Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water
Grift, B. van der; Rozemeijer, J.C. ; Griffioen, J. ; Velde, Y. van der - \ 2014
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18 (2014)11. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4687 - 4702.
suspended sediment - ferrous iron - fresh-water - phosphorus limitation - nutrient dynamics - fe(ii) oxidation - arsenic removal - natural-waters - riparian zone - river
The retention of phosphorus in surface waters through co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and P immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water in an agricultural experimental catchment of a small lowland river. We physically separated tube drain effluent from groundwater discharge before it entered a ditch in an agricultural field. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling of groundwater, tube drain water, exfiltrated groundwater, and surface water, we investigated Fe(II) oxidation kinetics and P immobilization processes. The oxidation rate inferred from our field measurements closely agreed with the general rate law for abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) by O-2. Seasonal changes in climatic conditions affected the Fe(II) oxidation process. Lower pH and lower temperatures in winter (compared to summer) resulted in low Fe oxidation rates. After exfiltration to the surface water, it took a couple of days to more than a week before complete oxidation of Fe(II) is reached. In summer time, Fe oxidation rates were much higher. The Fe concentrations in the exfiltrated groundwater were low, indicating that dissolved Fe(II) is completely oxidized prior to inflow into a ditch. While the Fe oxidation rates reduce drastically from summer to winter, P concentrations remained high in the groundwater and an order of magnitude lower in the surface water throughout the year. This study shows very fast immobilization of dissolved P during the initial stage of the Fe(II) oxidation process which results in P-depleted water before Fe(II) is completely depleted. This cannot be explained by surface complexation of phosphate to freshly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides but indicates the formation of Fe(III)-phosphate precipitates. The formation of Fe(III)-phosphates at redox gradients seems an important geochemical mechanism in the transformation of dissolved phosphate to structural phosphate and, therefore, a major control on the P retention in natural waters that drain anaerobic aquifers.
Improved flow velocity estmates from oving-boat ADCO measurements
Vermeulen, B. ; Sassi, M.G. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. - \ 2014
Water Resources Research 50 (2014)5. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 4186 - 4196.
doppler current profiler - suspended sediment - turbulence measurements - acoustic measurement - river - discharge - transport - division - channel - vessel
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are the current standard for flow measurements in large-scale open water systems. Existing techniques to process vessel-mounted ADCP data assume homogeneous or linearly changing flow between the acoustic beams. This assumption is likely to fail but is nevertheless widely applied. We introduce a new methodology that abandons the standard assumption of uniform flow in the area between the beams and evaluate the drawbacks of the standard approach. The proposed method strongly reduces the extent over which homogeneity is assumed. The method is applied to two field sites: a mildly curved bend near a junction featuring a typical bend flow and a sharply curved bend that features a more complex sheared flow. In both cases, differences are found between the proposed method and the conventional method. The proposed technique yields different results for secondary flow patterns compared with the conventional method. The velocity components estimated with the conventional method can differ over 0.2 m/s in regions of strong shear. We investigate the number of repeat transects necessary to isolate the mean flow velocity vector from the raw ADCP signal, discarding the influences of noise, positioning and projection errors, and turbulence. Results show that several repeat transects are necessary. The minimum number of repeat measurements needed for robust mean velocity estimates is reduced when applying the proposed method
Surficial sediment distribution and the associated net sediment transport pattern in the Pearl River Estuary, South China
Zhang, W. ; Zheng, J. ; Xiaomei, J. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Vegt, M. van der; Zhu, Y. - \ 2013
Continental Shelf Research 61-62 (2013). - ISSN 0278-4343 - p. 41 - 51.
grain-size trends - suspended sediment - organic-matter - delta - model - dynamics - paths - bay
Spatial variations in grain-size parameters contain information on sediment transport patterns. Therefore, in this study, 106 surficial sediment samples taken from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China, were analyzed, to better understand the net sediment transport pattern in this region. The PRE is an area of fine-grained sediment and shows muddy patches with relatively coarse sediment in the north. The sorting coefficient of surficial sediment over the whole estuary is higher than 2, indicating a very poor sorting in this region. The relationship between the sand, silt and clay contents of the sediments was analyzed by a log-ratio analysis, and it was indicated that the selective deposition is a non-linear function of the sediment mixture composition. The net sediment transport pathways indicate four distinct characteristics of sediment transport over the PRE. The sediment is transported obviously southeastward in the upper part of the estuary due to the relatively stronger fluvial dynamics and northwestward in the lower part, due to the stronger tidal dynamics. However, in the central part of the PRE, the sediment transport vectors display a clockwise rotation trend and net deposition is taking place, as indicated by the convergence of the grain size trend. The trend vectors show that some of the sedimentary material is supplied from upper and lower parts of the estuary to this depocenter. This result is consistent with the residual current circulation pattern near Neilingding Island. The patterns of sediment transport reveal directions with the main areas of deposition and possible dispersal patterns in the PRE.
Sediment discharge division at two tidally influenced river bifurcations
Sassi, M.G. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Vermeulen, B. ; Hidayat, H. - \ 2013
Water Resources Research 49 (2013)4. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 2119 - 2134.
depth-integrated model - open-channel flow - suspended sediment - settling velocity - secondary flow - load transport - boundary-layer - particles - suspension - roughness
 We characterize and quantify the sediment discharge division at two tidally influenced river bifurcations in response to mean flow and secondary circulation by employing a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), to survey transects at bifurcating branches during a semidiurnal tidal cycle. The ADCP collecting flow velocity and acoustical backscatter data was used to quantify suspended sediment discharge, adopting a recently introduced calibration procedure. Measured profiles of flow velocity and sediment concentration allowed us to compute spatiotemporal distributions of the shear velocity, the roughness length and the Rouse number. Spatiotemporal distributions of the settling velocity were obtained by combining the Rouse number and shear velocity estimates with in situ measurements from a laser particle size analyzer. Bed-load transport rates were inferred from shear stress estimates. The concentration field shows a direct response to bed shear stress, stressing the alluvial context of the system. The flow in the bifurcation regions is characterized by counter rotating secondary-flow cells, which stretch over the full width and depth of the cross sections in the downstream branches, and persist throughout the entire tidal cycle. The pattern of secondary flow suggests the flow approaching the bifurcation is concentrated in two independent threads. A two-cell structure inhibits the exchange of sediment that would occur in case a single cell would stretch over the full channel width. The division of suspended sediment primarily depends on the upstream transverse profile of the suspended sediment concentration, which is in turn dependent on geometrical factors such as upstream curvature.
An FTIR-DRIFT study on river sediment particle structure: Implications for biofilm dynamics and pollutant binding
Galle, T. ; Lagen, B. van; Kurtenbach, A. ; Bierl, R. - \ 2004
Environmental Science and Technology 38 (2004)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4496 - 4502.
chromatography-mass spectrometry - particulate organic-matter - chemical-equilibrium model - humic substances - suspended sediment - blackwater river - macoma-balthica - humber rivers - fulvic-acids - waste-water
Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometry was applied to a set of sediment samples collected by traps over one and a half years in a midmountainous river. Dynamic changes in hydrological and life-cycle conditions generated sediment particles of different Corg content and organic composition. Periods in the midst of or shortly after flood events left particles poor in Corg content with spectral features that were enriched in carboxylic and aromatic signals. These are characteristic of terrestrial oxidized vascular plant debris. Low-flow conditions saw the consequent build-up of amide, aliphatic, and polysaccharide moieties as expected for autochthonous biofilm derived material. A peak ratio of two bands representing the alternation of these two types of organic matter showed that flood particle Corg had a higher affinity for metals than the high Corg of mature biofilms, probably owing to higher COO- contents in the first. The relative dietary bioavailability of the metals from sediment Corg, which is related to the nutritional value of the substrate, is therefore probably lower in the aftermath of a flood than in prolonged low-flow situations. This needs to be accounted for in future metal speciation and bioavailability modeling approaches.