanding or other users’ needs and consequentially adequate planning and the utilization of acommonlanguage is essential. By using a transparent approach based on multi-criteria analysis, we characterize and establish priorities for future development/conservation for all users in the coastal area using six representative European Case Studies with different levels of complexity. Results varied according to location, but significantly it was found that stakeholders tended to favour ecological and social over economic objectives. This paper outlines the methodology employed, the results derived, and the potential for this approach to reduce conflict in coastal and marine waters. Keywords: case studies, coexist, conflict (reduction), European Coastal Zone, marine spatial planning, multi-criteria analysis, stakeholders.
Heuristic burst detection method using flow and pressure measurements
Bakker, M. ; Vreeburg, J.H.G. ; Roer, M. Van de; Rietveld, L.C. - \ 2014
Journal of Hydroinformatics 16 (2014)5. - ISSN 1464-7141 - p. 1194 - 1209.
water distribution-systems - distribution networks - leakage detection - pipe networks - management - location - support - demand
Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares measured and expected values of water demands and pressures. The expected values of the water demand are generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model, and the expected values of the pressures are generated by a dynamic pressure drop - demand relation estimator. The method was tested off-line on a historic dataset of 5 years of water flow and pressure data in three supply areas (with 650, 11,180 and 130,920 connections) in the western part of the Netherlands. In the period 274 bursts were reported of which, based on the definition we propose in this paper, 38 were considered as relatively larger bursts. The method was able to detect 50, 25.9 and 7.8% in the considered areas related to all bursts, and around 80% in all three areas related to the subset of relatively larger bursts. The method generated false alarms on 3% of the evaluated days on average.
A step-wise process of decision-making under uncertainty when implementing environmental policy
Knights, A.M. ; Culhane, F. ; Hussain, S.S. ; Papadopoulou, K.N. ; Piet, G.J. ; Raakaer, J. ; Rogers, S.I. ; Robinson, L.A. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 56 - 64.
climate-change - north-atlantic - change impacts - management - systems - biodiversity - ecosystems - pressure - diversity - support
An ecosystem approach forms the basis of many recent environmental policies. The underlying concept states that decision-makers must consider the environmental, social and economic costs and benefits in the course of deciding whether to implement a management action. Decision-making can be undermined by uncertainty. Here, we discuss potential sources of uncertainty and their effect on an ecosystem approach-driven environmental policy, the factors affecting the choice and potential for management actions to achieve their objectives, the challenges associated with setting realistic and achievable targets, and how we can prioritise management of detrimental activities. We also consider how human challenges such as the availability of infrastructure and political will and ways of measuring costs and benefits and Member State interactions could also undermine environmental management. Potential limitations along with areas where further effort may be required to support ecosystem-based management objectives are highlighted and the advantages of a structured step-wise interdisciplinary approach to ecosystem management is shown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strong and weak family ties revisited: reconsidering European family structures from a network perspective.
Mönkediek, B. ; Bras, H. - \ 2014
The History of the Family 19 (2014)2. - ISSN 1081-602X - p. 235 - 259.
western-europe - household - fertility - attitudes - kinship - bonds - loneliness - behavior - germany - support
Family systems appear to be an important factor framing people's individual behavior. Thus far, family systems have been primarily addressed on a macro regional level with indirect measures. Revisiting Reher (1998) and the family ties criterion, the main question of this paper is to examine to what extent we perceive family structures differently in Europe by taking direct measures of the structures of people's broader social networks into consideration. Based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we derived two indicators of family regimes based on individual-level data regarding the density of ego social networks: contact frequency and geographic proximity among network members. We aggregated these data and mapped them on the NUTS 2 level regions for various locations in Europe. The results of our analyses exhibit that, based on these two network indicators, significant differences in family structures between European regions exist. These results confirm the classification of strong family Southern and comparatively weaker family Northern European regions to a large extent, though substantial regional differences in and between countries are also revealed. Our findings demonstrate that the classification of European regions largely depends on which indicator of network density we consider. This is particularly obvious in the Eastern European regions where the classification markedly differs according to the type of network indicator. Intriguingly, social networks in Central European regions can be characterized as rather loose, often even looser than the ‘traditional’ weak ties in Scandinavia. Family regimes can, therefore, be regarded as a construct of multiple dimensions of which one dimension may be classified as weak while the other can be strong at the same time.
Functions and limitations of farmer cooperatives as innovation intermediaries: Findings from China
Yang, H. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2014
Agricultural Systems 127 (2014). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 115 - 125.
international agricultural-research - sub-saharan africa - technological-change - systems perspective - networks - management - extension - knowledge - support
This article takes an innovation intermediary perspective to examine farmer cooperative’s (FC) roles in facilitating agricultural innovation and its positioning in the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The article draws experiences from the rapidly emerging FC field in China. Three cases are selected to cross check findings from them and innovation journey analysis is used within each case to understand FCs’ engagement in innovation processes. The findings show that FCs cover a wide range of knowledge intermediation and innovation intermediation functions identified by the literature. FCs recognize the importance to connect technical, social and economic dimensions of farming practice and provide corresponding services to link farmers to relevant actors, like extension agencies, research institutes and supermarkets. Though they mainly work through bilateral relationships as opposed to acting as a systemic intermediary, they could take the role of coordinator in the service system and bridge the gap between the research and policy system and everyday farming practice, especially in the absence of a systemic coordinator. However, their legitimacy as intermediary might be challenged due to the potential conflicts with governments, market actors or their members, and their local position may provide insufficient clout for developing durable relationships with relevant actors.
Disentangling the impacts of climate change, land use change and irrigation on the Central Rift Valley water system of Ethiopia
Getnet Debas, M. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
Agricultural Water Management 137 (2014). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 104 - 115.
kenya - basin - model - simulation - hydrology - support - lakes
The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin where claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources: a clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. In this paper, we quantify the plausible recent impacts of climate change, land use change and irrigation water abstraction on water availability of Lake Abyata. We examined trends in lake levels, river discharges, basin rainfall, temperature and irrigation development (ca. 1975–2008), and computed the additional evapotranspiration loss resulting from temperature change and irrigated land. We also analysed land use change (1990–2007) and estimated the subsequent change in surface runoff. Temperature has increased linearly over 34 years (p <0.001) whereas rainfall has not changed significantly. Consequently, increased evapotranspiration consumed 62 and 145 Mm3 of additional water from lakes and land surface, respectively, during 1990–2007. Furthermore, an estimated 285 Mm3 yr-1 of water was abstracted for irrigation in 2009 of which approximately 170 Mm3 yr-1 is irrecoverable evapotranspiration loss. In addition, surface runoff has increased in the upper, and decreased in lower sub-basins of the CRV associated with extensive land use change (1990–2007). However, insight in the impact of the net increase in runoff of 260 Mm3 yr-1 on the water availability for Lake Abyata remains partial because of data and methodological limitations. We conclude that the potential for agricultural intensification and its hydrological implications should be considered jointly to prevent further deteriorating Lake Abyata.
Why the complex nature of integrated ecosystem assessments requires a flexible and adaptive approach
Dickey-Collas, M. - \ 2014
ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (2014)5. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1174 - 1182.
fisheries management - ecological indicators - mixed-fisheries - framework - implementation - policy - uncertainty - thresholds - scientists - support
This article considers the approach taken by the ICES to integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) in the context of the wider evolution of IEAs and the science/policy landscape within the ICES region. It looks forward and considers the challenges facing the development of IEAs, specifically those of scoping for objectives, participatory engagement, developing indicators and targets, risk analysis, and creating tools to evaluate management measures for marine anthropogenic activities. It concludes that expectations that the implementation of IEAs will take an ordered, stepwise approach will lead to disappointment and frustration. This is a consequence of the need to operate in an adaptive manner in a complex system. The ecosystem, the science support infrastructure, and the governance systems are all complex. Plus when engaged in a debate about societal objectives, we expect to encounter a complex and changing landscape. As a community, the challenge is to find leverage mechanisms to encourage IEA efforts to provide insights and tools within resources. We will need to innovate and be responsive to the complexity of the ecosystem and governance structures encountered when performing IEA.
The “mapping out” approach: effectiveness of marine spatial management options in European coastalwaters
Soma, K. ; Ramos, J. ; Bergh, Ø. ; Schulze, T. ; Oostenbrugge, H. van; Duijn, A.P. van; Kopke, K. ; Steinmüller, V. ; Grati, F. ; Mäkinen, T. ; Stenberg, C. ; Buisman, F.C. - \ 2014
ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (2014)9. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 2630 - 2642.
bayesian belief networks - multicriteria evaluation - social acceptance - fisheries - participation - framework - support - policy - issues - areas
Marine spatial management is challenged by complex situations in European countries where multiple stakeholder interests and many management options have to be balanced. EU policy initiatives such as the proposed Marine Spatial Planning Directive, are in different ways targeting area allocation in European waters. In this circumstance, EU marine management needs assessments based on a satisfactory evaluation framework design that can ensure a transparent treatment of different types of information including interests, values, and facts. The main goal of this article is to introduce an evaluation framework applicable to marine management in European countries. This socalled CoExist framework maps out different types of relevant knowledge to assess future possibilities for use or no-use of marine areas and links this with appropriate management measures. The CoExist framework is based on the principles of ensuring transparent treatment of different types of information as well as appropriate stakeholder representation which can ensure legitimacy. Empirical findings in six European case studies have been obtained while conducting the CoExist framework. Applying the basic principles of the CoExist framework when planning future management directions of the coexistence of multiple activities in the long-run will expectedly affect the ecological and social-cultural goals by counterbalancing the economic ones.
Discarded fish in European waters: general patterns and contrasts
Uhlmann, S.S. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Stefánsdóttir, E.K. - \ 2014
ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (2014)5. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1235 - 1245.
trawl fishery - observer surveys - management - variability - support - trends - ogives - plaice - stock
To reduce the practice of discarding commercially fished organisms, several measures such as a discard ban and extra allowances on top of landings quotas (“catch quota”) have been proposed by the European Commission. However, for their development and successful implementation, an understanding of discard patterns on a European scale is needed. In this study, we present an inter-national synthesis of discard data collected on board commercial, towed-gear equipped vessels operating under six different national flags spanning from the Baltic to the Mediterranean Seas mainly between 2003 and 2008. We considered discarded species of commercial value such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), and European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Comparisons of discard per unit effort rates expressed as numbers per hour of fishing revealed that in the Mediterranean Sea minimum size-regulated species such as hake are generally discarded in much lower numbers than elsewhere. For most species examined, variability in discard rates across regions was greater than across fisheries, suggesting that a region-by-region approach to discard reduction would be more relevant. The high uncertainty in discard rate estimates suggests that current sampling regimes should be either expanded or complemented by other data sources, if they are to be used for setting catch quotas.
Evaluating the characteristics of a non-standardised Model Requirements Analysis (MRA) for the development of policy impact assessment tools
Sieber, S. ; Amjath-Babu, T.S. ; McIntosh, B.S. ; Tscherning, K. ; Mulller, K. ; Helming, K. ; Pohle, D. ; Fricke, K. ; Verweij, P.J.F.M. ; Pacini, C. ; Jansson, T. ; Paloma, S.G.Y. - \ 2013
Environmental Modelling & Software 49 (2013). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 53 - 63.
support - systems - design - methodology - management - decision - science
Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people
Honigh-de Vlaming, R. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Heinrich, J. ; Veer, P. van 't; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
BMC Public Health 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2458
friendship enrichment program - older-adult loneliness - social-isolation - health-promotion - risk-factors - support - metaanalysis - depression - design - women
Background: Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript distinguishes itself from others by including multiple intervention components and targeting individuals and their environment. Intervention components included a mass media campaign, information meetings, psychosocial group courses, social activities organised by neighbours, and training of intermediaries. The aim of this manuscript is to study the effects of this integrated approach on initial and long-term outcomes. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test intervention study was conducted among non-institutionalised elderly people aged 65 years and over to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention by comparing the intervention community and the control community. Data on outputs, initial and long-term outcomes, and the overall goal were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Data of 858 elderly people were available for the analyses. To assess the effect linear regression analyses with adjustments for age, gender, church attendance, and mental health were used. In addition, the process evaluation provided information about the reach of the intervention components. Results: After two years, 39% of the elderly people were familiar with the intervention programme. The intervention group scored more favourably than the control group on three subscales of the initial outcome, motivation (-4.4%, 95% CI-8.3-0.7), perceived social support (-8.2%, 95% CI-13.6-2.4), and subjective norm (-11.5%, 95% CI-17.4-5.4). However, no overall effects were observed for the long-term outcome, social support, and overall goal, loneliness. Conclusions: Two years after its initiation the reach of the intervention programme was modest. Though no effect of the complex intervention was found on social support and loneliness, more favourable scores on loneliness literacy subscales were induced.
Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Microcolony Analysis of Candida spp. Cultured and Imaged on Porous Aluminum Oxide
Ingham, C.J. ; Boonstra, S. ; Levels, S. ; Lange, H.J. ; Meis, J.F. ; Schneeberger, P.M. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
antifungal drug-resistance - flow-cytometry - interpretive breakpoints - voriconazole - growth - fun-1 - microorganisms - fluconazole - albicans - support
Background: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO) support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. Methods: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture), and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture). Significance: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170) and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170). The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2%) and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%). Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.
Farm management systems and the Future Internet era
Kaloxylos, A. ; Eigenmann, R. ; Teye, F. ; Wolfert, J. - \ 2012
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 89 (2012). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 130 - 144.
information-systems - agriculture - requirements - support - model
Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management systems to operate over the Internet. However, the Internet, in its current operation form, faces a number of shortcomings especially in handling vast numbers of networked devices (i.e., Internet of Things) or allowing a simplified integration of systems and services developed by different players. Currently, a number of research initiatives aim at addressing these shortcomings. Such an example is the "Future Internet" program launched by the European Commission. In the context of our work, we have specified a farm management system that takes advantage of the new characteristics that "Future Internet" offers. These come in terms of generic software modules that can be used to build farming related specialized modules. We present the functional architecture of this farm management system and provide an operational example. We also analyze the technological enablers that will make this architecture a reality.
Determinants of antiretroviral therapy adherence in northern Tanzania: a comprehensive picture from the patient perspective
Lyimo, R.A. ; Bruin, M. de; Boogaard, J. van den; Hospers, H.J. ; Ven, A. van der; Mushi, D. - \ 2012
BMC Public Health 12 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 8 p.
hiv-infected patients - treatment outcomes - planned behavior - drug-resistance - haart-adherence - intervention - metaanalysis - support - impact - trials
Background - To design effective, tailored interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, a thorough understanding of the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence is required. Factors at the individual and interpersonal level, ART treatment characteristics and health care factors have been proposed as important adherence determinants. Methods - To identify the most relevant determinants of adherence in northern Tanzania, in-depth interviews were carried out with 61 treatment-experienced patients from four different clinics. The interviews were ad-verbatim transcribed and recurrent themes were coded. Results - Coding results showed that the majority of patients had basic understanding of adherence, but also revealed misconceptions about taking medication after alcohol use. Adherence motivating beliefs were the perception of improved health and the desire to live like others, as well as the desire to be a good parent. A de-motivating belief was that stopping ART after being prayed for was an act of faith. Facilitators of adherence were support from friends and family, and assistance of home based care (HBC) providers. Important barriers to ART adherence were the use of alcohol, unavailability of food, stigma and disclosure concerns, and the clinics dispensing too few pills. Strategies recommended by the patients to improve adherence included better Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) services, recruitment of patients to become Home Based Care ( HBC) providers, and addressing the problem of stigma through education. Conclusion - This study underscores the importance of designing tailored, patient-centered adherence interventions to address challenges at the patient, family, community and health care level.
Indicators of fishing pressure and seafloor integrity
Piet, G.J. ; Hintzen, N.T. - \ 2012
ICES Journal of Marine Science 69 (2012)10. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1850 - 1858.
monitoring-system data - trawl disturbance - vms data - fisheries - impacts - communities - support - metrics - power
This study calculates a suite of indicators reflecting the spatial extent of fishing and its impact on the seafloor and discusses the usefulness of these indicators to inform future management and the issues to consider. It explores several methods to calculate the indicators and shows that they can be informative to report on both fishing pressure and the status of the seafloor. However, although observed overall trends were robust against the specific method of calculation, the absolute values vary greatly with the calculation method. As both aspects are important from a policy perspective, agreement on the methodology to calculate the indicators is required. This study based on the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) shows that it is possible to calculate indicators required to inform decision-makers on the pressure of fishing as well as the status of the seafloor pending a decision on the following issues: (i) choice of an appropriate grid cell resolution, (ii) use of interpolated VMS tracks instead of VMS position registrations, (iii) choice of an “intensity threshold” dependent on the benthic community recovery capacity, and (iv) the level of confidence required when assessing if an area is not impacted.